Jan Hm … der letzte Absatz stimmt meines Wissens so nicht; im 17, And according to that spelling, essen is spelt: Ich e ss e Du i ss t Er i ss t Wir e ss en Ihr e ss t Sie e ss en Note how all the vowels are short and the ss spelling is constant. Jan Jan Ingmar Ingmar There is nothing in my answer that needs correction. People outside of Switzerland will consider it wrong and judge your language skills accordingly.
Your use of "Swiss German" requires correction. I'm afraid we'll have to agree to disagree on that one. Even if you get away with it on some standardized test or certificate, you certainly shouldn't do it outside of Switzerland, that is. The emphasis on the first link gives a wrong impression. You seem to be missing the point. Swiss German is a different language or rather a set of languages , that differs from German to an extent similar to the difference between German and Dutch. Swiss Standard German is a regional variant of the same language with a few minor differences.
Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. We're testing advertisements across the network. Tag synonym dashboard 2. Unicorn Meta Zoo 4: What makes for a healthy community? Related 5. Hot Network Questions. His major area of research was Ottoman diplomatics, history, literature and theater.
The eminent Turkologist Andreas Tietze has left a vivid and highly critical description of the situation of Turkish studies in Vienna in the first half of the s that may be summarized as follows: Ottoman studies, at that time, were an aca- demic discipline thoroughly dominated by German-speaking scholars without, howev- er, any awareness of historiography and methodological debates that were going on elsewhere like in European social history. Spoken Turkish was not a requirement, the new Turkish Latin alphabet was despised. Preferential treatment was accorded to early Ottoman history until the 15th century, while the 19th century was considered uninterest- ing and the 20th was completely ignored.
Scholarly production in Turkey was equally ignored. Thus, Tietze complains that during his studies, he did not even hear the name of Ahmed Refik. Traveling to Turkey was not considered a necessity because the archives in Vienna contained enough Ottoman source material for countless disserta- tions.
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Herzog Tietze at that time was not an Orientalist, but a student of the economic historian Alfons Dopsch with a special interest in Slavic and Oriental languages and the history of the Balkans. He received his doctoral degree in with a thesis on the agrarian theories of the Italian economic theorists of the 17th century. He remained there until , when he returned to Vienna to succeed Duda on the chair of Turkish and Islamic studies until his retirement in The first of the planned six volumes appeared in He received his Ph.
Among his areas of research were Ottoman numismatics and diplomatics, the Hapsburg-Ottoman relations and Ottoman reform treatises. Oriental and Turkish Studies in Germany since the Weimar Republic If one is to search for a periodization in German Oriental studies in the 20th century, the end of the First World War seems to offer a reasonable date. It marked the end of German colonialist enterprises and the gradual decline of its accompanying Orientalist discourse.
But the Nazi regime paved the way for an even greater isolation of German Orientalists. On a practical level, academic iso- lationism went hand in hand with Nazi imperialism. Prosopographically speaking, the Nazi takeover of power was followed by a signifi- cant rupture in German Oriental studies as in German academia in general. Approximately one third of the academic personnel in German Oriental studies was purged until Much attention has been paid to the emigration of German academics to Turkey.
In the context of Turkish studies, it should also be kept in mind that teach- ing Turkology and Turkish studies in s Turkey was reserved to ethnic Turks and that German Turkologists there were employed in adjacent academic fields. As a result of the generally anti-academic attitude of the Nazi regime, the purging of Orientalists in Nazi Germany went hand in hand with an erosion of the institutional base of Oriental studies. Although several Orientalists temporarily lost their academic positions after the Allied occupation in , all of them were Hanisch, Nachfolger, Herzog restored in the course of several years.
Only very recently has the role of Oriental studies and of Orientalists includ- ing Turkologists during the Nazi era become subject to an ongoing scholarly research. Typically, established academic German Orientalists were not early adopters of organized Nazism. Ideologically, however, they shared parts of the ultra-nationalist, racist and hegemonialist National Socialist discourse, which made it easier for them to collaborate with the Nazis as soon as the latter were in power.
Between and generally no new party members were enrolled. Neither the articles in Orientalist periodicals nor papers on congresses or university calendars showed much difference to the pre-Nazi era. The SOS in Berlin was changed into a college for the study of foreign countries Auslandshochschule in Hanisch, Nachfolger, and Ellinger, Orientalistik, Hanisch, Nachfolger, ; id.
Yet again these trans- formations seem to have been rather the outcome of personal initiatives and random political processes than of planned political strategy. The working group had the task of studying the conditions of the central Asian parts of the Soviet Union and was to remain secret. He was born in Berlin as the son of a Prussian official and first intended to embark on a career as a bureaucrat.
During the First World War, however, he autodidactically acquired sound knowledge of Turkish, so that in , he was able to pass the examination for transla- tors at the SOS and was sent to the Ottoman Empire for the rest of the war, where he worked at the military meteorological station in Sinop. In Becker, at that time Prussian Minister of Science, Art and Public Education, obtained a position in his office for his former disciple. He finished his Ph. Shortly after the war, in , he became ordinary professor for Oriental studies in Mainz. The city was part of the French zone of occupation.
The French authorities intended to establish it as a local cultural center and Scheel obvious- ly had formerly established good contacts with French colleagues. He was commis- sioned with the foundation of the Academy of Science and Literature in Mainz and remained its general secretary until his death in In he organized the re- foundation of the DMG and again became its director and the editor of its periodical. He also secured the editorship of the academy for the Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. During the years , he was dean of the philosophical faculty and in became prorector of the University of Mainz.
His area of research concentrated on the study of Ottoman relations with the European pow- Wokoeck, German Orientalism, Herzog ers and Ottoman diplomatics. His father was a professor. From to he studied law and Oriental studies in Freiburg Breisgau and in Berlin. During the war, he interrupted his studies. In he was seriously wounded in the Somme sector. He received a diploma in Turkish from the SOS in In he obtained his Ph. After he had obtained the position of a legation secretary at the German embassy in Ankara in , he quit the diplomatic service in , obviously because he felt being discriminated against on the basis of the social status of his wife, who had been a nurse.
Having been a member of the NSDAP and several other Nazi organizations, he worked as a teacher for reli- gious education in Potsdam after From he taught as a visiting professor at the University of Munster, where he enjoyed the support of Franz Taeschner. He retired in Still in , however, the ministry of education of the state North Rhine- Westphalia denied him the authorization to supervise exams for candidates of the diploma in Turkish. In he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Ankara. Several of his almost books and articles, dealing mostly with the history of the Turkish Republic, have been translated into Turkish.
It may be observed, however, that in his work he meticu- lously avoided sensitive issues like e. Notes on the Development of Turkish and Oriental Studies in the German Speaking Lands 41 However, the end of the Nazi regime stood not only for the continuation of Orientalist careers, but also allowed for the rehabilitation of scholars like Hellmut Ritter and Franz Babinger.
Ritter was the son of a Lutheran pastor and one of his brothers was the historian Gerhard Ritter His Ph. Becker, whom Ritter later acknowl- edged to have had an extraordinarily important influence on his intellectual formation. During the war, he went to Iraq as a translator in the staff of von der Goltz and later with Falkenhayn to Palestine. A series of ethnographic studies originate from his time in Iraq. In his homosexuality led to his legal con- viction and subsequent removal from his professorship in Hamburg in Its main task was the edition of Arabic and Persian manuscripts in the series Bibliotheca Islamica.
He corresponded with over hundred Orientalists all over the world. He was also in contact with one of the most enigmatic German Orientalists of the time, Oskar Rescher, who had left his position as an ordi- nary professor in Breslau and moved to Istanbul in In the Nazi regime revoked his venia legendi. His works appeared in Istanbul in private print and extremely small editions, a fact that made them practically unobtainable for Orientalist circles in Europe.
In his house overlooking the Bosphorus, he lived a solitary life surrounded by many cats until his death in In the association began to edit its own periodical Oriens. Becker too had homosexual tendencies; cf. Geburtstag - 1.
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In Ritter was appointed extraordinary, in ordinary pro- fessor in Frankfurt Main , where he taught until his retirement in He returned to Istanbul to catalog manuscripts of Persian divans in the libraries of Istanbul together with Herbert W. Ritter also resumed teaching at the University of Istanbul. Nevertheless, he published a range of contributions to Turkish studies, notably on the shadow play, but also articles on the abolishment of the caliphate in , notes on Ottoman grammar and stylistic devices and several contributions on Mevlana and the Mevlevis.
In he was awarded an honorary doctorate of the University of Istanbul. It is probable that he met with Mustafa Kemal Pasha. After the war he entered one of the paramilitary groups Freikorps that fought against the revolutionary Munich Soviet Republic.
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The work appeared in three parts in , and , the third one with contributions by Andreas Tietze. During his time in Berlin, he had close contacts with Johann Heinrich Mordtmann and concentrated on Ottoman history. Following this campaign, he was pensioned off from his position at the SOS in Berlin. In or Babinger found employment in Romania, where he enjoyed the protection of the politician and historian Nicolae Iorga The Germans sent him on a mission of espionage to Bulgaria before he was recalled to Germany in Nevertheless, he remained an Ottomanist interested in fields as diverse as Sufism, popular religion and diplomat- ics.
Babinger, who published extensively, must have been a strong but problematic per- sonality. During his time as ordinarius in Munich, he supervised no more than four Ph. The book is without annota- tions. A planned second volume with references was never published. The German edition was re- printed in and Geburtstag, eds. Koder, O. Kresten u.
Trapp, Wien: Ernst Becvar, , Herzog The personal continuity of Oriental studies after also implied a methodologi- cal one. It was not until the end of the 20th century that the philological tradition -wide- ly considered to have given the German Orientalist traditions its specific mark- finally eroded.
German-speaking or rather: German-writing Orientalists had dominated Turkish studies well into the 20th century. But the development since has put Germany at the margins of the discipline - at least quantitatively speaking. Ottoman and Turkish studies today are more than ever before international enterprises, with English and Turkish as their main languages. German, on the other hand has ceased to be a language that is used and read by the international scientific community in most fields and also in Turkish studies.
The fact that a considerable share of German scholarly work in Turkish studies is still published in German leads to its being internationally ignored and some- times reduplicated, a fate that is shared by scholarly work in other European and non- European languages, perhaps most notably by the prolific production in Japanese. Selected Locations of Turkish Studies in Germany A general characteristic of universities in Germany is their relatively weak centrali- zation. There is a strong traditional and historical element in their geographical distribution, reflecting in many instances early modern historical developments.
The following part attempts a brief historical overview of some more recent aca- demic and university-based centers of Turkish studies in Germany in the tradition of Oriental studies. This section is necessarily a preliminary one because of its dependence on available secondary literature.
With very few exceptions, individual and institutional contributions to Turkish stud- ies outside of the Orientalist disciplinary tradition have not been included. A caveat may be in order here. Apart from the fact that the verification of dates etc.
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Several examples illustrate how a new appointment to a chair completely changed the former field of interest - at least within what may be roughly termed the field of Middle East studies. This has been the case in Heidelberg, where in Michael Ursinus was appointed to the chair for Islamic studies that had before been held by Anton Schall His appointment caused the institute, that had been predominantly a cent- er of Semitic languages, to shift towards Ottoman studies.
Shifts are not always that clearcut, as may be illustrated in the case of Turkish studies in Freiburg.
Hans Robert Roemer , who held the chair for Islamic studies from , had a special interest in Iranian studies and especially the Timurid period, but he also counted Turkish and Arabic studies among his fields of interests. When Roemer retired at the beginning of the s, his successor Werner Ende, who held the chair until , concentrated more on Arabic and Iranian Islamic intellectual history of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Ottoman studies, on the other hand, were repre- sented in Freiburg by Josef Matuz Following his par- ticipation in the Hungarian Revolution of , he had to emigrate. In Munich he managed to continue his studies, and obtained his Ph. Appointed extraordinary professor in , his research interests concentrated on Ottoman diplomatics in the 16th century. For years his introductory work on Ottoman history remained the standard textbook on the subject in the German language. Between and , when Michael Ursinus was professor at the Oriental seminary in Freiburg, the emphasis on Ottoman studies was reinforced.
In he left for the chair of Islamic studies at the university of Heidelberg. A more generally linguistic approach to Turkology was brought to Freiburg by Ingeborg Baldauf, who was associated professor of Islamic Studies during the years After she had left Freiburg to accept a full professorship at the Humboldt University in Berlin, she was replaced by Jens Peter Laut in the beginning of In addition, Erika Glassen, who, following her habilitation on late Abbasid religious policy in , was appointed extraordinary professor at the seminary in Freiburg.
She held the position of director of the Orient-Institute in Beirut and Istanbul from to and became increasingly interested in late Ottoman and modern Turkish literature. Erika Glassen retired in In Werner Ende was succeeded by Maurus Reinkowski, among whose primary fields of interest is 19th Century Ottoman history.
For several years, Turkish studies in combination with Turkology again enjoyed a strong position in Freiburg. This time linguistic Turkology in Freiburg was left orphaned. With Maurus Reinkowski having left for the chair of Islamic studies in Basel, Switzerland and the professorship of Turkology in Freiburg still vacant, the future direction of Oriental studies in Freiburg Heine, Geschichte, Grundlinien seiner Geschichte Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, It was repeatedly reprinted. Herzog seems once again to be open in summer This pattern of weak institutionalization of Oriental studies in general and Turkish studies in particular can be observed in practically all institutes of Oriental studies at German universities.
Below a short alphabetically arranged overview of universities with Oriental studies and a certain emphasis on Turkish studies or Turkology is provided. Bamberg Bamberg is a case in point of a re-invented traditional German university. Originally founded in , it lost its status as a university after and practically ceased to exist from to It regained its university status only in Oriental studies were gradually established from comprising now Arabic, Iranian, Islamic, Jewish and Turkish studies as as well as history of Islamic art. From until his retirement in , Semih Tezcan represented linguistic Turkology; he is teaching now at Bilkent University, Ankara.
Berlin The University of Berlin was founded in , following the Prussian defeat against Napoleon, as a new model university striving to implement the neo-humanist educational reform. As its first Turkologist one may count Wilhelm Schott , who, besides his Sinological studies, was also interested in Turkic languages. FU Berlin situated in the American sector.
In he came to East Berlin and had considerable impact on Turkology as the head of a newly created research-group that had the task to continue the studies on the Turfan texts. Among his Ph. In he went to Nicosia, where the University of Cyprus was founding a new institute for Turkology. Geburtstag, Frankfurt, etc.
Geburts- tag, eds. His publica- tions up to are listed ibid. Bonn The University of Bonn, founded in , claims as its first Orientalist the famous Indologist August Wilhelm, who, together with his brother Friedrich, is counted as one of the founders of the German Romantic school of philosophy and literature. In a seminary for Oriental studies was established. Its first director became C. From to , the chair for Islamic and Oriental studies was held by Otto Spies, who included Ottoman and Turkish studies and particularly modern Turkish literature among his fields of interest.
In the different branches of Oriental studies in Bonn were united under the roof of the newly established seminary for Oriental languages as an institutional successor of the SOS in Berlin. Frankfurt A professorship for Turkology was established in It was held by Horst Wilfrid Brands until His successor from until became Barbara Kellner- Heinkele.
Since Marcel Erdal held the position. After his death in , his position remained vacant for twenty years. For the developments un- til cf. Materialien der ersten deutschen Turkologen-Konferenz Bamberg, Juli Festschrift zum However, the field of Turkology was institutionalized only in , when Gerhard Doerfer was appointed to the newly established chair of Turkology. In he received his doctoral degree with a thesis on the syntax of the Secret History of the Mongols.
Having engaged in editorial work for the first volume of Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta, he received a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft that en- abled him to work on and complete his project on Turkic and Mongolic Elements in Modern Persian. Several times he lectured as a visiting professor at Indiana University, Bloomington and in the winter term of at the University of Istanbul. Doerfer retired in Having been professor in Hamburg since , he was appointed professor of Turkology at the University of Washington in Seattle in In he moved to Harvard, where he managed to initiate the institute for Ukrainian studies.
Its director Rudolf Tschudi returned to Switzerland. He was succeeded by Hellmut Ritter. After Ritter, the Islamicist Rudolf Strothmann held the chair from until his retirement in Ludwig Paul Gossenberg: Os- tasien Verlag, , Spuler was an encyclopedic scholar, who earned fame not only for editing the multi-volume Handbuch der Orientalistik. He was equally interested in the history of Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Notably, he was a specialist in Mongol history in Iran and Russia his study on the Ilkhanids in Iran was translated into Turkish in and the history of Eastern Christianity.
He was a member of the Old Catholic Church that had split from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of the ex cathe- dra papal infallibility, decreed by the First Vatican Council in He was strictly conservative. His diehard conservatism, however, did not prevent him from embarking on close collaboration with the Nazi Regime.
But after Ritter had been dismissed in , Turkish studies began to decline at the University of Hamburg. Turkology reemerged only after the Second World War, when Annemarie von Gabain was appointed extraordinary professor for Turkology and Chinese Buddhism in From Omeljan Pritsak taught at the University of Hamburg. In he was appointed professor. In he moved to the United States. In she accepted a position at the University of Leiden. Turkish studies in Hamburg were also shaped by Hanna Sohrweide , a noted specialist in Persian and Ottoman manuscripts, After having taught at the department for many years, she was appointed professor in From until her premature death in , Petra Kappert held the professorship for Turkology.
In Raoul Motika succeeded her. Any description of contemporary Oriental studies in Hamburg would be incomplete without mention of the Deutsche Orient Institut that was established in Turkey formed one of his main research interests. Altogether the institute leaned more towards political science and is today part of the German Institute for Global and Regional Studies.
Ludwig Paul, Gossenberg: Ostasien Verlag, , Herzog Heidelberg see above Mainz After the reopening of the University of Mainz in , Helmuth Scheel held the chair for Islamic studies and philology and was the first director of the Oriental seminary. He also attended classes at the SOS. Benzing received his Ph. Between and , he lived in Paris, working for the French foreign office. It may be assumed that his career was supported by the lat- ter.
Since Benzing, who continued the tradition of the Bang school, Turkology in Mainz has been a stronghold of linguistic studies. After his retirement, his chair for Islamic stud- ies was changed to a chair for Turkology, which was held by Lars Johanson until his retirement in Johanson has been followed by Hendrik Boschoeten in When he retired in , his position was not filled again. Munich Oriental studies in Munich did not have a very strong tradition in the early 19th cen- tury. Since Karl Friedrich Neumann had been professor for Armenian and Chinese, but as a Sinologist he had not a very good reputation among his col- leagues.
In Martin Haug was appoint- ed to the newly established chair of Sanskrit and comparative linguistics. His successor became Ernst Kuhn Before they came to Munich, both Haug and Trumpp had spent some time in India where they ruined their health, a fact that may have con- tributed to their early deaths. He was one of the most prominent supporters of the hypothesis of a linguistic relationship between the Sumerian and the Turkic languag- es.
After his mili- tary service, he studied history in Jena, Munich, Erlangen and Berlin. In he wrote a Ph. In , being in Cairo, he became friends with Dr. Abdullah Cevdet. He returned to Istanbul in the wake of the restauration of the constitution in summer In he was appointed extraordinary professor but never became ordinarius. He taught in Munich until he was removed from the university in June Having lost his fortune, he stayed as a pri- vate scholar in Munich. In the beginning of , he was able to move to Istanbul with the help of Turkish friends, where he taught at the University of Istanbul.
In , Franz Babinger was appointed to a newly established professorship for Turkology. He spent much effort to provide his new institute with a decent stock of lite- rature. In his assistant Hans Joachim Kissling , who after his habilita- tion in had become Privatdozent, succeeded Babinger in Munich. Kissling had studied Oriental studies and international law in Munich, Vienna and Breslau. Bir Biyograi, transl. Herzog and philology, which resulted e. Kissling took a special interest in Sultan Bayezid, the son of Mehmed Fatih to whom he dedi- cated numerous articles without, however, being able to complete a planned biographi- cal monograph on him.
Finally, he initiated the longstanding research project on the historical topography of the Balkans, a subject he had already explored in his habilita- tion thesis. His successor became Hans-Georg Majer. Since , Christoph K. Neumann has been holding the chair for Turkology. The focus of the present overview is on Turkish studies in the tradition of Oriental studies. Owing to the limited scope of this outline and because they make a good indi- cator for the degree of institutionalization of an academic discipline in the current sys- tem of German universities, we have restricted ourselves to the mention of professor- ship positions in the academic and institutional tradition of Oriental studies.
It should be noted, however, that it would be misleading to conclude that Turkish studies in Germany have been restricted to the works of the people named or that Turkish studies have been limited to the tradition of Oriental studies. But it was only in the framework of Oriental studies that at least a certain degree of university-based institutionalization could be achieved. Of the number of important scholars from other academic disciplines that through personal research interest made notable contributions to the field, not all can possibly be enumerated here - but at least a few deserve special mention.
Jahrhundert Wiesbaden: Steiner, Studies in Ottoman Society and Culture. Festschrift Hans Georg Majer, eds. Neumann Istanbul: Simurg, , vol. Notes on the Development of Turkish and Oriental Studies in the German Speaking Lands 53 Mention should be made of Karl Steuerwald , the author of the still unsurpassed Turkish-German dictionary and the Islamic art historian Katharina Otto- Dorn , who made important contributions to the study of Seljuk art. She was professor at the University of Ankara between and , before she moved to the University of California in Los Angeles.
Hirsch was the outstanding expert of Turkish law. After having been forced to leave Nazi- Germany in , he had taught at the universities of Istanbul and Ankara until his return to Germany in He retained his Turkish citizenship until his death. Beirut - Istanbul: Orient Inst. For its webpage cf. Herzog institution represents the Orientalist tradition of Turkish studies, the second one is rath- er linked to applied social sciences, focusing on migration studies. It occurs much more rarely that someone is drawn to the Orient in the first place by historical questions his- torical in the widest sense of the term and embraces the hard study of languages as a means to this end, without the hope of being able to equal the language virtuoso.
It has been said about the cardinal Mezzofanti that he knew some forty languages but had nothing to say in any of them. The language expert has to avoid his skills degenerating into an end in themselves. He should use them as a means to bring to light and to acquire intellectual values geistige Werte that make his work and thus himself com- plete and whole. The hegemony of philology in Oriental studies did not come to an end with Becker.
But much to my regret, this field frequently has become the romping playground of linguistically untalented people. It is not enough to be allegedly musically gifted; one has to master the technique, otherwise the result will be a mess. History of material culture Realienkunde and Turkology: nice stuff; but if someone says his special field is Turkish, I cannot help the feeling that I have an urge to say: I see, Arabic was too dif- ficult for you, my dear fellow.
Translation altered. Already in , Babinger had been critical about that topic; cf. Notes on the Development of Turkish and Oriental Studies in the German Speaking Lands 55 both medieval and modern Greek, all Slavic languages in use on the Balkans, Albanian, Romanian and Italian in all its relevant historical -Venetian and other- variants. I do not want to pit sociological and historical methodology against philology and multilingualism. Both are important. The philological standards set by Kraelitz, Fekete and their colleagues are indispensable.
Today, it may be more the lack of truly multilingual scholars than the lack of methodological awareness that forms the main obstacle to progress in Ottoman and Turkish studies. But when it came to writing history, the lack of methodological awareness of Oriental studies in fields beyond philology cannot be denied. One may even argue that the philological para- digms were uncritically transferred to the field of history, e.
At the current stage, Turkish studies in Germany are immersed in the international scholarly discourse and exchange. Nevertheless the continuation of their Orientalist tradition -certainly on the institutional level- continues to attract criticism.
Herzog An often repeated critique in Germany states that Oriental studies and within its ranks: Turkish studies were reclusive and refusing to leave their academic ivory tower. This argument either explicitly adds or tacitly implies that the legitimacy of an aca- demic discipline correlates to its general usefulness. This argument, in its strong version, leads to the consequence that Oriental studies engage in current social, political and cultural problems of what is considered to be of public relevance in the mass media.
This critique therefore requests that scholars take a public stance in the political debate. There are at least two caveats to this request: 1 In the history of Oriental studies in Germany, there were two waves of public engagement of Orientalists that were generally regretted afterwards.
It may be objected that neither the imperialist designs of Wilhelminian Germany and its poli- tics of war, nor the racism of National Socialism, are comparable to the liberal de- mocratic discourse of the Federal German Republic and that the consequent political engagement of scholars was therefore structurally different. This difference cannot be denied. But the question, whether political interests match the ethical require- ments of scholarly and scientific work or not, lies somewhere beyond this differ- ence.
Political statements of Orientalists are bound to either operate within the limits of this political discourse or to transgress the borders of their disci- plinary competence. They may of course take a public stance against these policies but they cannot do so as Orientalists. Specifically, situating Turkish studies in the national public discourse will easily lead to conflict between political and scholarly perspectives. It is no longer a scholarly statement that may be open to possibly fierce debate and criticism, but a political announcement that is bound to be evaluated along the lines of the existing political discourse.
In the German political discourse, such a statement is bound to be perceived as a hostile act and a verbal aggression without moral justification or historical factuality. For the scandal this article created in Germany cf. Even if we follow Habermas in assuming that assertions of truth should be the result of negotiation, this would require an ideal speech situation, which is not a given circumstance in the context of political discourse in modern mass media. Besides the strong version discussed above, there is a weaker version of the argu- ment against the academic ivory tower of Orientalist studies that would refrain from obliging Turkish studies to interfere in public political debates, but instead press it to choose its interests of research according to the agenda of political exigency.
Instead of linguistics and Seljuk or Ottoman studies, this argument proposes, the main focus of Turkish studies should be the current state of law, politics, society and economy in the Republic of Turkey. Within the confines of a neo-liberal utilitarist conception of knowl- edge as a commodity, it is difficult to argue against this proposition. This conviction does not anymore exist […]. Paradoxically, this would be also true for the proposition to serve the mutual understanding between Turkey and Germany by requesting Turkologists to enter the stage of public political discourse in the mass media because both political conflict of interest and conflicting usage of symbols in political discourse between nation states cannot be resolved under the assumption of the identity of political and academic discourses.
It is my contention here that Turkish stud- ies may serve the end of mutual understanding between the two countries best by keep- ing the coupling between the academic field of Turkish studies and politics as loose as possible; by allowing the academic discourse to function according to its own discur- sive rules.
It may serve as a suitable starting point for discussion more for its history of effect Wirkungsgeschichte than because of its actual scholarly achievements. But it would be rather surprising if German Oriental studies, in this respect, were essentially different from their European counterparts sim- ply for the reason that, from their very beginnings, these studies in Germany formed a highly international enterprise within an international but, of course, exclusively European including North America network of scholars who in many respects must have shared their common knowledge within a common discourse.
Even then, it will be remembered, that this difference between Germany on the one side and France, Great Britain and Russia on the other melted away as Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm II entered the stage of European colonial rivalry during the high age of imperialism. In a remarkable study of , the Orientalist Baber Johansen has argued that Orientalism in Germany was a product of historicism in its Rankean interpretation and that Oriental studies may have reinforced Orientalism but they did so in serving histori- cism. In this respect, Oriental studies have always ranked low. He could have Cf.
Polaschegg, Orientalismus, ; Osterhammel, Entzauberung, Sidikov reaches the conclusion that the ideological base of the German studies on Middle Asia was not different from that of French or British Orientalist scholarship. International Perspectives on the State of the Art, ed.
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Tareq Y. Ismael New York etc. Becker and Ernst Troeltsch But he preferred not to do so. He, too, was not an Orientalist but a historian basing his work on European sources, including, however, some translations of Ottoman chronicles into Western languages. But there is no Turkish national literature — only a slavish imitation of foreign Oriental patterns in a language that is not even that of the people. The nation of the Turks has never seen any intellec- tual development. Ursula Wokoeck has concentrated on the social dimension of scholarship and argued that the connection between imperi- alism and Oriental studies was much looser than implied by the concept of Orientalism.
Nach den Quellen dargestellt [5 vols. Finally there is a personal level. After all, Orientalists were only few, so that dif- ferences in individual thinking or personal animosity may not simply be ruled out sta- tistically. After the First World War, German Orientalists like Brockelmann despite his low opinion of the Turkish role in classical Islamic history were sympathizing with the Kemalist movement and the Turkish Republic not only because they represented a Western nationalist concept of statehood, but also because of their successful struggle against the victorious powers of the First World War and the post-War world order deeply resented by these Orientalists.
In their vigorous defense of Turkish studies, they also tended to indirectly defend the historical impor- tance and achievements of the Turks. But it is to deny that Orientalism, Marchand, German Orientalism, xxi. Such contradictions and ambivalences must be endured. Perspectives One may ask whether Turkish studies in Germany would be better off, if they emancipated themselves from Oriental studies or - drawing the logical consequence - whether Oriental studies should be dissolved and purged from German universities.
From a historical perspective, two arguments might speak in favor of such a solution. Firstly, Turkish has been relegated to an inferior status compared to Persian and Arabic by the Orientalist philological tradition, as Babinger and Kissling complained. It has not been completely rectified even today, although this seems to be now an institutional rather than an ideological phenomenon. Secondly, the very fact of the insti- tutional presence of Oriental studies at German universities is, in itself, very much a historic relic of the past dominances of the theological and historicist paradigms.
To dispense of it and either to integrate e. Ottoman studies into the departments of histo- ry and the study of Islam into the departments of religious studies or to change them into area studies would visibly dispense with this problematic heritage of the Orientalist tradition. One should, however, also take a look at the cost side. In practical terms, it is not easily imagina- ble that history departments would sustain the considerable propaedeutic efforts and the costs necessary to teach Ottoman palaeography, while Ottoman Turkish naturally would be excluded from courses on business Turkish.
A similar picture could be drawn for linguistic Turkic studies. In this perspective, it should be preferable for Turkish studies in Germany to cope with the burdens of their Orientalist heritage. The following titles are merely intended to be pointers to further reading. Benfey, Theodor, Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft und der orientalischen Philologie in Deutschland seit dem Anfange des Neuere Zeit 8. Demir, Nurettin; Taube, Erika, Turkologie heute.
Tradition und Perspektive, Wiesbaden: Har- rassowitz, Fragner, Bert G. Jahrhunderts, Leip- zig: Harrassowitz, Begegnungen in einem Jahrtausend, ed. Jahrhunderts, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, Juli , ed. Ismael, New York etc. Materialien der dritten Deutschen Turkologen-Konferenz, Leipzig, 4. Oktober , ed. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, Marchand, Suzanne L. Istanbul: Isis, Analecta Isisiana Paul, Ludwig ed. Polaschegg, Andrea, Der andere Orientalismus. Poya, Abbas; Reinkowski, Maurus eds. Norm und Abweichung, ed. Schwab, Raymond, The Oriental Renaissance.
Press, Berlin: Logos, Genealogy, Continuity and Change, ed. Azim Nanji. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter, , pp. Deutscher Orientalistentag vom September bis 4. Oktober in Freiburg im Breisgau, ed. Wolfgang Voigt. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, , pp. Littmann, Enno, Ein Jahrhundert Orientalistik. Rudi Paret u. Anton Schall, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, Geburtstag, ed. Trapp, Vienna: Ernst Becvar, , pp. Schaeder, H. August — 8. Sertkaya, Osman F. Klaus Kreiser, pp. April bis Wende, Erich, C.
Mensch und Politiker. Materialien der 5. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, , pp. Herbert W. Friedrich Schipper. Elgohary, Baher M. Heinz, Freiburg, Brsg. Hammer-Purgstall in Klosterneuburg-Weidling. Stadt Klosterneuburg unter Mitw.