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e-book Conquered Armies: Founding Fathers

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I mean humans didn't have alien slaves, did they? Elaine was already a teen and at the stage where he could seldom tell her anything. See, this was long before the Great Revival and humans still believed they could live alongside aliens. The nobles, at least, had the idea that. Not that he had a choice, he reminded himself as he squinted, his view restricted by ooze drying on his visor; a visor he didn't really want to clean since by the smell- and other less savory clues- he was fairly certain his shelter wall was the putrefying remains of a Scot's Guard- courtesy of last week's failed assault.


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While reflecting on his odds of joining him in the ranks of fallen heroes, sudden motion to his right startled him into action. A single reflexive turn, crouch, raise weapon, and One new trooper, too shell shocked and terrified to remember, snapped to at. More from DeviantArt. Other passages confirmed the rightness of the ancient military tradition of looting from the defeated, and specified how the booty should be divided.

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This is not surprising, as the armies of those days were not like modern armies - but more like a federation of tribal mercenary groups who were not paid and whose only material reward came from the spoils of war. The political status of Islam, and the role Muhammad had given it as a political as well as a religious force, was reinforced in the military conquests.

A caliph such as Umar seems to have regarded himself, first and foremost, as the leader of the Arabs, and their monotheistic creed as the religious component of their new political identity. After the death of Muhammad in CE, the young Muslim federation came under strain. Some of the tribes decided that as their loyalty to Islam had been primarily to Muhammad himself, his death allowed them to end their allegiance to Mecca and to Islam. To make things more difficult, the Prophet had not left clear instructions as to who should lead the community after his death.

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Fortunately the community immediately chose the Prophet's close companion and father-in-Law Abu Bakr, as his successor. Abu Bakr was known as the first caliph from khalifa , the Arabic for successor. Abu Bakr took swift military action against the communities that wanted to break away.

5g. Alexander the Great

These campaigns, known as the apostasy or ridda wars, effectively consolidated Arabia into a single country under Muslim control within two years. Abu Bakr died in and was succeeded by Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, who ruled until Umar found himself the ruler of a large unified state, with an organised army, and he used this as a tool to spread Islam further in the Middle East.

Umar's early campaigns were against the Byzantine Empire. Following the decisive Battle of Yarmouk in , the former Byzantine states of Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon were conquered by the Muslim armies. Shortly afterwards the Muslim army attacked the Sassanid Empire in Iraq, gaining a massive victory in at the Battle of Qadasiya, and gradually conquering more and more of Iraq over the next dozen years.

Battle of Britain

This conquest was made much easier by the weakness of the Sassanid Empire, which was wounded by internal conflicts and a lengthy war with the Byzantine Empire. In order to see this content you need to have both Javascript enabled and Flash installed. Visit BBC Webwise for full instructions.

Christians and Muslims discuss the different traditions of mission, conversion and the expansion of religions worldwide.


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This was the case with the Greeks and Romans, and must be that of every free state. Civilian control of the military has given way to civilian subjugation to the military, a condition born in important measure of the growing lack of military experience of public officials, their enduring strategic illiteracy and their fear of being labeled weak on defense. But there is much they did anticipate, which explains why the founders might be demonstrably disappointed in the United States today. Many tools of governance they gave us bear a very direct relationship to military and security matters and reflect expectations that have increasingly gone unmet: a well-defined process for lawmaking that reflects the signal importance of the rule of law; the use of and adherence to treaties as binding international compacts that require agreement by both the legislative and executive branches without being undermined or circumvented by such evasive devices as presidential signing statements.

They were all too familiar with and practiced in the use of secrecy; but would they countenance the suffocating, overweening centrality of secrecy in national security affairs today? They well understood and lived with both the necessary strengths and irritating ills of an independent free press; but would they countenance the divulgence of state secrets by media and whistleblowers or, conversely, government persecution of such sources?

Their entire approach to government and politics was based on a foundation of reason. Reason today is in lamentably short supply among public officials presuming to be, if we are to bow to the logic that implicitly underlies representative democracy, the best of us who govern the rest of us. By using this service you agree not to post material that is obscene, harassing, defamatory, or otherwise objectionable. Although Defenseone.

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