For the academic login, please select your organization on the next page. You will be redirected to verify your credentials. Keywords: Deinstitutionalization Life course Life transitions Self-regulation. I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.
If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in. Subcription rates. The article develops the argument that successful management of normatively less expected life events and transitions requires from the individual a greater degree of self-regulatory skills than the management of normative events. It is argued that, based on recent historical change, individuals have to master both normative and non-normative developmental demands.
With regard to the mastery of non-normative developmental demands, the individual may have to play a more important and active role to compensate for a lack of social structuring and normative orientation. Based on a discussion of literature from the areas of life-span psychology, life-course sociology, and self-regulation, evidence for the importance of the individual in adaptive regulation of non-normative developmental challenges is presented. Center for Climate and Energy Decision-Making. Education Mphahlele M. Escenarios 10 1 , UmweltWirtschaftsForum uwf.
Part 1: Scenario analysis - possible future framework conditions for power grid expansion [in German]. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, p. Energy , Energy Strategy Reviews , Jenssen T. In: Gallego Carrera D. Springer-Vieweg, Heidelberg, Wiesbaden. Aretz, A. Center for Technology Assessment, Stuttgart, Germany.
- Global Pricing Strategies. Theoretical Concepts and Practical Experience!
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In: Benighaus L. Bremen: EHV Academicpress: Hummel E. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 55 3 , Journal of Public Health, 20 2 , Climatic Change.
Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 90 Information technologies Khan A. Master thesis, Reutlingen University. Symposium Energieinnovation, TU Graz, Prospectiva, Vol.
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Haefleli U. In: Taniguchi E. See also: Haefeli U. April , Wien.
Verkehrswissenschaftliche Tage, March , , Dresden. DLR-Report , , p. The bases of competition within many markets are changing so much that the opportunities to survive with purely domestic strategies are becoming limited. One of the implications of these developments is that the efforts of many international firms to maintain profits by reducing costs or increasing production quantities has reached a limit in many markets.
Therefore a lot of managers are concentrating more and more on another determinant of profit: pricing. Indeed, a good pricing management is able to increase profits and liquidity, and therefore shareholder value. While achieving economies of scale through their global operations, companies still have to act locally.
The increasing importance of the price suggests that traditionally simple methods e. As a consequence, more comprehensive pricing strategies have to be developed in order to still be successful in future. When defining a global pricing strategy, international firms should consider several determinants that influence pricing decisions in international markets. The following paper takes a closer look at the different significant determinants required to set up a global pricing strategy as well as the different pricing strategies that can be used to reach the determined goals.
In order to visualize aspects of the pricing process, practical examples are used to help to understand the importance of different elements within pricing management. The goal of an international marketing strategy is to match the organization with its environment. If markets extend across borders, then national environments become significant in its development. However, multinational firms should understand these differences and make the necessary adjustments to their pricing strategies in order to effectively sell a product in international markets.
For example, a common law found in many countries that directly influences pricing is retail price maintenance, which requires firms to sell certain products at specified prices. The purpose of such laws is either to protect customers from unfair exploitation or to ensure that certain products e. Governments may also impose price controls on certain products to protect local producers from unfair international competition. Further, pricing is influenced indirectly by laws and regulations which necessitate product modifications, in compliance with different technical specifications, health and safety standards, environment-protection acts, electric, weight, and measure systems, and such like, that may prevail in foreign markets.
In order to make the required modifications firms incur extra costs, forcing them to either charge higher prices or reduce their profit margins. Import tariffs also play an important role when setting prices in international markets. Import tariffs are essentially handled as regular taxes; however, only foreign competitors are forced to play these duties. A special case is comprised by the so-called anti-dumping provisions.
The purpose of these tariffs is to protect vulnerable national industries against foreign competitors. Governments can also influence the behavior of the market through the application of antitrust regulations. Their objective is to prevent monopolistic practices and allow smaller firms to compete on an even ground.
Price managers should be careful and consider the interpretations of antitrust commissions when determining prices in foreign markets while at the same time try to optimize their profits.
Along with tariffs and antitrust regulations, companies can also be limited by import quotas. Import quotas are limitations on the quantity of goods that can be imported into the country during a specified period of time. International firms should keep in mind that quotas can directly affect their market share in a particular country and therefore adjust their prices accordingly. Finally, government regulations can indirectly contribute to the creation of gray markets: If significant price differences exist among countries, there may be an opportunity for arbitrage and such markets emerge.
Prof. Dr. Patrizia Nanz | IASS Potsdam
This may cause many international firms to lose potential revenues, and this is why many of them try to reduce the size of these markets by adjusting their prices appropriately. Moreover, demand for a product at different price levels is a function of the purchasing power of targeted customers, determined by the level of economic development of the country. On the cost side, the economic environment of the host country determines the cost of raw materials, labor, energy, and other resources which a firm needs to purchase or hire in order to be able to carry out its every day operations.