PE Cover Supervisor Vacancy. Teaching Assistant vacancies. Cover Supervisor vacancies. Business Studies is available to students in Year 9, 10 and The Department believes our students will succeed by providing a stimulating environment that is conducive to learning with support, challenge, praise and encouragement.
Business Studies will help to develop your knowledge and understanding of how organisations are organised and managed. We also organise a number of trips and visits to local businesses and we encourage students to have an interest in the world of business and a real desire to explore new ideas. They also felt they had improved their presentation skills and learnt how to work as an effective team against a tight deadline.
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Here is the glossary of important key terms. There are few schools in the favelas. There is a shortage of hospitals and clinics in the favelas, and high levels of illness and disease prevail here.
High levels of crime, violence and drug abuse blight many of the favelas. Street crime is a problem in the tourist areas, although pacification has recently started to improve crime rates. In the s, the Favela Bairro Project was set up to help improve life in the favelas and upgrade them rather than demolish them, as has happened in other locations.
This work has been carried out with government funding to provide facilities like electricity, sewage systems, rubbish collection and public transport. Social challenges Migration Rio has experienced rapid growth in recent years because of rural to urban migration. Push factors driving people away from the countryside include: few job opportunities low wages difficult and unprofitable farming no land ownership lack of social amenities sense of isolation natural hazards, eg drought Pull factors attracting people into the city include the perception of: job opportunities higher wages better schools and hospitals better housing and services water, electricity, and sewage better social life better transport and communications Housing Rapid growth of the city has led to a housing shortage.
Transport With the country undergoing rapid development, car ownership has grown and the central business district is very congested with high levels of air pollution. Education There are few schools in the favelas. Health care There is a shortage of hospitals and clinics in the favelas, and high levels of illness and disease prevail here.
Crime High levels of crime, violence and drug abuse blight many of the favelas. Economic challenges Poverty - there is a massive gap between rich and poor citizens in Rio. Many wealthy people live close to the central business district - right next to the favelas. Employment - there are few job opportunities in the favelas. Poor transport systems make it hard for residents in the favelas to travel to work. Many citizens of Rio work in the informal job sector as street sellers, shoe shiners, etc.
Environmental challenges Urban sprawl - this is an issue as the city continues to grow rapidly, encroaching on surrounding rural countryside areas. Brain lateralisation is assumed to be evolutionarily adaptive as devoting just one hemisphere of the brain to tasks leaves the other hemisphere free to handle other tasks. For example, in chickens, brain lateralisation allows birds to use one hemisphere for locating food, the other hemisphere to watch for predators.
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Thus, brain lateralisation allows for cognitive multi-tasking which would increase chances of survival. Individuals with high level mathematical skills tend to have superior right hemisphere abilities, are more likely to be left handed, and are more likely to suffer allergies and other immune system health problems.
This suggests a relationship between brain lateralisation and the immune system. Research also indicates that the brain become less lateralised as we age. It is possible that as we age and face declining mental abilities the brain compensates by allocating more resources to cognitive tasks. Plasticity refers to neurological changes as a result of learning and experience. Although this was traditionally associated with changes in childhood, recent research indicates that mature brains continue to show plasticity as a result of learning.
Learning and new experiences cause new neural pathways to strengthen whereas neural pathways which are used infrequently become weak and eventually die. Thus brains adapt to changed environments and experiences. Thus, the complex cognitive demands involved in mastering a video games caused the formation of new synaptic connections in brain sites controlling spatial navigation, planning, decision-making, etc. Levels of gamma brain waves were far higher in the experienced meditation group both before and during meditation.
Gamma waves are associated with the coordination of neural activity in the brain. This implies that meditation can increase brain plasticity and cause permanent and positive changes to the brain. A similar phenomenon was shown in a study of London taxi drivers. MRI scans revealed that the posterior portion of the hippocampus was significantly larger than a control group, and size of difference was positively correlated with amount of time spent as a taxi driver i.
Functional recovery refers to brain functions moving from a damaged to an undamaged location after traumatic brain injury. Case studies of stroke victims who have experienced brain damage and thus lost some brain functions have shown that the brain has an ability to re-wire itself with undamaged brain sites taking over the functions of damaged brain sites. Thus, neurons next to damaged brain sites can take over at least some of the functions that have been lost.
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There is a negative correlation between functional recovery and age: i. Level of education associated with a more active, neurologically well-connected brain is positively correlated with speed of recovery from traumatic brain injuries. Schneider found that patients with a college education were x7 times more likely to than those who did not finish college to recover from their disability after 1 year. Measures small voltages of electrical activity when a stimulus is presented.
Because these small voltages are difficult to pick out from other electrical signals in the brain, the stimulus needs to be repeatedly presented, and only signals which occur every time the stimulus is presented will be considered an ERP for that stimulus. Cognitive ERPS represent information processing and evaluation of the stimulus.
Neurological abnormalities have been linked to depression, schizophrenia, anti-social personality disorder, etc. The physiological processes of living organisms follow repetitive cyclical variations over certain periods of time. These bodily rhythms have implications for behaviour, emotion and mental processes. This changing pattern of REM has led researchers to believe one function of REM is the growth and repair of the brain - needed a lot when young and less as we age. The EP controlling REM appears to be the locus coeruleus LC a patch of cells located in a brain structure called the pons which produces noradrenaline and acetylcholine.
If neurons in a different part of the pons are destroyed, REM remains but muscle paralysis in REM disappears- this results in a cat moving around although it is completely asleep. Circadian rhythms follow a hour cycle e. The EP controlling the sleep-waking cycle is located in the hypothalamus. Patterns of light and darkness are registered by the retina, travel up the optic nerves to where these nerves join optic chiasma , and then pass into the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN of the hypothalamus.
If this nerve connection is severed circadian rhythms become random. The same effect is produced by damaging the SCN of rats, and people born without eyes cannot regulate bodily rhythms. Although he organised his time in regular patterns of sleeping and waking his body seemed to have a preference for a 25 hour rather than a hour cycle.
Another piece of evidence in support of this idea is that Innuit Indians who live in the Arctic Circle inhabit an environment that has hardly any darkness in summer and hardly any light in winter. However, this is not the case- they maintain a fairly regular pattern of sleeping and waking all year around.
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Disruption of the circadian sleep-waking cycle e. Jet Lag occurs when we cross several world time zones quickly. Circadian rhythms will be disrupted as although our endogenous pacemakers stay the same, the exogenous zeitgebers patterns of light and dark in the new environment have changed.