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The Lancet Mendes, Paula Chaves, A. Dias Pereira, and Nasser K. Is Pennathur et al. A 7 Ibid. Annals of surgery 6 Jenkins et al. Reynolds, Aideen Long, 9 McQuaid et al. An integrative genomic approach in oesophageal cells identifies TRB3 10 Duggan et al. Carcinogenesis 31 5 Strauch, Jian- Jenkins, G. Harries, S. Doak, A. Wilmes, A. Griffiths, J. Baxter, and J. Deoxycholic acid causes DNA Carcinogenesis 25 3 Jenkins, Gareth J. Suzen, Zak S. Eltahir, Sally A. James, James 11 Adams, David R.

Parry, Paul A. Griffiths, and John N. Deoxycholic acid at neutral and acid pH, is protein: Structure and function. Cell Commun Signal 9 1 Carcinogenesis 28 1 RACK1, a versatile hub in cancer. RACK1 appears to exert its pro- or anti- of its cellular function as it interacts with different proteins at different tumourigenic effects through a number of different mechanisms which locations within the cell Aberrant signaling, cellular stimuli or protein vary depending on the cell and cancer type and subtype. In oesophageal RACK1 normally has a diffuse cytoplasmic localisation in prostate cancer squamous cell carcinoma cells, RACK1 appears to drive cancer cell growth cells but it accumulates in the membrane compartment when expression and migration through activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway Conversely, RACK1 appears to have alterations in RACK1 subcellular localisation can have important impacts a tumour suppressive function in colon cancer cells where its inhibition of on its ability to promote or suppress carcinogenic processes and should src delays cell cycle progression, suppresses colonic growth and induces thus be considered when examining the role of RACK1 in disease.

The vast number of proteins with which RACK1 interacts is Thorough examination of RACK1 in a variety of cancer settings should enable likely to account for its contrasting roles in different cancer settings. It is us to increase our understanding of this multi-functional protein and may likely that the particular cohort of binding partners with which RACK1 ultimately lead to the development of therapeutic strategies which hinder interacts at any particular moment, and in any particular disease or cell its pro-tumourigenic functions or promote its tumour suppressive functions.

Furthermore, Adams, Ron, and Kiely DCA has been shown to modulate the expression and function of a range 15 Ibid. RACK1 promoted the growth and migration of the cancer cells in had not been investigated to date. Tumor Biology 34 6 Oncology reports 30 5 Gastroenterology 4 Receptor for activated C kinase 1 promotes cell lines representing the multistep sequence from normal oesophagus hepatocellular carcinoma growth by enhancing mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 activity. Baillie, Martin J. Lynch, Miles D. Trop-2 inhibits prostate Chemistry 34 Journal of cellular physiology 19 Mamidipudi, V.

A novel pro-apoptotic function of RACK1: 11 Oncogene 28 50 Primary antibodies employed were growth supplements Lonza, Berkshire, England. The media as detailed above and then treated with the indicated amounts concentrations and time periods used when treating cells with DCA are of DCA or vehicle control. Matched time point controls treated with paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffered saline, permeabilised for 10 vehicle DMSO were also conducted to normalise data for time or vehicle minutes with 0. Analysis was carried out using Prism v6.

Cells were then harvested, this sequence of cancer development by examining its protein levels by protein extracts were prepared and western blot analysis was performed using an western blot analysis in cell lines derived from each stage of the sequence antibody against human RACK1. Blots were also probed with antibody against human Figure 1. Three independent experiments were performed and one representative blot is shown in A.

One of the three densitometry values calculated for the non-cancerous HEEC cell line was arbitrarily set to one and all other densitometry Three independent experiments were performed and relative RACK1 values were compared against it. In A , the values beneath each RACK1 band represent protein levels for each cell line was determined by densitometry as the mean relative RACK1 protein expression levels for the indicated cell lines calculated described in the legend of Figure 1.

RACK1 protein levels between non- from three independent experiments. Values obtained for each cell line were statistically compared to values obtained for the HEEC cell line using paired T-tests. Results are cancerous HEECs cells and each other cell line were statistically compared illustrated graphically in B. A biochemical study. Thus, in general, levels of RACK1 increased across the expression. RACK1 protein this trend. Blots were also probed than those observed in the other OAC cell lines and, of all the cell lines with an antibody against actin to control for variations in loading.

Three examined, it actually had the second lowest level of RACK1. We found dysplastic properties and to lack some typical epithelial cell characteristics that RACK1 has a predominately cytoplasmic distribution in both SKGT-4 Underwood et al. RACK1 gene However, in both cell lines, neither 90 minute 24 Nehra, D. Howell, C.


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Williams, J. Pye, and J. Toxic bile acids in gastro- nor 24 hour treatment with DCA altered RACK1 subcellular localisation oesophageal reflux disease: influence of gastric acidity. Gut 44 5 Windle, Eleanor Carton, 3B.

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Annals of surgery 4 Morgan, Sherif, and Emmanuelle Meuillet. Abstract Deoxycholic acid induces Molecular pharmacology 64 6 Lenzken, 69 9 Supplement International journal of cancer 6 Cells were harvested, protein extracts were prepared and western blot analysis was performed using an antibody against human RACK1.

Blots were also probed with antibody against human actin to control for loading variation. Three independent experiments were performed and a representative blot is shown in A. RACK1 protein expression levels were quantified from western blots using densitometry and normalised against actin. One of the three densitometry values calculated for control cells was arbitrarily set to one and all other densitometry values were compared against it.

Results are illustrated graphically in B. The subcellular localisation of RACK1 was examined using immunofluorescent and confocal microscopy. A representative fixation, staining with an anti-RACK1 antibody and imaging by confocal microscopy. Bile acids, such as the secondary bile acid DCA, are believed to play an important role in promoting progression through this We examined the expression of RACK1 in a panel of seven oesophageal sequence and have been shown to modulate the expression of a variety of cells representing each stage of the OAC progression sequence from genes in oesophageal cells In mechanisms through which bile acids promote tumourigenesis is still general, we found that RACK1 protein levels increased as the sequence poor.

However the mechanisms and gene alterations which drive OAC as this should aid two of the cell lines examined did make exceptions to this general trend. Furthermore, many different subtypes occurring within the one cancer type which vary correlations between RACK1 expression and tumour stage and prognosis in their genetic alterations and their mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Long, and Dermot Kelleher.

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BMC cancer 9 1 The HET-1A cell line was derived from normal oesophageal tissue, has Deoxycholic acid impairs glycosylation and fucosylation processes in esophageal epithelial cells. Phillip Koeffler. RACK1 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer Guo et al.

Journal of Biological Hu et al. Chemistry 11 Deng et al. Edward Kaighn, Roger R. Reddel, James H. Resau, Douglas Bowman, Zenya Peng et al. Galati, and Curtis C. DCA has been identified as an important contributor to OAC progression However, it has been reported that this cell line appears dysplastic when and physiologically relevant concentrations of DCA can alter both grown in organotypic culture, does not display evidence of squamous upregulate and downregulate the expression of a variety of genes in differentiation and is hyperproliferative in comparison to primary OAC cells Furthermore, HET-1A cells do not express expression has not been previously investigated.

Bioinformatic and vimentin, and an inverse correlation between RACK1 expression and analysis indicates that the human RACK1 promoter also contains binding E-cadherin Western provides an insight into the potential modulation of RACK1 expression blotting was used in this study in preference to rtPCR as it enabled us levels which may occur as OAC progresses. This is particularly patients and are therefore not isogenic. Therefore, some of the differences important in the context of DCA as published literature indicates that DCA in RACK1 levels which we observed between cells is likely to be due to the may sometimes have opposing effects on gene expression and protein non-isogenic nature of these cells, rather than due purely to their particular levels.

For example, various studies in oesophageal cells have indicated stage in the cancer progression sequence. Similarly, in this present study we also report that DCA give us conclusive proof of same. DCA disease free control tissue is warranted, and that further investigation into is a well-known inducer of oxidative stress45 which in turn has negative the role of RACK1 in OAC is worthwhile.

Cancer Looby et al. Research 51 1 Derouet, Michael J. White, Fergus Noble, Karwan A. Abdel-Latif et al. Moutasim, Eric Smith, Paul A. Drew, Gareth J. Thomas, John N. Primrose, and Jeremy P. Biology of the Cell 12 Qingxu Song, and Yufeng Cheng. RACK1 predicts poor prognosis and regulates progression Huo et al.

RACK1 can protect against apoptosis in a variety of cellular settings, for example it can The DCA mediated decrease in RACK1 protein levels which we have integrate survival signaling or can promote the ubiquitination-mediated observed is likely to have serious implications for the cell. Thus, it expression is believed to be tightly regulated in healthy cells and changes is possible that the apoptotic resistant cells which DCA selects for may also in its expression are likely to have dramatic consequences for the stability, be cells which have retained greater levels of RACK1 protein than their activity and localisation of its multiple binding partners and could thus out-selected counterparts.

To test this hypothesis, a DCA hyper-resistant impact on a wide range of signaling pathways and cellular processes The consequences of decreased parental and hyper-resistant cell lines. Indeed, For example, RACK1 interacts with and inhibits src in colon cancer cells analysis of RACK1 in a variety of different cell contexts has resulted which inhibits cell cycle progression and thus reduces proliferation Furthermore, promotes cell cycle progression Thus, the Thus, alterations in the RACK1 associated proteome as a result of a DCA particular set of interaction partners with which RACK1 associates at any mediated reduction in RACK1 expression could potentially have pro- or one time, and in any one cell type, probably have the greatest influence anti-tumourigenic effects.

However, our finding that RACK1 expression on its subcellular localisation. Therefore, the subcellular localisation of levels generally increase across the sequence from non-cancerous cells RACK1 in a particular cell type, and under particular cellular conditions, to adenocarcinoma indicates that RACK1 may promote OAC and that can provide important clues regarding its current interaction partners and increased RACK1 protein levels may be selected for as cancer develops.

We report that RACK1 has a predominately cytoplasmic oesophageal cells. Thus DCA in perinuclear areas. RACK1 plays an important role in shuttling its binding partners around the cell and in targeting or anchoring its partners Thus, it is possible that a subset of PKC-associated RACK1 may translocate at particular cellular locations Such studies could focus on examining the location of minutes or 24 hours Figure 3. However, mediated translocation of such partners is altered when RACK1 expression it is possible that DCA may modulate the localisation of particular subsets is suppressed.

RACK1 target for this disease. In contrast, DCA could potentially induce the cell lines. Wilson, and V. Wee Yong. Journal of Biological Chemistry 24 Windle, Eleanor Carton, expression in oesophageal cells in vitro. Deoxycholic acid at neutral and acid pH, chemoradiotherapy. Kiely, Patrick A. Journal Journal of Biological Chemistry 24 Li, J. Deoxycholic acid impairs glycosylation and fucosylation processes in esophageal epithelial Looby, Eileen, Mohamed M.


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  • Glycobiology 22 5 Aideen Long, and Dermot Kelleher. Bile acid deoxycholate Molecular pharmacology 64 6 A Mamidipudi, V. A novel pro-apoptotic function of RACK1: biochemical study. Lenzken, McQuaid, K. Functional mapping review: the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and related of the promoter region of the GNB2L1 human gene coding for RACK1 scaffold protein.

    Gene neoplasia. Nehra, D. Toxic bile acids in Duggan, Shane P. Reynolds, Aideen gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: influence of gastric acidity. Forced downregulation of RACK1 inhibits glioma development activation and cytokine levels. Receptor for activated C kinase 1 promotes Oesophageal carcinoma. Hepatology 57 1 RACK1 promoted the growth and migration of the cancer 11 Stoner, Gary D. Cancer Research 51 1 Journal of cellular Varieties of Untranslatability physiology 11 Exploring a potential system of classification for the Underwood, Timothy J. A comparison of primary oesophageal squamous epithelial cells with HET-1A in organotypic culture.

    Protein Liath Gleeson expression regulation under oxidative stress. RACK1 predicts poor prognosis and regulates progression of This paper outlines a new theoretical framework for the discussion of untranslatability esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through its epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Biology in translation theory and practice. Five such strands of untranslatability are presented. Finally, the conclusion recognises both the malleability of the proposed framework and the dynamism of untranslatability as a concept in itself.

    Introduction As it is a relatively young academic discipline, many of the fundamental questions of Translation Studies are still provoking vigorous debate and very little global consensus. First among these questions is the nature and resulting legitimacy or illegitimacy of translation itself. The fact remains, however, that the study success or failure. The fourth section takes a different approach, exploring and practice of literary translation continues to be a part of modern life, conditions under which a text, while approachable in terms of language heedless of whether its fruits are ultimately seen as infinite success or total and content, may in practice become untranslatable due to external failure.

    With the acknowledgement, then, that the debate surrounding forces. It should be noted that presentation of a potential classification system for refining discussion and while the categories here are delineated as much as possible for ease of practice around untranslatability. Studies, Vol. The method of exact replication of a source takes a secondary position.

    While the within the target language as possible. However, it is notably more Shopkeeper — Really? What was his other leg called? Bellos provides a similar but more detailed sometimes greatly restricted. While syntax structures, unlike sound patterns, may be broadly equivalent between languages at least in terms of the primary categories of verb, 11 Walter Benjamin, Harry Zorn trans. Un Translatability, in Dynel, Marta ed. Croce, L. Pirandello, G. One While the linguistic aspects of untranslatability present formidable morning, after she has queued up for the fifth time, he decides to he has to difficulties to the would-be translator of literature, these difficulties get the message through to her.

    Anyone translating into distance. Carroll ed. York: Routledge, , This could be done in- Alongside the challenges posed by extreme depth of meaning are those that text, or in a footnote or addendum. However, as well as raising multiple arise when translating a text of great cultural breadth. Thus the detailed translation of foundational concepts such as such canonical importance to the Polish people that its full comprehension space, time, being, consciousness etc. Poetry or semantic content. Robert Browning asserts that in order to community…in a way that is considered appropriate in that community.

    Nabokov London: 33 Harrison, World Literature, Princeton University Press, , I, ix. Routledge, , 4. Bassnett describes how uni-directional let alone transposing it into other languages. Hassan trans. Pears and B. Guinness trans. It is in response to a perceived lack Galgenlieder, Berlin, Cassirer, The ideas and examples discussed within each section act as suggestions for how such a classification system could be filled. The discussion here draws from the areas of linguistics, semantics, poetics, theories of power and colonial theory as well as directly from literature, in order to display the wide range of texts that untranslatability affects.

    The five categories presented here are, in turn, a template for the many more categories and sub-categories of untranslatability which could doubtless be identified. The ultimate aim of such a system is to facilitate a clearer understanding of untranslatability both as a theory and as a practical translation challenge.

    It should finally be added that untranslatability is recognised here as a dynamic concept. As such, any discussion using the outlined system as a basis would have to accommodate the possibility of current areas of untranslatability potentially being resolved or further complicated in the future, whether References due to linguistic and cultural rapprochement or distancing between social Alekseeva, M.

    London: Routledge, Bassnett, Susan, Translation. New York: Routledge, Batuk-Ulewiczowa, Teresa, Beyond Cognizance: fields of absolute untranslatability. Gdansk: languages are different, but also because cultures are different. Translation and the Meaning of Everything. Benjamin, Walter, Illuminations. Harry Zorn trans. Meadhbh McGrath Cassin, Barbara ed. Tiny Life Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford: Clarendon Press, , I propose that cybersex fundamentally involves the performance Derrida, Jacques, Patrick Mensah trans.

    Stanford: Stanford of a body, and that this virtual body emerges from a process of interaction University Press, In Theory and Practice in or text fantasy, in which writing skills are invaluable. My argument is based on Language Studies, Vol. In The Journal of a single mode of communication carries not just words but the representation Commonwealth Literature, Vol. The paper also explores how cyberspaces offer users von Humboldt, Wilhelm trans. Leipzig: Fleischer, New their virtual bodies more rigidly in accordance with the prevailing images of beauty York: Syracuse University Press, London: Princeton University Press, , I.

    Its History and Influence. Cybersex presents something of a contradiction in terms. Wittgenstein, Ludwig, D. Mc Guinness trans. Accessed December 16, How are we to understand the concept of sex without a body? Is it really just a fake kind of sex? Her and My Cybersex describes erotic and sexual pleasure experienced through Tiny Life provide interesting examples of text-based cybersex and how cybernetic, digital, and computer-based technologies and communication language is used to construct and perform bodies through a single mode of [ In My Tiny Life, Dibbell offers an account of the origins of ranging from flirtatious e-mails and text-based chats to mechanically advanced telehaptic communication systems.

    I selected these contrasting sources in the interest of tracing humans. Cybersex chat involves the exchange of sexually explicit messages that represent actions, touches Dennis Waskul claims that the disembodied nature of cyberspace makes and other sexual experiences. In contrast with a single interactive mode of communication. I will also demonstrate that, even with so in the online world of LambdaMOO, and follows the relationship that many possibilities for fluidity in relation to sexuality and presentation of develops between Theodore and Samantha.

    Accessed December 18, London: Athlone Press, , Play is not with escape from the claims of the flesh, but with ascribe various cultural meanings, which then allow us to read a person by the cultural meanings attached to different bodies. Traditional the fixity of physical form, and our ability to affix meaning to that form. Reid suggests that virtual environments allow seen ugly, every man has an enormous penis, every woman is big-busted, users to subvert cultural constructions of the body and social definitions everybody is beautiful, and everyone is expertly skilled in ever-pleasing of desirability.

    However, she observes that as soon as players manifest sexual techniques. What do you look encounters. Their character descriptions draw from our preconceived like? How old are you? Reid offers an illustrative example from a out a fantasy and the fantasy needs a face and body. Her clear blue eyes sparkle as confines the body in a similar way to the real, offline world. The possibility she looks back at you. She is wearing a short red skirt, a white t-shirt, black fishnet stockings, and black leather boots and jacket.

    She has to examine whether these beauty norms hold as much power in more recent formats for embodiment and tinysex, such as Second Life and other visual avatar-based online worlds. After a dispute with his RL partner, Dibbell decides to pursue only serves to heighten its symbolic importance. Although sandy-blond hair, brown eyes. I study Electronic Engineering in Fullerton, the physical body remains at the keyboard, users can locate themselves in California. If you want to get to know me better just page or if your [sic] virtual environments through the construction and performance of a body in the same room talk to me.

    Thanks for being interested in me and maybe that emerges during verbal interaction with other users. Language acts as I will hear from you soon. As the date most significantly in cybersex. For Dibbell, this is an immediate turn-off. For a thorough discussion focusing on virtual cross-dressing and the performance of Springer-Verlag, , First, here is the transcript of a chat- is written, and in Her, it is verbal. What do you look like? I am tanned and very buffed. I work out everyday.

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    In these Sweetheart: I want you. Would you like to screw me? The client mobilises expectations My hand works its way down to your crotch and I begin to feel your huge and preexisting codes for body in the modalities that are not expressed in swelling bulge. Kennedy London: Routledge. Edinburgh University Press, , Directed by Spike Jonze. Hollywood, CA: Warner Bros.

    Pictures, This dirty t-shirt without worrying about being rebuffed. Theodore longs for a physical, bodily connection, just as he does later when he longs There is an innate longing for bodily connection that underlies these to feel Samantha in the same room with him. It is during wish you were in this room with me right now. I wish I could put my arms the sex scene with Samantha in the darkness that we can see language around you. I wish I could touch you. Jonze emphasises the importance of bodies in Her from the very first a sexual experience and a body for Samantha. Just like our parents. Language is — another fundamentally bodily activity.

    This scene recalls the experience of tinysex — we do not encounter any corporeal bodies, but only the words Jonze maintains the emphasis on physicality with frequent flashes of that represent bodies. During these Samantha and Theodore as equal cyberlovers. The flashbacks A scene later in the film featuring a sexual surrogate provides an focus exclusively on bodily activities: kissing, holding each other in bed, interesting contrast to the scene in the darkness.

    Hilary Bergen reads this play fighting, and carrying furniture into an apartment. Accessed December Samantha reaches out to a within a new kind of body. I feel really close to [Samantha]. This that virtual body with the physical body of the surrogate is unnecessary. My body knew. In her but with a person. December 49 Dibbell, My Tiny Life, Accessed January 2. Samantha explains her departure using a English athwart.

    I can still feel you and the words of our story, but monolithically. I love you so much, but this is where I am now. And I need you to let me go. Joinson, we are together, yet corporeally alone. Katelyn Y. Dibbell, Julian. Phillips, New York: Peter Lang, London: Routledge, yourself to be.

    However, at the New York: Oxford University Press, Edinburgh: power to challenge cultural and social definitions of identity and the body, Edinburgh University Press, References Taylor, T. London: on the Internet. Joinson, Katelyn Springer-Verlag, Accessed December 20, Kennedy, Waskul, Dennis. Interaction 25, 2, : Chilcoat, Michelle. Identity and the Construction of Cyberspace. December 17, Barbara M. London: Routledge.

    The use of the photographic medium is examined with regard Recovering Memory and Identity through to the writer W. Kerstina Mortensen These three artists, all of whom were born shortly before or after , Abstract inherited a traumatic past with which they grapple to come to terms The use of the photograph is particularly prevalent among artists of the first post-war through their work. None of these artists are photographers by profession, generation, born shortly before or after Stunde Null Zero Hour , The present paper explores the integration of photographs in both painting and memory and identity in a European grieving process.

    Sebald ; Austerlitz, The following works by each artist are analysed: and artists Anselm Kiefer b. Their links to the Individual contribute to the on paper, graphite, original and magazine photographs, postcards, and linen collective experience of recollecting the Nazi era. Anabasis, Austerlitz and Heroische Sinnbilder are all France. He examines inherited German guilt by re-creating Nazi-like scenes.

    Instead of asking who cares, perhaps you should ask whose next? Visual artists — photographers, illustrators, graphic designers — are already being screwed by the so-called Google Settlement when their works, included in books, are scanned. They were able to take on MicroSoft in a major anti-trust case on competition grounds. They must intervene in this major theft case. Featuring new sculpture and drawing, the framing.

    On realising what had been done, Finnian demanded the return of the book and also the copy. Colmcille objected, saying that the copy was his. The matter was referred to Diarmaid mac Cearrbheoil, the high king. Through negation of the. Formerly it has always appeared, through the brushing in vertical and horizontal marks, subtly in the background. Curated by Dr Slavka Sverakova, the exhibition looks at the works of artists across three generations,.

    Gallery, Derry 18 Sept — 2 Oct. In this decade.

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    The Irish Museum of Modern Art is currently exhibiting thirty-one prints by Irish and international artists 26 Sep — 3. Jan Artists represented in the exhibition include Michael Craig-Martin, Dorothy. LSC also presented an exhibition of sculpture, installation, painting and video by Majella Clancy and Niamh. His work is engaged in analysis of the experience of seeing, re-seeing, adopting. Democracies another work by Zmijewski was also shown at the Biennial — comprising a series of short films exploring the diversity of political uses of public space; including a short film documenting the annual 12 July parades in Belfast, shot by the artist during his residency.

    Visual Artists Ireland is currently utilising the Kiosks to promote our services and programmes for artists in Northern Ireland. Bookings are still being taken for advertising spaces on the Kiosks. Details from: brownandbri googlemail. The work is the result of an invitation by Fire Station as part of its annual Studio Award to develop a project in Dublin looking at the changing nature. Instead she said the arts should be embraced and its job creation potential exploited at a time of major unemployment. Speaking to the Oireachtas Committee on the Arts 14 October , where her delegation included actor Brendan Gleeson and writer Colum McCann, both of whom were funded by the Arts Council in the early stages of their careers, Ms Moylan said if successful Irish artists were sports stars, they would be more feted in Ireland.

    Also with Ms Moylan was actor Gabriel Byrne, who accompanied the delegation as a show of his support for the Arts Council. I am saying it as a business woman. It simply makes bad business sense. Donegal in , has launched a new website documenting the project from its beginnings. Each year the group of core and invited artists create a sculpture trail in the area between Errigal Mountain and Tory island on the north west coast of Co. Donegal during the Earagail Arts Festival. The brief for this major public art commission supported by Ipswich Borough Council is for a sculpture of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, one of the most influential figures in Tudor England, which will be located in his native Suffolk, England.

    The project will see The Model expand in size by over a third in an attempt to realise its potential and consolidate its position as a flagship cultural centre in Ireland. Meanwhile the existing building will house a new gallery and exhibition space, a restaurant and additional education spaces. It is estimated the award will also contribute to the creation of an additional 23 construction jobs.

    Carraroe, Co. Galway features a large body of his work, and his work can also be seen at St. Michael the Archangel church in Ballinasloe, Co. The Award provides the chosen artist with a solo exhibition at the Cavanacor Gallery, curated by the Gallery Director, in summer , as well as mentoring the artist on the selection, display and promotion of their work in the art world. Delaney died peacefully after a long illness and was buried following a Funeral Mass at Crossboyne Church in Crossboyne, Co. Mayo on Friday 25 September. Born in Claremorris, Co. Mayo in , Edward Delaney is best known for the large-scale public monuments to Irish patriots Wolfe Tone and Thomas Davis that were commissioned by the Irish government and are now located in St.

    Going on to represent Ireland in the Paris Biennale in and and at the World Fair in New York in , he also participated in the establishment of the Project Arts Centre in Dublin in the s. Delaney initially worked in bronze before later experimenting with stainless steel, and his work is widely represented in both public and private collections throughout the country. The open-air sculpture park near his home in.

    Wexford, for ten weeks from 14 September to 22 November According to a new research. Since then the agency has promoted and supported over 1, Irish cultural initiatives and events in 74 countries. The Minister also acknowledged the Arts Council and the role it plays in providing the core funding to Irish artists and companies, which enables them to create the work which is subsequently promoted and presented worldwide. Established in , the Gallery of.

    Photography engages with new and existing audiences through a range of initiatives including artistic programmes, outreach work, photography training courses and the provision of darkroom facilities. Visual Artists Ireland and the Visual Artists News Sheet wholeheartedly apologise for the errors and misrepresentations that appeared in the text, which were the result of editorial oversights. The portacabin has since been used for various projects by the collective. The Urban Space Shuttle Project was never a model for the Ground Up project, which began much earlier — Interestingly, those who expressed offence were not those who had been interviewed.

    In the recommendation 8. The fact that individual artists are one of the most economically deprived groups that punch above their own weight in their contribution to Irish society was ignored. They are therefore dependent on additional supports to make ends meet. These total earnings are comprised of income from creative work, and part time or casual labour earnings that are subject to the normal levels of taxation. But, as with most sectors of the economy, opportunities for supplementing creative earnings are diminishing. Therefore, with these current recommendations we will see more and more visual artists being made to take advantage of the social welfare system to allow them to make ends meet.

    Visual artists are also unique in that their primary purpose in creating artistic work is not so as to gain financial reward. The ethos that drives visual artists to make art is not economic. Visual artists also create on a continuous basis without any guarantee of financial success. The value therefore of what visual artists contribute is of immense worth. It is also worth noting that no consideration is made for the fact that visual artists are a part of the indigenous economy.

    Visual artists do no repatriate funds outside of the country. In fact, it is quite the opposite. By their very nature, visual artists who may utilise the Tax Exemption Scheme contribute these savings directly back into the Irish economy. The Tax Exemption Scheme is one of a small number of incentives that artists have to continue to remain in Ireland and to make work. It has been noted that the largest subsidy to the cultural life of Ireland comes not from governments, corporations or other patrons, but from the artists themselves, through their unpaid or underpaid labour.

    Artists need the every incentive to continue to create. In order to maintain a cultural climate we need to invest in our artists, we need to value and recognise what artists contribute and we need to create a sympathetic climate in which the arts can flourish. By abolishing Tax Exempt status for artists the government would remove one of the key incentives for artists to live, work and produce art in Ireland.

    The regeneration of our country as an attractive location for inward investment places great emphasis on the attractiveness of this cultural heritage. If the scheme were to be abolished not only would it be a blow to the artists who avail of the scheme but it would send out a signal internationally indicating a changing attitude of the Irish state to the value it places on the arts in Ireland.

    Visual Artists Ireland believes, however, that the benefit derived from the removal of the scheme would be far outweighed by the problems it would create in the long term. There is always pressure on artists to become more self sufficient and not to rely so heavily on direct public subsidy in the production of their work.

    The Tax Exemption scheme is an indirect way of encouraging and facilitating the production of new work by creative artists without the need for direct grant aid. The removal of the Tax Exemption scheme would lead to further reliance on direct public subsidy for funding of the arts and place greater pressure on an already overstretched Arts Council, as well as placing yet more people on to the live register. Website www. The Endgame Detail. Basement gallery. Seaweed construction with blue lights. McWilliam Women of Belfast V The region has been witness to a variety of gallery and site-specific projects.

    Some motivated by post-troubles community regeneration initiatives and others by practitioners attempting to tackle social and community issues at local levels. Aspects of the socio-political contexts that these projects seek to interrogate have influenced my own practice, and as such are worth mentioning. As an Irish artist with an experience of living and working both in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, the issue of context — both geographically and conceptually — has become allimportant.

    I am in the latter stages of a PhD at the University of Ulster in Belfast, which is a part theory part practice research project. State of Grace is a body of sculptural and photographic work that I have produced during — that takes the issues of identity and representation within contemporary Ireland to task.

    To what extent is culture or everyday life in Ireland becoming the same as or remaining different from the West? In an era where Ireland is witness to a variety of racial confections and national borders are increasingly made more fluid, does this make Irish cultural characteristics and heritage seem more or less important? Another artist who was concerned with issues of identity and representation is the surrealist artist and Co.

    Down born — F. Mc William. Banbridge Borough Council has recently opened The F. McWilliam Gallery and Studio, which currently. His bronze series of Women of Belfast is a powerful treatment of various female forms flung back, subject to the impact and torque of a bomb blast. Many of the pieces in the current exhibition are on loan and will be on exhibition until February During a period of four years, a series of artists were invited to work within the two communities in order to tease out and mark the oral histories of the area, to encourage intergenerational participation, to build on skills and to encourage pride within the community.

    The result of this challenging project, completed this year, was a variety of critically charged public art sited in and around both estates, the production of a publication and short film charting the processes involved and the progress made. The Regenerate project is another example of an interesting multi-faceted approach to community based arts initiatives, where artists are placed in residence within one or many of the five Council areas of Armagh, Banbridge, Cookstown, Craigavon, Dungannon and South Tyrone: and are encouraged and supported to develop projects within the community assisted by lead artists — Philip Napier and Mike Hogg.

    These cultural practices, diverse in their scope and intention serve to confirm the variety of arts activity throughout the region of Co. Ursula Burke. Nine years ago, I moved to Loughbrickland, outside Banbridge, where I have the first floor of an old coach house for a studio. The isolation suits me well. If I feel a need for art stimulation, I can go a few hundred yards to the F.

    Ceramic, black glaze. Each approx 35X25cm. Photo: Nesta King. Bowels of the Mind at the Basement Gallery, Dundalk in My preference. Sverakova can seen at www. The County of Down is a sprawling conflagration of rural and urban communities. This article will focus mainly on the work of Seacourt Print Workshop SPW , as its Director I make no apology for the bias — but I will touch on other provision as well.

    SPW is the only visual arts resource based in North Down. Initiated by Jean Duncan and Margaret Arthur, it has been operational for over 27 years offering opportunities to make art in traditional and experimental print media, including etching, lithography, screen-printing, relief printing and digital processes. The group seeks to meet its central aim of promoting the art of printmaking through three strands focusing on art, education and research. It receives its core funding through the Arts Council of Northern Ireland. The strand supporting art takes the form of providing physical resources, professional practice training, exhibitions, residency programmes and initiating partnership projects.

    Non-gallery venues are targeted as a means of reaching new audiences, for example an ongoing exhibition space has been negotiated with a local Homebase store and a sitespecific show installed in Armagh Planetarium. The Planetarium project is one of several partnerships enabling members to create work in collaboration with non-arts organisations. Other partnerships include creating prints with Arizona State University inspired by photographs of Native Americans taken between — 08 and with the Wildfowl and Wetland Trust inspired by the history of its Castle Espie site. We offer a three-month residency and an international visiting artist programme funded by North Down Borough Council.

    Our education programme is varied and includes professional practice modules for art students at the South Eastern Regional College. Outreach to community groups is a growing area. The structured techniques of printmaking support the making process and lead to accomplished outcomes, building confidence amongst those with. Researching ever-safer printing processes provides the third strand of our work. This has included hosting a symposium attended by Nik Semenoff and Cedric Green — both trail blazers in the world of non-toxic printmaking.

    Unfortunately SPW does not have its own dedicated gallery and there is no dedicated public gallery in Bangor. The nearest gallery is at Ards Arts Centre in Newtownards. The art centre provides two galleries and a rolling programme of monthly exhibitions. Artists submit proposals to a visual arts subcommittee, which meets several times a year. Ards Arts also organises an annual event each August called the Creative Peninsula, which showcases the work of artists and crafts people living on the Peninsula through exhibitions, open studio tours and demonstrations.

    The stark installation conjured a nightmarish coppice, like an image from a bedtime story transmuted in sleep and made physical. Both these artists are members of Ards Arts collective, an artist-led association, which grew out of the Creative Peninsula event. The group has been involved in a number of innovative partnership projects involving product development training and a sci-art symposium.

    Further south, Downpatrick also has a public gallery at the Down Arts Centre. Down Community Arts is also active in this area and can be contacted by artists who are interested in engaging with the wider community. The F. It is running an exhibition programme of significant collections and collaborations covering both the fine and applied arts. Although programmed for the gallery will be seeking submissions for group and collection based shows next year for its calendar. Richard Peters. The town of Bangor functions as a service and administrative centre, as well as a market town and seaside resort.

    North Down is a successful tourist resort and is regarded as one of the most tranquil and stable areas in Northern Ireland. I was pleased that Down Borough Council Arts Committee was keen to encourage the development of the visual arts as one of the key elements of the — Arts Strategy for the Borough, having come from a visual arts background.

    As an objective of the strategy, North Down Arts Section has been focused on the funding of visual arts organisations and individuals through arts grants and capital; along with grants, multi-annual grants for established organisations; and also The Kilfedder Memorial Bursary, which offers visual artists residential opportunities.

    The Council has continuously funded established organisations like Seacourt Print Workshop, as well as supporting emerging visual artists. The arts section also provides general arts advice and support for artists in for example encouraging the set up of artist run studios and organisations, by making use of reduced rent vacant town centre units made available by the economic down turn. Another important element is the development of a public art strategy for the Borough — and the general development of public art. This is especially important in light of the lack of dedicated visual art spaces in the Borough.

    This is an ongoing project, which began in , and has utilised traditional advertising media, ie. June planning permission was granted to erect ft long hoardings as an outdoor exhibition space along the length of a seafront development site. The first exhibition, which continues until November , features large-scale photographic works by Moira McIver.

    Throughout and McIver documented the early stage developments of the newly opened walled garden at Castle Park, Bangor. The main aim of the project was to use public art to influence regeneration, with a challenging aims to address paramilitary murals and anti social graffiti through the development of new public art works. The central priority through all stages of the project — from conception of ideas to the siting and installation of the art works — was that the artists worked with residents to instil a real sense of ownership of the completed art works.

    Over residents of all age groups were involved in the project. For example the Kilcooley Obelisks are seen by an average of 10, commuters, residents and visitors on a daily basis. Two of the artworks have replaced paramilitary murals; and two repeat areas of anti-social and paramilitary graffiti have been replaced by artworks created through the project.

    The Kilcooley Obelisks have transformed an area formerly renowned as a contentious space. The work has instead become a positive landmark and the obelisks used as a visual image in promotion of the North Down area. The legacy of this project has built upon community confidence in these communities and in the other six estate areas of the Borough whose residents have began to initiate their own projects.

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    Prentice northdown. Walsh ards-council. Griffith downdc. BT32 3NB femcwilliam banbridge. BT30 6BP. Ards Arts The Ards Peninsula is an area of outstanding natural beauty and its stunning scenery has inspired a growing number of artists and craftspeople to move to this region and unleash their creative talents. The main town, Newtownards is only eight miles from Belfast yet our small villages, archaeological sites and secluded bays let you escape from the pace of life.

    Ards Arts is the arts service of Ards Borough Council who has undertaken a number of initiatives to support the visual arts in the Borough, most notably the development of the Ards Art Trail with assistance from the Arts Council of Northern Ireland. The 16 pieces of public art that comprise the trail were constructed in two phases over a sixyear period between and Each piece was selected to complement its surroundings and the villages set the criteria for their own specific work of art, stating what elements of their community, culture and heritage they wanted to see represented.

    They also chose the area of their village where the final work would reside. The trail has now become an established and much admired addition to the beauty and unique cultural heritage of the Ards Peninsula. Coupled with the established Creative Peninsula event each August, Ards is renowned as the artistic and creative hub of the county of Down. The Creative Peninsula event is an Ards Borough Council initiative, now in its eighth year, aiming to promote visual artists and craftspeople living and working in the Ards Peninsula.

    The building was refurbished in and has facilities for arts based workshops and a multi purpose function room for conferences, meetings, weddings and events. Within Ards Arts Centre, there are two galleries showing modern, local and international art exhibitions throughout the year. The Sunburst Gallery plays host to many local artists and displays the work of community groups in receipt of funding to. The highlight of the year is the annual Creative Peninsula exhibition in the Main Gallery where over 80 visual arts and crafts practitioners living in the area are invited to submit a piece of work.

    Ards Arts Centre also facilitates a number of leisure art classes for adults and children including Art For Kids; Patchwork; Parchment and Watercolour. For further information and opening hours please contact us at: T: E: arts ards-council. The landscape of Down District has changed dramatically over the past three years with major public realm schemes completed in Newcastle and Ardglass.

    The completion of the construction of the new Downe Hospital has incorporated public arts throughout. All in all, an exciting time for visual arts in Down. Mourne Heritage Trust has initiated a Gateway project aiming to place large sculptures in Clough, Rathfriland and Warrenpoint in the first phase with additional sites being identified as areas of outstanding natural beauty.

    At nine metres high this piece acts as a marker for the promenade at all times. The Gateway piece into the town by Ron Baird, Words in the Wind, makes an impressive statement; it is a 12 metre high kinetic sculpture, reflecting the cultural and natural landscape in its petals, carved with Celtic and Neolithic drawings. Ardglass boasts the work of local artist Alan Burke. Downe Hospital embarked on an exciting journey, which included public art in the very fabric of the new building. Downpatrick has received funding from the Department of Social Development for the Public Realm project planned for Through this project the town will be transformed very much in the same manner as Newcastle.

    One of the highlights will be a large sculpture in Millennium Square. This specific project will go to tender in the near future. The focus on public art in the large development projects in the area provides huge opportunities for artists locally and abroad. There was not a cloud in the bright blue sky as I wove my way down to Wexford from Dublin, a welcome break from the monsoon season we have reluctantly come to accept as the Irish summer. I resolved to try to get to the bottom of this mysterious absence from Irish cultural life, during a time when the arts were receiving ample funding and support; and find out what it is that makes symposia so beloved of stone sculptors in particular.

    One of the participating sculptors Eileen MacDonagh, who has extensive experience of symposia internationally, believes the economic boom may have been the cause. Most symposia are artist-led, and given that so many professional sculptors were so busy during the last decade maybe they felt no pressing need to make symposia occur. She postulates that maybe there will be an upsurge in symposia now with the downturn in the economy.

    Symposia are a phenomena, not exclusive to the art of stone carving — but very much suited to the specific needs of the stone sculptor. A symposium generally involves anything from six to 15 artists coming together to produce work over a specific period of time — which would usually range from a fortnight to a month. The finished sculptures resulting from the symposium then usually remain behind in the location where they were made, the artist having been paid a modest fee for participation and provided with bed and board.

    Symposia are often funded by local county councils, art council, or organisations such as the Heritage Trust — which cover the sculptors for their time and efforts with a minimal stipend. However in the case of Sliabh Gearr, despite a modest contribution from the local council to cover various overheads, in return for which the artists are working collaboratively to carve a bench for the local national school, the artists were all working unpaid on their own time.

    Sliabh Gearr was brought into being almost single-handedly by the unstoppable energy and enthusiasm of a remarkably charismatic individual called Niall Deacon. With the help of stone sculptors Cliodna Cussen and Padraig MacGoran, Deacon formed a committee through which he managed to bring together nine sculptors to participate in the symposium by advertising in the Visual Artists News Sheet and E-Bulletin.

    Together they organised for donated artworks from the sculptors to be sold to raise funds to finance the symposium back in June. Wexford County Council was keen to show their support for indigenous skills and agreed to fund some of the overheads. Although the sculptors are not being paid a stipend for their participation their work will be for sale at the Norman Gallery where it will be exhibited to coincide with the Wexford Opera Festival.

    He brings these granite boulders that lie on the surface of the land down the mountain himself to work with them. As participating sculptor Eileen Mac. The participating sculptors were invited onto the land to choose the stones they would like to work with in the irregular forms of their natural found state, as opposed to being presented with commercially quarried blocks, as most sculptors would be used to dealing with.

    Italian sculptor Emanuela Camacci altered her original design upon seeing the granite boulders, deciding to let the material itself influence her intervention. Similarly Bojana Krizanec availed of the freedom afforded her to follow the natural lines and curves of the boulder, working on several stones, which could dialogue amongst themselves.

    Most of the sculptors taking part in the symposium would not have the means to work on such a large scale in their own studios and seem excited by the possibilities afforded by an increase in scale. Speaking to all of the nine artists Cliodna Cussen, Martha Quinn, Eileen Mac Donagh, Paul Haggins, Padraig Mac Goran, Emanuela Camacci, Martin Lyttle, Bojana Krizanec and Niall Deacon I am struck by how invaluable an experience they consider it to be to take part in a symposium where sculptors can feel at home in a community that understands their particular set of challenges.

    As Haggins — who has. I notice there is a chunk cut out of his hammer, which he explains is a trick he picked up from an Indian stone carver to lighten the weight of the back swing of every hammer blow. Cliodna Cussen is a sculptor who has been working long enough to have seen several artistic trends come and go.

    Totally unfashionable. It often seems that we work in a medium, which falls between the proverbial stools being considered craft by the fine art world, and fine art by the craft world. Even the art colleges, finding themselves short on physical space and addled by the threat of insurance claims, seem to have little interest in maintaining the tradition of stone sculpture with its awkward world of dust and noise.

    Even The Leitrim Sculpture Centre in Manorhamilton which began its life as one of the only facilities dedicated to stone sculpture nationwide, has gradually moved in the direction of technology based media and installation in keeping with current trends in Irish contemporary art, although they do keenly encourage stone carvers to use the facility. She refers to the conviviality and the sense of motivation one gets working alongside other sculptors. Most of the sculptors at Sliabh Gearr are eager to mention the particularly friendly working environment on the symposium and the unique balance of personalities.

    Stone sculpture almost invariably brings the artist into contact with heavy weight and mass with most of the blocks being carved in Sliabh Gearr weighing over a ton. Dealing with this kind of weight is naturally made easier by the helping hands of fellow sculptors on a symposium and by suitable lifting equipment. Even for a sculptor like Quinn who has been consistently busy with commissioned work, it is the sense of community that she finds so important about symposia.

    As the arts sector and art educational institutions rarely reach across sector to engage and listen to other disciplines, this was an exciting and challenging element of the course to me. To have the opportunity to invite youth workers and young people with whom I collaborate, to participate in debate in an art institution felt very progressive. During the 18 months, staff also made a number of visits to Dublin to engage in discussion and participate in events with my collaborators, staying connected to the complexities of this relational practice.

    The course was part of a new ambitious matrix at UU; and so the Masters programme was also linked in some modules to the MA in. The MA Art in Public is committed to accommodating a broad range of practices — which was reflected in my experience of the master projects module, where each of us was required to develop a resolved body of work in the public domain. There were few restrictions on this, with students producing work in a variety of forms — in locations in and outside of Belfast; allowing us to be true to our individual processes and creating work organically at a time most suited to the specific project.

    This flexibility was preferable for most students — rather than being forced to adapt context specific work to a set location. Ironically however, this also made it difficult for the MA Art in Public to build a profile — as final projects manifested in different locations at different times with no central exhibition or focus. This highlights an underling issue in the institutionalisation of practices that often sit outside the mainstream; practices that regularly challenge and ask the difficult questions of institutions including art educational institutions.

    The second generation of students to this course along with the MA staff attempted to deal with this issue at the graduation show last June. They also extended an invitation to those of us who had recently completed the course to participate. Having students and staff present work together in this alternative way reflected to me something special about this course. Having completed the course many months ago, I now identify it as a real turning point for my practice. Having worked as an artist in one context for many years, it was very refreshing to dedicate time to interrogate the complexities of the relationships, structures and specificities of my practice and to identify gaps and weaknesses.

    The primary issue I had identified within my practice was finding a means to translate such a relational process into a form that was equally dialogic and reflective of the depth of engagement. Through course content and ongoing tutor support, I made huge headway in this area which had a direct and immediate effect on my collaborative process, leading to the development of new work including film, live reading events and the construction of a mobile space for conversation and creative exchange.

    This shift in form has marked a significant transition in my work. I have also maintained a relationship with tutor Susanne Bosch who continues to inform and include past students in opportunities arising at the University and beyond. My belief is that if this MA Art in Public can attract a diverse and experienced student group, it has the potential to grow into something really exciting.

    Fiona Whelan Notes www. The challenge of The Golden Bough series is this cohesive element of medium cannot be relied upon. Dempsey argues that the current economic situation affords art institutions the opportunity to. The Golden Bough allows for such an integration, albeit in a temporary capacity each show runs for three months. Yet for Dempsey, the series goes further and questions the role of the museum in art today. In recent years the emphasis of most museums has been on education and the Hugh Lane has followed suit.

    Dempsey however sees The Golden Bough as an aside from the desire to move the museum into the public sphere and a chance to allow part of the museum to function in a purely creative capacity. He points to the fact that, for him personally, the nature of such a project affords greater scope for curatorial experimentation. Having come to the Hugh Lane in as head of exhibitions, Dempsey inherited several large shows such as the Hugh Lane Centenary exhibition in These exhibitions in the upper gallery space however ran the risk of situating contemporary art and the main collection at odds with each other.

    The Golden Bough however sees the creativity exhibited in the upper galleries come into close quarters with the collection in the main gallery. The current show will feature the work of Corban Walker entitled Mapping The Hugh Lane which directly challenges the environs of the museum and the manner in which the viewer moves through the well-known space. This exhibition will be followed by the work of Katie Holten. The artists chosen by Dempsey for The Golden Bough series are normally mid-career and Irish, or predominantly Irish-based.

    The layout of the classic Georgian building and the connotations of museum as institution create a template for art tradition that cannot be overlooked — a template, which in reality any contemporary artist is going to have to deal with. Dempsey admits that with cutting-edge art comes much learning on both sides. The crew at the. For Dempsey this coming together of the old and new has always been somewhat effortless at the Hugh Lane, as the paintings, be they impressionistic or contemporary, always had the common medium as.

    JO: By way of introduction, could you outline a brief history of the Ulster Museum? In , a modernist extension, designed by Francis Pym, was added to the s neo-classical building. The original principles of universal access and education remain to the fore today. The museum plays an important role in offering insight to Irish history right back to first peoples and beyond. It offers a broader perspective than pupils will get in most schools and it explores a range of disciplines.

    It has a particularly northern Irish narrative but also looks at world cultures, wider European history, British, European and American art. We want people to discover a sense of wonder when they visit. The piazza at the entrance offers views over magnificent specimen trees from around the world and a greater sense of the scale and magnificence of the building.

    Inside the galleries are looped around a metre high atrium area, which gives a great sense of space and light. From here, visitors can access all levels of the museum and explore the history, science and art galleries. There are three interactive learning zones, a new gallery for applied art and much better visitor facilities such as our new restaurant and shop.

    JO: How did the refurbishment come about? TC: The project has been in planning since early and has involved many partners. Since the initial planning, the project has evolved and changed as we secured more funding. We were delighted, for example, to secure additional, private funding which allowed us to add an Applied Art Gallery to the design. The design team has been led by Hamilton Architects from Belfast while Patton Construction from County Antrim carried out the construction work.

    Specialists including gallery designers Haley Sharpe Design and gallery fit-out contractors Becks have brought great imagination and expertise to the gallery designs and exhibitions. JO: What were the main points of the re-design brief? It was a dark building, often with low ceilings which we felt had much more potential. It was a big decision to close the museum for 3 years but we felt it was necessary.

    JO: What are the features of the new galleries? TC: The redevelopment project at the Ulster Museum has allowed new direct access points to the art galleries from the main entrance area of the building.