Manual Subject Nightingale, Volume 1: Birth and Death

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Somerset, music by W. West, dedicated to Miss Burdett Coutts. Originally sung and arranged by Miss Pearce.

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Includes autograph note reading "About Oct. See Cook's life vol. Commissioned by the U. Sanitary Commission and the U. Christian Commission. Entered according to Act of Congress, by W. Williams and Company. Engraving drawn by R. Hind, engraved by W. Hulland for the London Printing and Publishing Company.

Photograph of the sculpture by Charles J. Includes one reproduction in photographic format as well as 2 typescript notes pasted onto the back of the image regarding the provenance of the photograph. Includes two reproductions; one reproduction in photograph format, and one reproduction in slide format. Photograph shows a collection of prints and books about Florence Nightingale. Many of the images appear in this collection. Reproduction of the original image by Barlser.

Includes one photographic reproduction in folder 3. Depicts the Nightingale Chair with a small statue and various portraits of Florence Nightingale. Anonymous seated man reading a book in a study or library. Signed by Reginald Hamish, possibly. Statue located at the Florence Nightingale Home at St. Thomas' Hospital, London. Engraving drawn by H. Bonham Carter and engraved by C.

Contains undated manuscripts regarding accounts from the Crimean War, a postcard of Florence Nightingale's birth and death place, and the original folio binder in which the Nightingale Photographs and Prints were housed. Undated, double-sided typescript containing a description of the hospital and cemetery at Scutari.

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Includes a two-page facsimile of the manuscript. Undated, double-sided typescript describing the hospital at Scutari. Florence Nightingale was born in to a wealthy family living at the time in Florence, Italy. She was instrumental in the establishment of training for nurses, improvements in standards of hygiene, and compassionate care of patients in military and civilian hospitals and the workhouses of Britain. Her activities and service during the Crimean War, , elevated her to iconic status; the popular press began reporting extensively on her travels and her crusade for healthcare and sanitary reforms.

She founded the Nightingale School of Nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital in London in , the first of its kind. She also traveled to Greece and Egypt. She wrote extensively on nursing, healthcare and sanitation, and healthcare statistics. Her life was memorialized through named institutions, biographies, photographic and print images, music, dramas, poetry, sculptures, and plaques. She died in London in Summary Howard Atwood Kelly was a surgeon, gynecologist, professor, author, collector of medical memorabilia, and founder of the Kensington Hospital in Philadelphia; he served as the first professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine.

Access to the Collection Collection is open for research. Photographs and Prints Series, circa Portrait of Florence Nightingale, half-length, at about 20 years old; photographic reproduction of the painting by Augustus Leopold Egg, R. Box 1 Folder 1.

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Includes one slide reproduction of the image made in Portrait of Florence Nightingale, half-length, reading a book, circa Drawing of Florence Nightingale in her later years. Copied from memory by Augustin Rischy from another drawing. Portrait of Florence Nightingale, half-length, seated to the left, reading a book she holds in her left hand, approximately Perine and Company, N.

For every two women who would die if delivered at home, fifteen must die if delivered in lying-in hospitals. Perhaps you would comment a bit more on about the way that you used statistical data? FN: You can see the power of careful, accurate, statistical information from the way that I used them in my pleas to Government to improve the conditions of ordinary soldiers and of ordinary people. I collected my figures with a purpose in mind, with the idea that they could be used to argue for change. Of what use are statistics if we do not know what to make of them?

What we wanted at that time was not so much an accumulation of facts, as to teach the men who are to govern the country the use of statistical facts. FN: For me, as I wrote to the Belgian statistician Quetelet, "this passionate study is not at all based upon love of science, which I can hardly claim. I have seen so much of the sufferings and the miseries of humanity, of.

FN: Yes indeed. I cannot say how the death of Quetelet, this old friend of mine, touched me. Source From corresponding with Quetelet and reading his book I gained real insight into the difference between good and bad statistical arguments. The first two words of the title of his book translate, in English, as Social Physics. One needs to get together data that is as complete as possible, so that one can see the outcome for the tens of thousands of people who may go through in a year.

It is then that you see the regularities that Quetelet talked about. I: And what about presentation of statistical information? How did you go about presenting it in a way that could press your case? FN: I used diagrams and tables to present my evidence. I believe you have examples of my diagrams at hand. I: Yes, your graphical presentations were great innovations at the time - you are to be congratulated, Miss Nightingale, for coming up with such elegant yet powerful graphs. FN: Many people will try to tell you that statistics are impenetrable and cloud the issue rather than enlightening it.

I beg to differ - and use my diagrams as an example. I want everyone to understand - no hiding behind the supposed incomprehensibility of statistics. The figures must be as clear as a picture - they must tell a story as clearly as does a picture of the Crucifixion. Source At a superficial level, I was agitating for reform in Army administration. But on a deeper level, I truly felt I was acting as an agent of God, revealing his character in a particular sphere. The true foundation of theology is to ascertain the character of God. It is by the aid of such diagrams in particular, and Statistics in general that law in the social sphere can be ascertained and codified, and certain aspects of the character of God thereby revealed.

The study of statistics is thus a religious service. FN: Ah, evidence! Evidence is the most important tool we have for decision-making. Evidence, which we have means to strengthen for or against a proposition, is our proper means for attaining truth. Did you ever strike any difficulties with getting a grip on the evidence? I did not always have the right statistics at hand to use in comparisons. In a report as Registrar-General, Farr gave deaths per hundred beds per annum for the principal hospitals of England.

This caused a huge controversy. I well understood that such statistical comparisons need to allow for the different severities of the cases treated at the different hospitals, but did not consider this a plausible explanation of rate differences of a factor of more than two. FN: The proportion of recoveries, the proportion of deaths, and the average time in hospital, must all be taken into account in discussions of this nature, as well as the character of the cases and the proportion of different ages among the sick.

For me, this experience emphasised the great importance of correct hospital statistics as an essential element in hospital administration. I: You know, statistical thinking may be having more of an impact on medical practice and public health nowadays though the concept of evidence-based approaches, but debate continues as to how to go about it. Your ideas have had a large impact on public health planning. Thank you, Miss Nightingale. Evidence-based approaches are surely the way of the future! Dialogue as an educational tool has a history almost as old as education itself.

The Greek philosopher and teacher Socrates - BC questioned his students. An example of the exchanges appears in Cole Our dialogue has already been used as set reading by Biostatistics students, including pre-medicine students, in a biology major at Loyola College in Maryland Elizabeth Walters, personal communication. It can help de-mystify the notions of evidence-based nursing and show its historical continuity with concerns that were important to the founder of modern nursing, FN. We have found anecdotally that students welcome contact with the history of the subject they are studying.

Future work could focus on obtaining empirical evidence for the usefulness of the interview as an educational device. Similar dialogues could be constructed, where relevant documentation has survived, between other statisticians to highlight other important moments in statistical history, or to demonstrate the opinions of statisticians of the past on important topics.

The material in Notes on Lying-In Institutions warrants a dialogue all of its own. FN confined herself to her bed for much of her life, and became deaf in her old age. Her prime means of communication was the written word, which helps explain the extent of her writing. Alice Richardson was able to make valuable inquiries at sites relevant to Florence Nightingale whilst on study leave from the University of Canberra in Southampton, England from January to May The authors thank the editor and three anonymous referees, whose comments helped improve the presentation of the paper.

Baly, M. Bibby, J. Chassin, M. David, F. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Decker, B. Diamond, M. I: The passionate statistician. II: The marginalia. Irwig, J. Kopf, E. McDonald, C. McNeill, J.


Nightingale, F. Quetelet, A. Sackett, D. Small, H. See also www. Thomas' Hospital, 18th March Smith, A. Solomon, R. Speigelhalter, D. Tufte, E. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Birth and Death , please sign up. Lists with This Book.

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