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Political thought cannot be studies without politics sometime it may possible but we cannot study political thought without history. We must follow history to understanding political thought, so it is in historical context.

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Apolitical philosopher's political philosophy emerges in the age of Political thought is related to politics, but it is history that provides political thought its very basis. Apolitical philosopher's political philosophy emerges in the age of The Socratic doctrine of recollection is an attempt to explain how dialectic the Socratic method of doing philosophy is possible - to explain how the question "what is virtue? In the dialogue, Meno's inability to answer Socrates" question, "what is virtue? Meno attempted to g The Socratic doctrine of recollection is an attempt to explain how dialectic the Socratic method of doing philosophy is possible - to explain how the question "what is virtue?

Meno attempted to g The word knowledge or someone who is knowledgeable can mean a variety of things depending on what context they are used. Generally knowledge is considered as a strong tool to have. There is a famous saying that goes something like knowledge is power. When Sophocles wrote Oedipus, Greece was going through a period of great discovery and enlightenment. Incredibly large steps forward were being ma The word knowledge or someone who is knowledgeable can mean a variety of things depending on what context they are used. The mother had stated that there are only two types of daughters.

Jing Mei realized that her mother only meant that she could be an obedient child by listening to her mother while at the same time follow her own heart and want her own prodigy in life. The last paragraph in this story also indicates the theme of two halves being equal to one. Her mother only wanted her to use the capability she knew she had. She had come to America in after losing everything in china. The main character of the story is Jing Mei Amy Tan who is also the protagonist in the story. Her mother is the antagonist, who is always urging Jing Mei to try new things and discover new talents.

Jing Mei feels as if her mother wants her to be something she is not. It appears that Amy Tan created a story based on a relationship between mother daughter I consider Definite Optimism as Human Capital to be my most creative piece. So I thought to write a followup to lay out its premises more directly and to offer a restatement of its ideas. I submit that we have two big biases when we talk about technology. First, we think about it too much in terms of tools and recipes, when really we should think about it more in terms of process knowledge and technical experience.

Second, most of us focus too much on the digital world and not enough on the industrial world. Our obsession with the digital world has pushed our expectation of the technological future in the direction of cyberpunk dystopia; I hope instead that we can look forward to a joyful vision of the technological future, driven by advances in industry. All three companies invest north of billion a year to push forward that technological frontier. The tools and IP held by these firms are easy to observe.

I think that the process knowledge they possess is even more important. The process knowledge can also be referred to as technical and industrial expertise; in the case of semiconductors, that includes knowledge of how to store wafers, how to enter a clean room, how much electric current should be used at different stages of the fab process, and countless other things. Anyone with detailed instructions but no experience actually fabricating chips is likely to make a mess.

I think that technology ultimately progresses because of people and the deepening of the process knowledge they possess. The accumulated process knowledge plus capital allows the semiconductor companies to continue to produce ever-more sophisticated chips. This cluster of talent allows the US to maintain its lead on a critically-important technology.

But sustained innovation in semiconductors is an exception in US manufacturing. The country used to nurture vibrant communities of engineering practice a term I like from Brad De Long , which is another way to talk about the accumulated process knowledge in many segments of industry. But not all communities of engineering practice have been in good shape. The real output of the US manufacturing sector is at a lower level than before the recession; that means that there has not been real growth in US manufacturing for an entire decade.

In fact, this measure may be too rosy—the ITIF has put forward an argument that manufacturing output measures are skewed by excessive quality adjustments in computer speeds. Take away computers, which fewer and fewer people are buying these days, and US real output in manufacturing would be meaningfully lower.

Manufacturing employment peaked in at nearly 20 million workers; it fell to 17 million in , 14 million in , and stands at 12 million today. When firms and factories go away, the accumulated process knowledge disappears too. Industrial experience, scaling expertise, and all the things that come with learning-by-doing would decay. I visited Germany earlier this year to talk to people in industry. One point Germans kept bringing up was that the US has de-industrialized itself and scattered its production networks.

While Germany responded to globalization by moving up the value chain, the US manufacturing base mostly responded by abandoning production. Brad Setser has shown that the US stands out amongst rich countries for its low level of manufactured goods exports. Instead, the US runs both a trade deficit and a current account deficit.

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In order for other countries to import more from the US, first it should have better goods to sell. Successful industries tend to cluster into tight-knit production networks. The easiest way to appreciate the marvel of clusters is to look at Silicon Valley, where capital, academia, a large pool of eager labor, and companies both large and small sit next to each other.

There are many other examples of industrial clusters. Silicon Valley is so-named because it was the center of semiconductor production and it has enough toxic Superfund sites nearby to prove that heritage. Proximity makes it easier to generate process knowledge. But what happens when we tear apart these production networks by separating design and manufacturing? But I believe that in most cases, dislocation makes it more difficult to maintain process knowledge. Both the design process and production process generate useful information, and dislocation makes it difficult for that information to circulate.

I think we tend to discount how much knowledge we can gain in the course of production, as well as how it should feed back into the design process. What happens when we stop the flow of knowledge up the stack? I think that the weakness of the US industrial robotics sector is instructive. The US has little position in making high-end precision manufacturing equipment. When it comes to factory automation systems, machine tools, robot arms, and other types of production machinery, the most advanced suppliers are in Japan, Germany, and Switzerland.

I think the reason that the US has little position can be tied directly to the departure of firms from so many segments of manufacturing. It might be fine to think that robots will be doing all the manufacturing work in the future; but someone has to build these robots, and own the IP of advanced robotmaking, and for the most part, that someone is not the US. The decline of industrial work makes it harder to accumulate process knowledge.

If a state has lost most of its jobs for electrical engineers, civil engineers, or nuclear engineers, then fewer young people will enter into these fields. Technological development slows down, and it turns into a self-reinforcing cycle of decline. Every 20 years, caretakers completely tear down the shrine and build it anew.

The wooden shrine has been rebuilt again and again for 1, years. Every so often we discover ancient tools of which we have no idea how to use. These shrine caretakers have decided that preservation of production knowledge is important, and I find that admirable. Building a vast industrial base and practicing learning-by-doing used to be the American way. So that the 20th century became an American century, rather than a second British century, in large part because of the bets Hamilton had induced the United States to make on not simply following comparative advantage.

One of the issues with services jobs in the US is that most of the gains are captured by very few workers. Two services sectors are enormously productive: tech and finance. Another issue with a lot of service work is that much of it is zero-sum, a point made very well by Adair Turner. And often the zero-sumness is asymmetric: a dozen hackers make a theft, and companies everywhere subsequently need to spend collective billions on staff or contractors to protect themselves; a few criminal plague a state, and the government subsequently needs to hire hundreds of officers to make people feel safe; a few people commit accounting fraud, and the ensuing uproar forces companies and banks to ramp up the size of their compliance departments by tens of thousands in the aggregate.

He tells us that one of the reasons that the US has such a high surplus in the services trade is that Americans have a low propensity to travel abroad. Thanks to Noah for making the recommendation. Are we sure that the developed world is not undergoing its own premature deindustrialization? For starters: energy too cheap to meter; colonies on Mars and beyond; re-forestization of our deserts; nanotechnology that lets us print basic materials; medical devices and pharmaceuticals that prevent, treat, or cure most ailments; a deeper understanding of materials; and so many other things.

To make these all happen, we need to have the development of a lot more tools and machinery.

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The question then was whether the Americans or the Russians would take over the solar system. Why have we not made it a priority to look for extraterrestrial life that might exist on our planetary doorstep, within our very own solar system? Cars are becoming self-driving, and they may even fly soon; the private space efforts look very cool indeed; Boom might be bringing back supersonic jets.

I think of Germany as the country that has done the best job of nurturing its communities of engineering practice. For decades, or maybe centuries, Germany has engaged in industrial deepening. I was there earlier this year to study its excellence in industry. Today, German companies remain leaders in many segments of industrial technologies.

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The former is good at industry, the latter is good at information technology. But I find it odd that each is poor at what the other is good at. Both the US and Germany have experienced disappointing growth over the last few decades; I can identify incriminating data points for each country. It seems like people have mostly given up on the idea of generating wealth by doing new things..

As that share falls, I wonder how that affects the mindset of legislators, who anticipate diminishing responsibility for allocating funds. In absolute terms, the budget they control is still enormous. But I suspect that it takes away the initiative of US politicians: they can simply let the government go on autopilot, since their predecessors have already committed most available funds. If legislators no longer have room to identify new initiatives for spending, what is there to do except find new things to ban, and then argue with the other side?

The US and Germany are innovative in different ways, and they each have big flaws. I believe that we can have a country in which wealth is primarily created by new economic activity, instead of by inheritance; which builds new housing stock, instead of permitting current residents to veto construction; which has a government willing to think hard about new projects that it should initiate, instead of letting the budget run on autopilot. Acceptance of low economic growth is the hidden premise in most commentary that I read.

I consider it to be the deepest bias in American and European intellectual society today: it pervades nearly every piece of discourse, from blog posts and bestselling books to movies and pop songs. And I find no theme more radical and refreshing than generalized frustration that economic growth is way too low. That expectation increases risk appetites for both companies and individuals: people have seen their lives getting better in a hundred different ways in the last four decades, and they can be optimistic that more things will improve.

All of this is on top of the fact that higher growth improves our capabilities to deal with various problems. I think that these principles are clear to companies in Silicon Valley, where executives make decisions based on their expected position in six months rather than their current position. I suspect that a history of growth also has positive effects on government policies. It encourages the government to engage in long-term planning, because legislators have seen things get better and expect greater room for maneuver. The countries with low growth will continue to stagnate, because economic rigidity is self-reinforcing; the countries with high growth will continue to grow, because dynamism is self-reinforcing.

The latter will have optimistic people, while the former have settled into Dystopian science fiction is the natural outcome of stagnant growth; no wonder so much of the science fiction published in the last few decades has been so bleak. What else should we expect when digital technology accelerates but nothing else does? My message to US, Japanese, and European voters is to please cast off this appalling indifference to low economic growth.

It seems like you can get the electorate fired up on any political issue except for serious discussions on how to reach a sustained acceleration of GDP. I concede the circularity to the argument, because optimism is probably endogenous to growth.

That was a time of fantastic advances in chemicals, rubber, electrical machinery, scientific instruments, and many other things. How refreshing to consider that people thought that technology was accelerating on many fronts, not just a handful. It was an enormous production that encouraged people to imagine the promise of industrial technologies and to think about how the future will be better than the past.

It required the labor of some three thousand carpenters, electricians, draftsmen, and model-makers, and the manufacture of five-hundred thousand miniature buildings varying in scale, and fifty thousand futuristic silver automobiles—ten thousand of them designed to move. Plastics are extraordinary, but the graduates of our top schools are much more enthusiastic about joining an investment bank than to improve our mastery over materials.

Would anyone else like to subscribe to a magazine on industrial goings-on? The good parts of Twitter are very good indeed, and every day I marvel at how many great links are dropped into my feed by people I follow. I understand that this is not an option for everyone, but for some young people at least, maybe this is a good time to spend time abroad. Get out when unproductive debate is the ambient national mood, and move to a more sane environment where you can really learn something instead.

His novels stress the importance of the material world; and he believes in the capacity of science fiction to inspire optimism. I find that Matt Levine is another writer who has a clear sense of the limits of digital technologies. They each played some role in helping to build out the digital world. After they put in that work, they mostly switched their attention to improving the material world..

What did the co-founder of Microsoft decide to focus his energy on after he left the company?

He thought that there were enough people working on the digital world, and that he and his capital should mostly try to improve the material world instead. He laid out his case in a Bloomberg Businessweek essay. In other words, he lamented the loss of process knowledge. Losing the ability to scale will ultimately damage our capacity to innovate. In fact, I would argue that some of the responsibility for the loss of process knowledge can be attributed to the US financial sector, consisting of both investors and financial analysts, with its emphasis on return on capital.

This is also something that Andy Grove brought up. In my opinion, the US financial sector has underappreciated how important it is to have a deep pool of technically-experienced workers. As a result, investors and financial analysts have systematically rewarded the firms that are most eager to reduce headcount, which they see as a cost. I believe that tools and IP are the natural consequence of developing process knowledge. I also acknowledge that there are many challenges to my argument. Yes, the number of German manufacturing employees has also been falling see the statistics, and the chart in this Brad De Long piece.

I would cite a few things to say that it has preserved them. First, while real output of manufacturing in the US is still at a lower level than in , German real manufacturing output has significantly surpassed its pre-recession levels and has returned to its long-run growth trend. One of the best essays I read recently is by Willy Shih, who argues for the affirmative. I recommend reading the whole thing, that essay is one of the prompts for this piece.

Relatedly, income between countries has continued to diverge even though any sufficiently-capitalized firm can buy the same advanced machinery. These facts suggest that some countries are using tools more effectively than others, probably because they have more process knowledge.

The thrust of my piece is to ask more people to consider how process knowledge grows and to suggest that we should be pushing forward the technological frontier on many more fronts. I want to tie this piece off by returning to semiconductors. I believe that technological progress is not inevitable, and that we have agency on how hard to push it forward.

A doubling of transistor density every 24 months is not some foreordained natural law, gifted to us through heavenly benevolence. When we subsequently want to revive the industry, it may not be as simple as plugging in the machines, blowing the dust off of the blueprints, and then happily expect production to resume at prior levels. The hard-won process knowledge held by these engineers will have decayed, and the workers will have to relearn a bunch of things. I think this decay in process knowledge has happened to a lot of industries. Healthy ecosystems are hard to maintain, but if you build them up and continue to inject vitality into them, they deliver sustained breakthroughs.

But I think that the marvels of the digital world have made it harder to see how slowly everything else has moved. Many segments of technology have made cautious progress, and we neglect to see that because our phones engross us so. Our apps keep getting better while our physical world is mostly stagnant; I think that the wonders of consumer internet have deluded us on how contingent our technological foundations have been. Industrial deepening leads to science fiction that is optimistic, while digital proliferation pushes it towards dystopia.

But people subsequently began to lower their expectations. The contrasting receptions of these two similarly titled exhibits are consistent with what the aggregate and sectoral data are trying to tell us. Instead, the question of how to do so should preoccupy many more of us. We spend a lot of time talking about all of the essential components of a good ACT style essay.

In this episode we're going to take a look at some sample essays that were written by actual students in response to an ACT style prompt. Furthermore they were graded by actual teachers and evaluated on the ACT Rubric, so just a reminder the Rubric is going to consider seven indicators for the ACT in their understanding of task, position, complexity, development, organization, sentences and word choice and grammar. So let's take a look at those essays and see how they measure up on the scale. Let's take a look at example essay number one, go to the bonus materials and download it.

It scored an 11 which means one teacher gave it a five and one teacher gave it the maximum possible points, which was a six. I'm going to read through the first paragraph with you but, it would be essential for you to have it printed out in front of you. Alright so it starts, ' The perennial problem facing schools in the country today is dropout rates. This stubborn blight has refused to go away despite of a variety of methods enacted by schools to get rid of it.

In a certain school, two of these methods have been proposed-either offering free tutoring or offering a wider variety of classes. Although the idea of free tutoring sounds attractive, the solution lies in offering a wider variety of classes, which ultimately encourages students to stay in school. Let's take a look at how it measures up to some of the key indicators that we've discussed earlier. We're going to lump some of those indicators together just for easy sake because they really go hand in hand.

So let's talk about how it did with 'task and position. Very clearly the essay states, ' The solution lies in offering a wider variety of classes, which ultimately encourages students to stay in school. The reason behind this is that 'it ultimately encourages students to stay in school. So we're going to take a look at three spots in this essay where this writer really does a great job. The first place the writer tops is, 'the biggest reason behind students dropping out of school is not inability but apathy..

This method relies on the erroneous belief that bad grades lead to dropping out. So it suggests an interesting premise which really is great complexity there. Another great thing that this essay does is ' Although the idea of free tutoring sounds attractive, offering a wider variety of classes to attract students of every stripe is thus the preferred method. So it introduces this idea 'although the idea of free tutoring sounds attractive,' but then it goes ahead and dismisses it like we said in the counter argument episode is the way to create that strong counter argument.

Finally the essay says ' The encouragement derived from an interesting class often spills into other classes as well.. Now I believe this example could be a little bit more specific by talking about a specific student or perhaps specific classes and maybe that's why one of the scorers gave it a five instead of a six. But it's a good backup, it's good support to show that offering a wider variety of classes will actually encourage students to stay in school, so very strong complexity, very strong development.

Organization wise essay number one is solid, it's logical, it introduces the counter argument and it really expands on the arguments that it's making. The one really nice thing about this is that essay number one is a great example of using natural transitions. And we talked about this in an earlier episode, but here is just a really solid example. If you look at the end of body paragraph number one it ends with the sentence, ' Furthermore, their grades improve in other classes as a result, brightening their paths to graduation.

So that's a really strong natural transition that really strengthens the organization of the essay. Finally sentence structure and grammar, we're going to look at those together since they really have to do with the mechanics of the essay. The really solid thing that this essay does is offer lots of sentence variety. If you remember back to the bonus materials, there's a sentence variety chart that I gave you that I said you could use to kind of chart your sentence variety, what I've done in the bonus materials for this essay is chart the sentence variety of one of the body paragraphs.

And you can see by looking at the different types and the different lengths of sentences that this really has a great flow, there's a lot of variety there. Additionally this essay uses an advance vocabulary but it's not only advanced, it's used appropriately. So here the example is, ' Free tutoring doesn't aim at the heart of the problems facing schools; a wider variety of classes does by livening interest in school up until graduation. These are all the reasons why this essay earned an 11 which is where you want to be, ideally scoring ten to 12 on the ACT writing.

Now let's take a look at sample essay number two. Go ahead and go to the bonus materials and print it out. Again I'm going to start with reading the first paragraph but it really will be important for you to have a hard copy on front of you to follow along. Alright, this one starts with ' A major problem that many high schools face is students failing to graduate, or dropping out before they have the chance. High schools across the nation have attempted countless different programs and techniques to try to combat student's failure, some proving more successful than others.

In my opinion, offering a wider variety of class options would do a better job of promoting success than merely offering free tutoring because 'interest' promotes a desire to learn and stay in school, something that not merely getting help can do. So it's still in the top half but a far cry from the 11 that the first essay scored.

Here we've got again a very strong position and understanding of the task. This writer says 'offering a wider variety of class options would do a better job of promoting student success and merely offering free tutoring because the interest promotes the desire to learn and stay in school.

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But you can already infer even if you haven't read the essay from this that this writer must not do a good job of incorporating and powering up on that counter argument otherwise they would have scored much higher on the essay. So solid 'task and position' let's see where it falls a little bit short. The position statement told me that this essay was going to be arguing for a wider variety of classes. So this may be an attempted counter argument, but where it falls short is it doesn't completely dismiss the counter claim, it leaves the reader wondering but what is this person proving.

So that's the first place that falls short in complexity and development. The essay also says, ' Offering many courses ensures that students will still learn, yet have some fun and become less stressed. Finally in organization this essay is organized simply but effectively it's kind of predictable but that's why it scores a seven and not very up high on the scale which is at the This essay says ' In addition to more classes, having parents and teachers who care about students' success, offering extra-curricular programs to increase an active connection with the school, having assemblies and events to promote school spirit and many other factors are all important in promoting success.

However if you know where this paragraph comes from is the conclusion and that's one of the big no, no's for that basic organization. The German higher education system Learn more about the German higher education system, the different types of universities and the degrees they offer. Additional Videos You'll find more videos, playlists, webinars and tutorials on our YouTube channel! Five Steps to Studying in Germany. Find student hall. Course of Study. All events. German University towns. Traditional university town in the Black Forest Furtwangen.

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