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Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type. Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line. All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references. All em dashes are encoded as — Indentation in lines has not been preserved.

Running titles have not been preserved. It may even be a presumption that shall be met by the production itself being driven from the market by the keen, searching criticism of not only the reviewers, but less noted objectors. Whether this work shall ever accomplish the design of the author may not at all be determined by its sale.

While I hope to secure some pecuniary gain that I may accompany it with a companion illustrating what our women have done, yet by no means do I send it forth with the sordid idea of gain. The angel was writing at the table, in his vision. The names of those who love the Lord. That is what I ask to be recorded of me. The angel wrote and vanished. The next night It came again, with a great awakening light. And showed the names whom love of God had blessed. And lo! I desire that the book shall be a help to students, male and female, in the way of information concerning our great names. I have noticed in my long experience as a teacher, that many of my students were wofully ignorant of the work of our great colored men—even ignorant of their names.

If they knew their names, it was some indefinable something they had done—just what, they could not tell. If in a slight degree I shall here furnish the data for that class of rising men and women, I shall feel much pleased. Herein will be found many who had severe trials in making their way through schools of different grades. If the persons herein mentioned could rise to the exalted stations which they have and do now hold, what is there to prevent any young man or woman from achieving greatness?

Many, yea, nearly all these came from the loins of slave fathers, and were the babes of women in bondage, and themselves felt the leaden hand of slavery on their own bodies; but whether slaves or not, they suffered with their brethren because of color. Page 7 manhood of the race. I wish the book to show to the world—to our oppressors and even our friends—that the Negro race is still alive, and must possess more intellectual vigor than any other section of the human family, or else how could they be crushed as slaves in all these years since , and yet to-day stand side by side with the best blood in America, in white institutions, grappling with abstruse problems in Euclid and difficult classics, and master them?

Was ever such a thing seen in another people? Whence these lawyers, doctors, authors, editors, divines, lecturers, linguists, scientists, college presidents and such, in one quarter of a century? Another thing I would have them notice, that the spirituality of this race was not diminished in slavery. While in bondage, it may have been somewhat objectionable, as seen in the practices of our race, it must be remembered that they copied much from their owners—they never descended to the level of brutes, and were kind, loving and faithful.

They patiently waited till God broke their chains. There was more statesmanship in the Negro slaves than in their masters. To my mind, one of the most sublime points in our history is right here. We never harmed one of these helpless women and children—they testified of that themselves. And yet. Page 8 they tell stale lies of ravishing now, when the war is over, and freedom gained, and when the men are all home. No, God has permitted us to triumph and through Him. He implanted in us a vigorous spiritual tree, and since freedom, how has this been growing?

Untrammelled, we have, out of our ignorance and penury, built thousands of churches, started thousands of schools, educated millions of children, supported thousands of ministers of the Gospel, organized societies for the care of the sick and the burying of the dead. This spirituality and love of offspring are indubitable evidences that slavery, though long and protracted, met in our race a vigorous, vital, God-like spirituality, which like the palm tree flourishes and climbs upward through opposition.

Again, I admire these men. I have faith in my people. I wish to exalt them; I want their lives snatched from obscurity to become household matter for conversation. I have made copious extracts from their speeches, sermons, addresses, correspondence and other writings, for the purpose of showing their skill in handling the English language, and to show the range of the thoughts of the American Negro.

I wish also to furnish specimens of Negro eloquence, that young men might find them handy for declamations and apt quotations. It was hard to draw the line in making many selections, and I do not claim that a better selection might not be made. Indeed I am aware that many are entitled to a place here, and the reader may think I did wrong in selecting some of my subjects; but I ask no pardon for the names I present.

They may be the judgment of a faulty brain, and yet there is. Page 9 much to admire in all. The book may therefore be a suggestion for some one to do better. The illustrations are many, and have been presented so that the reader may see the characters fact to face. This writing has been a labor of love, a real pleasure.

I feel better for the good words I have said of these gentlemen. There is no great literary attempt made. I have not tried to play the part of a scholar, but a narrator of facts with here and there a line of eulogy. The book is full; and has already passed the limit of first intentions. I am in debt to many gentlemen for their kindness—especially to Rev. Alexander Crummell, D. James M. De Baptiste for assistance in securing sketches; Rev.

Arnett, D. John H. Smythe for assistance in sketches and pictures of E. Blyden and President W. Johnson; General T. Scarborough for many kind helps; Rev. Greene, for cut of Augustus Tolton and facts in his life; William C. Chase, John W. Cromwell, T. McCants Stewart, Hon.

Straker, Marshall W. Taylor, D. Pinchback, Hon. Wagoner, Rev. Rufus L. Perry and many others, and pre-eminently do I feel grateful to Bishop H. Turner, my distinguished friend, who trusts his own good name by associating it with this poor effort. May God. Page 10 bless him for this kind act to a beginner in book-making.

This book goes out on the wing of a prayer that it will do great good. HOOD, D. Bishop of the A. Silk Culturist—Lawyer—Editor. President of Allen University, Columbia, S. A Minister of the Gospel, Eminent for his Piety. Superintendent of Schools—Editor—Brilliant Pastor. Composer—Violinist and Cornetist—Band Instructor.

Christian Letter-Writer—Lecturer and Author. Financier and Pulpit Orator. Corresponding Secretary and Beloved Disciple. Professor of Rhetoric and Sciences—Hebraist—Musician. Preacher, Editor and Soliciting Agent. Educator—Editor and Agitator. JOHN O. JOHN S. Attorney at Law—Legislator—U. Deputy Collector. Solo Violinist—Orchestra Conductor. President of Selma University, Selma, Alabama. First Bishop of the A. First American Missionary to Africa. Rector of St. Presiding Elder of the M. Church—His Hair-breadth Escapes. Baptist Preacher. Financier and Church Builder—Christian Pioneer.

Lumber Merchant and Capitalist—Orator—. Pastor of a Flourishing Church in Richmond, Virginia. General—Phonographer and Typewriter—Lawyer. A Distinguished Theologian. Compositor—Deputy Sheriff—Clerk of the Legislature. Professor of Classics in Clark University. Veteran Pastor of Concord Baptist Church. Brooklyn, New York. State Grand Chief of I. Preacher—Councilman—Deputy Marshal. Photographer and Prominent Citizen of Richmond, Virginia. Bishop of A. JOHN W. JOHN H. Financial Secretary of the A. LEE, D. Editor of the Southwestern Advocate—Brilliant Writer.

The Negro Soldier, Statesman and Martyr. United States Senator—A. Preacher—President of the Alcorn University—Planter. Lawyer and Recorder of Deeds, Washington, D. Editor A.

City of Canterbury

Lawyer—Author—Editor—Champion of the Race. JOHN J. Clerk of the Circuit Court of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Church—The Theologian of the Denomination. JOHN R. Attorney at Law—Professor and Author. Senior Bishop of the A. Editor of the Georgia Baptist. Eminent Mason—Lawyer—Editor. JOHN C. JOHN M. An Active Bishop in the A. Page 36 26 N. Scarborough 30 John O. Crosby 31 Francis L. Cardoza 32 John S. Leary 33 E. Porter 34 Augustus Tolton 35 Charles L.

Purce 36 W. Pettiford 37 Inman E. Page 38 J. Arneaux [R. Allen] 39 Samuel A. McElwee 40 John M. Langston 41 Alexander Crummell 42 J. Settle 43 George W. Williams 44 R. Vandervall 45 Daniel Jones 46 H. Jeter 47 J. White 48 G. Gayles 49 M. Gibbs 50 W. Steward 51 Robert Harlan 52 Rufus L. Perry 53 James M. Gregory 54 Daniel A.

Gaddie 55 W. Grimes 58 H. Wagoner 59 Charles B. Purvis 60 B. Bruce 61 Jesse F. Boulden 62 W. Dixon Page 37 63 Matthew Campbell 64 C. Augustus Straker 68 J. Price 69 P. Pinchback 70 T. Fortune 71 Blind Tom 72 J. Farley 73 J. Corbin 74 James M. Trotter 75 Allen Allensworth 76 George W. Dupee 77 Richard H. Cain 78 John H. Smythe 79 B. Arnett 80 Gustavus Vassa [image is not available] 81 John W. Cromwell 82 E. Brawley 83 E. Blyden 84 J. Bouey 87 James Lewis 88 J. Matthews 89 B. Tanner 90 John J. Irvine 91 Martin R. DeLaney 92 J. Fields 93 Robert Pelham, Jr 94 B.

Washington 95 J. Campbell 96 John R. Lynch 97 T. McCants Stewart 98 E. McCabe 99 Charles H. Parrish Page 38 P. Braxton John Jasper D. Payne I. Burgan Alexander Clark Charles L. Reason David Abner, Jr Page It is a historic fact that Virginia soil has been rife with Presidents, but truly South Carolina has given to the world more men of note than any other State in the Union. In Charleston, South Carolina, June 29, , Edward and Esther Simmons, two slaves, added to their fortune the subject of this sketch, who though born in poverty, shrouded by obscurity, was destined to make for himself a name honored among men.

At an early period in his life, interested parties hurried the mother with three small children northward, without the protection of a husband and father, to begin a long siege with poverty. When the steamer landed at Philadelphia they were met by an uncle, Alexander Tardiff, who left the south some time before. This uncle, a shoemaker by trade, displayed the virtues of a generous nature in caring for the mother, William, Emeline and Anna as well as he could, with prejudice to fight.

These were days of hardships and anxieties so keen for the little family that even now the survivors speak of them in hushed tones and with misty eyes. While in Philadelphia. Page 40 they were harassed by slave traders who seemed determined to burrow them out of their hiding place. At this time disease laid his hand upon them.

When the first descends, the others Follow, follow, gathering flock-wise Round their victim, sick and wounded, First a shadow, then a sorrow, Till the air is dark with anguish. Huddled together in the garret of the three-story brick house where they lived, stricken with the small-pox, almost destitute of food, and fearing to call in medical attendance lest by attracting attention they would be carried back into slavery; while death stared them in the face, fugitive slave hunters rapped at the door of the front room which the uncle used as a workshop. These beasts in human flesh, after many inquiries and cross-questionings were so misled by the shrewd uncle that they went away.

Shortly after, the uncle finding it impossible to earn a living at his trade, decided to go to sea. The family was left at Roxbury, Pennsylvania. Here for two years the faithful mother toiled morning, noon and night, at washing and other hard work to support the children and keep them together. At the expiration of this time the uncle returned and carried them to Chester, Pennsylvania, where he was able to do a good business; but the same old trouble arose.

The slave traders were on their track again! The family was smuggled away to Philadelphia and remained long enough for the uncle to secure employment,. Page 41 by answering an advertisement inserted in the papers by George and Arthur Stowell, Bordentown, New Jersey, for a journeyman shoemaker. At this place it was a daily contest with poverty and a struggle for bread; however, the children were kept together, and none were ever hired out. During the entire boyhood of William, so hard pressed were they because of sickness, dull seasons of work and other difficulties, that never a toy, so dear to childhood, brightened his life; and for days and weeks, milk and mush was his only food.

He never attended a public school in his whole school life. The uncle having attended school in Charleston under D. Payne, now Bishop Payne of the A. Church, was a fair scholar and undertook the education of the children, laying a foundation so broad and exact, that in after years college studies for the boy were comparatively easy. He gave considerable trouble at home and abroad. In he was apprenticed to Dr. Leo H. DeLange, a dentist in Bordentown, New Jersey. So far as giving him necessary instruction, the doctor was kind to him.

William had learned so thoroughly all there was to be learned in the profession, that when the doctor was absent he was able to do a large part of the work. Though often rebuffed by white patients, he operated on some of the best families in the city. He endeavored to enter a dental college in Philadelphia, and was refused largely on account of color.

Unwilling to enter the profession without a thorough knowledge, such as could be given only in a training school, he decided to. Page 42 abandon the profession, but remained with the doctor until September 16, , at which time, becoming disgusted at the treatment received at the hands of the doctor, he ran away and enlisted in the Forty-first United States colored troops.

His army life was not uneventful; he took part in battles around Petersburg, Hatches Run, Appomattox Court House, and was present at the surrender of Lee, the crisis out of which our own happier cycle of years has been evolved. He was discharged September 13, , and in and worked as journeyman at his trade for Dr. William H. Longfellow, a colored dentist of Philadelphia, after which he returned to Dr. He was converted in and joined the white Baptist church in Bordentown, pastored by Rev.

Custis, a brilliant man, under whose influence about one hundred and fifty had joined the church that spring. Although the only colored man in the church, he was treated with much kindness; and when his call to the Gospel ministry was made known, they rallied to his support, defraying his school expenses three years. Both students and teachers were his warm friends and are to-day.

The dark skinned youth, though alone, never felt the sting of injustice at their hands. September, , found him matriculated at Rochester University, having been led to make the change by an offer of additional aid by laboring in a small Baptist church in Rochester, and because there he found.

Herne Bay, Kent

Page 43 colored people among whom he could associate and do missionary work. At this early date we see cropping out the love for the race which in after years became one of the ruling passions of his life. One pleasant year slipped by, and the freshman year completed, when his eyes became seriously affected. The trouble was brought on by continuous night study of Greek during his academic year.

This prevented school attendance until the year when he entered Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, and graduated as an A. His graduating oration treating of the Darwinian theory, a subject then very popular in literary circles, attracted much attention and newspaper comments. Extracts were printed in a paper in England devoted to science and literature. At many periods, his school life was a sequel to the days of deprivation of childhood. Time and again he would be forced to stay indoors while having his only shirt laundried.

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Poor shoes and patched clothes were the rule, not the exception. During his entire course he did not have a whole suit until reaching the senior year.

Herne, Kent

Once he ate cheese and crackers three weeks. During the senior year, September, , to June, , he walked seven miles a day, and taught school; came home and drilled the cadet company from four to five; recited at night, and graduated with the salutatory of the class. That was a happy day; by frugality he had saved three hundred dollars. Commencement day for him ended many deprivations and sacrifices in one sense.

Both have come since, but of a different character and easier to bear. In the world one can. Page 44 find means of replenishing his purse, and many opportunities of changing his circumstances; but with a student it is different. He must in a degree be stationary, and cannot move around for the purpose of getting benefits.

During these years his mother lavished on him the devotion and pride of a loving heart. She washed, ironed and labored in other ways to help him. In this she was greatly assisted by one Bunting Hankins and his devoted wife of Bordentown, New Jersey, in whose family she labored. General O. Howard, president of Howard University, and General E. Whittlesey, dean of the college department, showed him many kindnesses during and after college days. This was the Hillsdale Public school, District of Columbia.

Here he boarded in the house of Hon. Solomon G. Brown, one of the ablest scientists in this country. Corbin, but soon returned to Washington and taught at Hillsdale until June, After marrying Josephine A. By this union they have had the following children: Josephine Lavinia,. Desiring to better his financial condition he went to Florida, September, , and invested in lands and oranges, but the investment did not prove a paying one. While in Ocala in he was ordained a deacon, and was licensed to preach without asking for it.

Pastored at a small station a year before ordination, after which time, he was ordained the night before leaving the State. He was principal of Howard Academy, deputy county clerk and county commissioner. Here, too, his political tendencies received an impetus. He was chairman of the county campaign committee, and a member of the district congressional committee. Stumped the county for Hayes and Wheeler, and when it is remembered that the State went only majority for Hayes, it is quite a material thing that the county in which he lived raised its quota from Republican majority to After this he returned to Washington and taught public school until , when he left to accept the pastorate of the First Baptist church, Lexington, Kentucky.

To do great work, God raises up great men. September, , he was called to the presidency of the Normal and Theological institution as it was then called , a school conducted under the auspices of the General Association of Colored Baptists of Kentucky. At that time the school had but thirteen pupils, two teachers and an empty treasury.

Eugene Evans:. Few men of Professor Simmons ability and standing would have been willing to risk their future in an enterprise like the Normal and Theological Institution; an enterprise without capital and but a few friends. But it can be truly said of Professor Simmons, that he has proven himself master of the situation. The school had been talked of for nearly twenty years but no one ever dreamed of its being a possibility. When he was elected president, every cloud vanished, and the sunshine of success could be seen on every side.

Some of his students already rank among the foremost preachers, teachers and orators of the State. As an educator, he has likely no superiors. Discarding specialism in education, he claims that ideal manhood and womanhood cannot be narrowed down to any one sphere of action, but that the whole being—every faculty with which we are endowed—must receive proper development. No boy or girl comes under his influence without feeling a desire to become useful and great.

He infuses inspiration into the least ambitious. As a president, his executive ability is excellent. Students admire, respect and stand in awe of him; his teachers are proud of him, trust his judgment and abide by his decisions. For poor students he has the tenderest sympathy, especially for those who most desire an education and struggle hardest for it.

He rewards those who are faithful in discharge of duty, and for those who accomplish something he has words of cheer, but for idlers nothing. September 29, , he was elected editor of the American Baptist, and at this time is President of the American. Page 47 Baptist Company. As an editor, Dr. Simmons brings before the public every live issue of the day. His editorials are racy, versatile and logical. He contends for rights and cries down wrongs.

He is extensively copied, and has the personal respect of every editor and prominent man in the country. A man of forcible character and deep convictions must reveal himself in his writings, and the subject of this article is such a man. His pen pictures are characterized by a rugged strength which takes hold of the reader and fixes the thought in memory more than by elaboration and flourishes which soothe and please, but pass from the mind as water through the seive.

The days are slipping by and our children are growing into manhood and womanhood—we are fast passing away. Shall we live deluded with the hope that the general government will bring to us a panacea for all our ills? No; we must court the favors of the people of the State. We must be for progress wherever found. We must act wisely. Indeed the Republican party could not, if it would, help us.

They are debarred by statutes, and sentiments, stronger than statutes. Let us study State interests, its schools and its development in every direction. Let us cast our votes for liberal men who will help us. We cannot expect those against whom we vote to do so.


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Take Kentucky; who has secured all the school advantages for the colored race? Why, the colored people themselves. The Republican party did not do it—not a bit of it. The white men of the party and their children were all right. When did they offer to make a special fight for us? Student-designer of London Bridge Typeface Aimee-Joy is based in London.

British design studio, est. In , they designed Air plot , a typeface specifically for Greenpeace's Airplot campaign against a new runway at Heathrow. Graphic designer in London who created Mirror During her studies in London, Alaa Alsaraji created the hairline avant-garde typeface Vienna Alan Birch. MyFonts write-up. Linotype link. FontShop link. Alan Bright. In , he published an all caps poster entitled Alphabetica and the octagonal typeface family Ghetto. Alan M. Stanier from Essex University UK has created the following metafonts: ams1, cherokee, cypriote, dancers the "Dancing Men" code of Conan Doyle , estrangelo ancient Syriac language , georgian, goblin, iching, itgeorgian, ogham found on ancient Irish and pictish carvings , osmanian twentieth-century font used in Somalia , roughogham, shavian, southarabian for various languages circa BC , ugaritic ancient cuneiform alphabet.

More direct access. Alan Meeks. Prolific type designer, b. London, Alan started working in for Graphic Systems as a lettering artist. In , he joined Letraset as the Senior Type Designer and Studio Manager where he was responsible for all the artwork produced by the Letraset studio. During his tenure at Letraset, he designed over 40 popular typefaces, including Bramley, Candice, Bickley Script and Belwe. Most of these typefaces also showed up in the Scangraphic collection. Together with type director Colin Brignall, Alan contributed to the success of Letraset.

All the original typographic artwork produced at Letraset was produced by hand cutting the fonts in Rubylith, a highly-skilled technique known as stencil cutting. Alan was responsible for training the entire Letraset studio in this art. Most of the original Letraset artwork has now been archived at St. Brides Printing Library, London. Today, Alan works independently, specializing in all facets of corporate identity including type design, typography, packaging, and development of logos and symbols. Also see Aargau Softmaker. Typefaces from Dublin a Celtic typeface , Chalky.

Typefaces from Pinot Grigio Modern a modern rounded multi-style update of Peignot, originally designed in by A. Cassandre , Falcon Script. Typefaces from Park Lane a classicitalic roman. Typefaces from British Empire a colonial typeface. Typefaces from Arequipa a titling font , Independence Script a cursive script loosely based on the Declaration of Independence; co-designed with calligrapher Satwinder Sehmi , Witchcraft. A classic roman. Typefaces from Aquitania Script calligraphic.

Allan Meeks collection Cedars, PA : Astoria , miniserifed family based on Gill Sans , Astoria Sans , Astoria Classic , Astoria Classic Sans , with a Peignotian feel , Brigade , serif family , Copacabana , based on Goudy Old Style Italic , Vatican , a calligraphic typeface characterized by the sharp edge style of Arthur Baker , Colosseum , a sans based on Trajan roman and influenced by Friz Quadrata , Chalfont , a News Gothic style typeface with thinned strokes near the bottomstrange and somewhat unattractive , Fairway , a quirky sans , Spartacus Galadriel, Kornelia and Sparky are floating around freely in cyberspace.

View Alan Meeks's typefaces. Yet another page with Alan Meeks's typefaces. Alan Rimmer [Fatchair]. Bournemouth, UK-based designer of the free hand-crafted typeface Magaya , the free hand-crafted blackboard bold typeface Eva Cute and the free free hand-drawn typeface Woodbone London, UK-based designer of Zadar , a font designed to accompany the packaging of an album celebrating the Sea Organ of Zadar. She also designed Toothed , a display font inspired by a carved wooden mask from Bamana in Mali, that can be found in the permanent collection of the British Museum, London.

Alberto Romanos [Branding with Type]. Italian photographer who works in London. He created the alchemic typeface Universe , a custom typeface made for Feel Good Inc. Collective in Genoa, Italy. Polish graphic designer and illustrator. She created the grungy typeface Dead Metal and the beautiful serifed text typeface Milosc In , she added the great octagonalized version of Bodoni called Quadratoni. Just brilliant. Another URL. During her graphic design studies in London, Alessandra Grasso created the spiky typeface Aliens London-based designer of the hand-crafted typeface It Wasn't Me Italian medical doctor with a PhD in neurology and neurophysiology.

She currently works as a clinical neurophysiologist at Charing Cross Hospital in the UK and is also involved in academic research into the autonomic and peripheral nervous systems. Together with Bruno Maag she researches the physiological emotional impact of different type styles. As the master communicator of type design, Dalton Maag shows that nearly all dyslexia type research in the past was ignorant. Many of these designs have a handwritten quality, similar to Comic Sans. Often, the designers of these fonts claim to understand what is required to design a dyslexic font, simply by virtue of being dyslexic themselves.

There may be some design merit to these fonts but the claim that they are favourable to dyslexics is misleading, and shows a complete lack of understanding what dyslexia is. The presentation will critique the designs that claim to be "the font for dyslexia", based on a scientific overview of dyslexia, and how dyslexia is dependent on language and other factors. It will also highlight the ignorance of design institutions that have awarded MAs and PhDs for fonts designed in the name of dyslexia. The talk was forceful, entertaining and convincing, based on an analysis of various pathways in the brain.

For one thing, opaque languages i. Italian and German are notr opque and thus fare better. Alessia also spoke at ATypI in Barcelona. Speaker at ATypI in Warsaw : Bruno Maag and Alessia Nicotra review a selection of studies published in regards to the emotional and functional qualities of typefaces since Poffenberger in The presentation investigates the methodologies employed and questions the results in the cultural and technological contexts of their time, and provide guidance as to their relevance today.

Alex Banks AB Design; b. Creator of the free octagonal font Sliced AB and the chunky Chukny In , he made the free rounded sans typeface Duster AB. In , he designed the squarish Flat Four typeface family. Typefaces from Spectrum. Devian tart link. Another Behance link. British creator of the hand-printed typeface Amelia Lily KT UK-based type designer. It won an award at Granshan Alex C. He creates experimental designs, and this includes a typeface called Fracture His typefaces: Origen Excritura A calligraphic script influenced by the work of the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi.

De Palo Scriptura A connected calligraphic script. Variable An experimental type based on Barcelona's night lights. A geometric custom-designed typeface for the Aroy Restaurant in Barcelona. Mares A wildly psychedelic unicase typeface. Cargo collecive link.

Caterham, UK-based designer. Creator of the experimental circle-based typeface Circle One During his studies at London College of Communications, Alex Doyle designed a dot matrix typeface London-based designer of an untitled decorative 3d caps typeface in Cargo Collective link. Designer of the free fonts Digital 2, Warp 1, and Roxanne. He has built a career in London that does not involve typefaces: I've been in the business of the visual arts for almost 20 years.

In I moved into graphic design. I joined Decode Design as technical director and designer where I co-designed Collier's Rules, a book on design and typography. In I joined Project Multimedia, a conference company that organised events for multinational companies all over the world. I was a senior event designer: designing conference print, logos, sets, presentations, animations and videos.

On January 16th , I started work on a documentary on dating and relationships in support of Help The Aged's Hug campaign. Since then it has been shown at the Portobello Film Festival. Alex Haigh [HypeForType]. Alex Haigh [Thinkdust]. UK-based youngster b. During his graphic design studies at UCA Farnham, Alex Hunt London created an unnamed modular typeface , which only uses rectangles, circles and triangles. Designer in Peterborough, UK, who created the experimental typeface Razor and the electric circuit typeface Ammeter in Designer and illustrator in Coventry, UK.

In , he created the quaint World War I era poster headline face Prest. Woking, UK-based designer of the experimental typeface Anglr During his studies in Oakham, UK, Alex Preston designed the connect-the-dots typeface Enkelhet , Gentleman , a bilined display typeface , Borders , Droop , the circle-based typeface Circles , and the experimental typefaces Wirbel and Kurvor Student at UWE in Bristol, b. London-based designer of Quaterback Western , a spurred outlined typefaces inspired by American football and Western movies. Graphic design student in London who created Futura Champagne Alex Tomlinson is an illustrator and graphic designer in Portsmouth, UK, b.

Home page. Alexander Cooper has run the letterpress workshop at what is now London College of Communication since , and lectures in Graphic and Media Design. Together Alex and Rose run an independent letterpress workshop. Speaker at ATypI in Barcelona. Graphic designer in London, UK. He graduated from Nottingham Trent Univeristy in Designer of the folded paper font Origami Graduate of the University of Salford in Greater Manchester in graphic design. Designer of the outline monoline sans typeface Hire , done on commission for Andy Golpys. Alexander Kay. Type designer and punchcutter, b. Edinburgh, Scotland, , d.

Philadelphia, Born Alexander Thompson MacKaye, he apprenticed with a bookbinding tools manufacturer, and went to London in , where he worked for punch-cutting expert John Skirving. After that, he joined L. He stayed with L. London-based designer of Lathe , a 3d computer-generated typeface based on Futura. Alexander Wilson. Scottish typefounder, b. Andrews, , d. Edinburgh, Educated in London, he started the Wilson foundry in at St. Wilson's first known specimen sheet was issued in However, William Rind seems to be using these types as early as February, in his Virginia Gazette.

The business was left to his son Andrew and later to his grandson Alexander. Under Alexander's tenure, it went bankrupt in Wikipedia link. They are credited with the first British modern face, Scotch Roman, whch became very popular in the United States. The modern adaptation of the typeface was first made in by the foundry of A. It is a modern face, but less mechanical than Bodoni, and has long been popular. Capitals, though, appear heavier than lowercase letters and tend to make a spotty page.

Hansen's National Roman is virtually the same face, with the added feature of an alternate r with raised arm in the manner of Cheltenham Oldstyle. When Monotype copied Scotch Roman in , display sizes were cut to match the foundry face, but in keyboard sizes, necessarily modified to fit mechanical requirements, the caps were lightened and the entire typeface was somewhat regularized. Similar swash letters, but not shaded, were also drawn by Hess and made by Monotype for regular Scotch Roman Italic.


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Linotype had adapted Scotch Roman to its system in , retaining the heavier capitals, but in , by special permission of Lanston Monotype, brought out Scotch No. Manchester, UK-based designer of a decorative spurred watercolor typeface , the watercolor typefaces Lagom , Hideaway and Little Mo , the tattoo typeface Sailor Bob , and the pearl-studded watercolor typeface Charlie Creative Market link. Graphic communication design student at the London College of Communication from until In , she designed the grunge typeface Hemophic.

Alfred John Fairbank. English calligrapher, b. In , he co-founded the Society of Scribes and Illuminators, and was honorary secretary from to He wrote several books on handwriting, including A Handwriting Manual , many times reissued. In , Alfed Fairbank proposed Dryad Writing for schools. It is a connected regular and legible style of writing that was influenced by Francisco Lucas 16th century, Spain , and could be called chancery script. His only typeface was the first italic for Monotype, Bembo.

This was not the italic that was put out for general use, and was eventually released in as Bembo Narrow Italic. It is sometimes referred to as Fairbank Italic. London-based graphic designer who created the fat slabby display typeface Alexandra UK-based art student b. Designer in based in Hertfordshire, UK. Creator of a fat counterless typeface in Alias [Gareth Hague]. Alias is a typefoundry and graphic design agency founded in by David James and Gareth Hague. It is based in London. They also did substantial corporate type design work. Typefaces from AnoStencil , Capo a pinched sans family , Sabre an incised wedge serif.

Corporate typefaces include Prada Candy Old link. View the Alias typeface library. During her graphic design studies, Alice Beavon Birmingham, UK created an unnamed modular geometric typeface In , she published a modular bilined typeface possibly called Sense Of Memory. London, UK-based designer of the connect-the-dots typeface Gemini Leeds, UK-based designer of the roman typeface Acutus Alice Savoie [Alice Savoie, Frenchtype]. Alice Savoie, Frenchtype [Alice Savoie]. Alice Savoie is an independent typeface designer and researcher, b. Her research focuses on the design of typeface in France, the UK and the USA in the postwar period, and for phototypesetting technologies in particular: International cross-currents in typeface design: France, Britain, and the US in the phototypesetting era, She collaborates with international type foundries such as Monotype, Process Type Foundry, and Tiro Typeworks, and specializes in the design and development of typefaces for editorial and identity purposes.

She also designs multi-script type families, including Latin, Greek, Cyrillic and Hebrew. She intends to sell her typefaces via Corp. Between and Alice joined Monotype as an in-house type designer, working mainly on custom type designs for international clients The Times, Turner Broadcasting, Ogilvy, etc. She has also contributed to the design of new typefaces for the Monotype library, such as the Ysobel type family in collaboration with Robin Nicholas , and Rotis II Sans.

Her type family Capucine is distributed by Process Type Foundry. Her typefoundry is called French Type. Her typefaces: Her graduation typeface at Reading, Capucine Greek has been awarded as the best text typeface of the Greek alphabet exhibition, taking place during the 3rd international conference on typography and visual communication in Thessaloniki, Greece, Capucine is a very informal, almost hand-printed family covering both Latin and Greek in many styles. The constructivist typeface Pozor The sales pitch: According to Nicholas, the idea for the Ysobel typefaces started when he was asked to create a custom, updated version of the classic Century Schoolbook typeface, which was designed to be an extremely readable typeface - one that made its appearance in school textbooks beginning in the early s.

Buy it from Monotype. The strong-willed sans display typeface draws inspiration from the kind of industrial lettering frequently found around the Docklands, such as on cranes and containers. The typeface was used for a number of publications in relation to the redevelopment of the Royal Docks, and remains to this day exclusive to APFEL. The Fred Fredburger family was conceived by Monotype as a custom design for the identity of a children's TV channel. Conceived to be fun, friendly and adventurous, Fred Fredburger is a distinctive family of five styles: The Headline versions are conceived to be visually striking and appealing to children, while the Roman, Bold and Condensed weights are a touch quieter in order to be comfortable to read at text sizes.

All five weights are also designed to work harmoniously across five different scripts: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew designed by Alice Savoie and Arabic designed by Patrick Giasson. The starting point for the design came from an unidentified set of old stamping capital letters produced by Tiflex, a French company specialised in industrial signage. A set of lowercase letters was later designed to accompany the caps, which was inspired from Grotesk wood types from the beginning of the twentieth century.

In , she worked on the typeface family Bogartes, which is a contemporary tribute to French typographic history, from Garamond, Fournier, and Didot to the idiosyncratic shapes of the 19th century. As a result of its mixed genetic make-up, the typeface family is rather playful.

The project was started with the support of the Centre National des Arts Plastiques. Romain Vingt is a modern reinterpretation of a foundry face originally released by the Fonderie Alainguillaume at the beginning of the twentieth century. Alice writes: An elegant and voluptuous design with a resolutely French touch, this digital interpretation departs in places from its original model, just enough to withstand modern taste.

It is freely available from Fontsquirrel. Typecache link. At ATypI in Barcelona she spoke about phototypesetting. Speaker at ATypI in Antwerp. Estienne link. Reading link. Another link for the University of Reading. Fontsquirel link. During her studies at the University of Reading, UK, Alina Popa created the photographic alphabet Desire , which is based on photographs of sexual paraphernalia. Hook, UK-based designer of Peeper UK-based letterer. London-based graphic designer. Creator of Distorted Lines , grunge.

British graphic designer who made this poster of eyes in Allen Zuk. These have disappeared. Home page his original font pages are gone. Zuk used to work in Edmonton. In , he moved to the UK where he worked as a freelance designer and copywriter until He currently lives in Toronto. The beautiful! Free font sublink. Fontspae link. Download here. OFL link. Graphic designer in Birmingham, UK, who created a few display typefaces in British designer of the bitmap font Topaz New He created a custom Taiwanese display face.

During her graphic design studies in London, Alyssa Dieterich created the wrought iron typeface Mandrake Ascot, UK-based designer of the Misunderstood Monsters typeface London, UK-based designer of a decorative typeface in Amba Mears or Amba Smith. British designer of the free experimental typeface Charlton Graphic design student at Southampton University's Winchester School of Art, who created the purely geometric typeface Marcato During her graphic design studies at UCA Farnham, Amber Maxwell London created the modular typeface Angle Right , which only uses rectangles, circles and triangles.

Ambyr Gregg Brighton, UK, b. During her graphic design studies in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, Ami Littlefair created Paperclip , Colostic purely geometric shapes , Backtrack and Croudi , a stitching typeface. Inspired by the constructivist movement, she created Geometric Typeface by superposing and juxtaposing geometric solids.

Other geometric experiments include Line Alphabet , Diagonal Alphabet , a stitching font , Connecting Alphabet In , she made the free hipster font Aesthetika. Liverpool, UK-based designer of a bilined display typeface called Candi Ampersand is a one-day web typography conference in Brighton, UK, taking place on June 29, It is organized by Clearleft. FontStructor who made the grunge typeface Tooth Decay At Falmouth University, Amy Nicole Cox Falmouth, UK designed the free display typeface Plum , the free hand-crafted typeface Iced Tea , the free hand-printed Blackberries , the free hand-crafted typeface Land , and the free brush script typeface Peach Tea Typefaces from Paper a free counterless cut-out typeface.

UK-based designer of the free wooden branch-inspired font Twiggy UK Oak Doors is her business. Illustrator in Leicester, UK. Creator of a rough-textured typeface in Crowthorne, United Kingdom-based graphic designer and illustrator. In , she created the modular typeface Mind The Gap. UK-based designer of the fat finger font Kibler Student at UWE in Bristol. She designed the beveled caps typeface Fred Aldous London-based designer of the display typeface Floffy Foffi London-based graphic designer who created the brush script typeface Sweet Annie in Fontstructor who made the modular art deco typefaces Mercury and Mercury Bold in In , she created Modular Typeface and Fontastic Typeface gridded.

UK-based designer b. Huddersfield, UK-based designer of the circle-based tiled typeface Ernest Anders writes about himself: A Norwegian wine-loving Interactive Art Director student from the cold depths of Lofoten. I did a two year advertising degree in Trondheim, Norway at the Norwegian School Of Creative Studies, giving me the fancy title "Creative market communicator".

At the moment I am studying at Hyper Island in Stockholm. I am currently exploring experience design, business transformation, team development and tech. His Behance page has him in London. He has won many awards, and his web presence is both minimalist and stunning. In , he created the free poster font Chubby. Swedish freelance graphic designer located in London. London, UK-based designer of the monoline sans typeface Linda London-based creator b. Manchester, UK-based designer of the rounded sans headline typeface Ulterior This typeface family is also called Zukunft. Andrew Ashton [Ashton].

Andrew Boag's writings about type and typography. Cofounder of "Boag associates in London, ex-typography teacher at the University of Reading , and special projects manager at Monotype. Dead link. British graphic designer. Creator of the Greek simulation font Eschaton Maidstone, United Kingdom-based programmer. Andrew Byrom was born in Liverpool, England in It was originally conceived as a digital font Interiors and was inspired by an old wooden chair in Byrom's office that, when looked at from a certain angle, resembled the letter h. Using the three-dimensional principles of this simple form, and closely adhering to type design conventions, 26 letters of the alphabet were drawn and generated as a font.

The characters were then constructed in three dimensions using tubular steel into full-scale furniture frames. Because the underlying design concept is typographical, the end result becomes almost freestyle furniture design. Letters like m, n, o, b and h can be viewed as simple tables and chairs, but other letters, like e, g, a, s, t, v, x and z, become beautifully abstract pieces of furniture. He also made the distressed font Bloodclot, the stencil family Byro Stencil free , Byro Sans, 1byrosquare , 2byroround , ByroBlock Stencil , stencil , Concussion dot matrix with various size dots , Easy Vie, Venetian , like Venetian blinds , Fresh , scratchy type , Ply, Rage, St.

Auden, Bandaid , 3D Dot Matrix. He divides his time between teaching, designing for various clients and playing with his sons, Auden and Louis. Australian creator of ModeSeven , pixel font based on the Teletext bitmap font and the splendid Flicker family , pixelized in the format of kitchen tiles. Fontspace link. During his studies in Sheffield, UK, Andrew Clarke created the sans caps typeface Spectrum and the decorative caps typeface Sheffield Cutlery Andrew Foster.

British designer b. Not to be confused with the other Andrew Hunt, who set up Quantum Enterprises in Somerset, UK, a company involved in handwriting fonts, custom fonts, logo fonts, and related type services. Milk is an angular face.

Northampton

Andrew Patrick Lines b. His fonts are sold through MyFonts. His typefaces: Jester Seahorse Histry Nondy The Castles Includes Castle Nouveau and Castle squat. Inspired by the Victorian gothic revival and the work of Augustus Pugin. Celt , Celtic. Gotheau This blackletter was developed for the logo of the Letterhead UK movement an informal yearly gathering of sign based crafts people.

Spaceboy Starman They live in Newport, Wales. Andrew's pre-merger fonts are listed here. Consider Me Vexed and Pixel Flag are pixel typefaces. Andrew Osman b. He graduated from Central Saint Martins in His creations nclude the sans typefaces Ursus and Corvus He also made the wedge-serifed all caps typeface Dalston Waste , with Fraser Muggeridge. Andrew P. Creator of Barbed Wire AS Potato Cut Fontek is a comic book face. We found that pup body condition and blood glucose levels of the pups were lower during high SST events, although other biomarkers of malnutrition remained unchanged, suggesting that pups were experiencing early stages of starvation.

Glucose-dependent immune responses were affected by the SST anomaly ; specifically, pups born during high SST events had lower serum concentrations of IgG and IgA, and were unable to respond to an immune challenge. This means that not only were pups that were born during the SST anomaly less able to synthesize protective antibodies; they were also limited in their ability to respond rapidly to nonspecific immune challenges. Our study provides empirical evidence that atypical climatic conditions can limit energetic reserves and compromise physiological responses that are essential for the survival of a marine top predator.

Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach. In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation AI applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: 1 the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies , in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate , whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; 2 the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity.

An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

The Global Climate Anomaly in An unprecedented climatic anomaly occurred in the tropics and in the Northern Hemisphere in The anomalies were strong comprising the two coldest European winters of the 20th century and extraordinarily persistent. In addition, exceptionally high values of total ozone are reported [Langlo, Geofys. Events of this magnitude have a strong economical and environmental impact; the s anomaly even affected World War II.

Studying this anomaly in detail contributes to 1 document the extent of 20th century climate variability, 2 understand large-scale coupling processes between the tropics and the extratropics and between the troposphere and the stratosphere and 3 develop tools to analyze past upper-level climate variability prior to , i. Although the quality of the reconstructed stratospheric fields is not comparable to more recent data, it is sufficient to allow a broad characterization of the circulation at hPa during the early s. In this paper we present an analysis of these.

The climatic context of major plague outbreaks in late medieval England. The climatological triggers of major plague outbreaks in late medieval and early modern Europe remain unclear; recent studies have been inconclusive. Plague is primarily a rodent disease and due to the involvement of rodent hosts and insect vectors, the epidemiology of plague is complicated, but research on outbreaks in the Third Pandemic, which began in the late nineteenth century, has shown that in central and eastern Asia plague is linked to specific meteorological conditions.

The disease adapts to a varied spectrum of ecological and climatological settings, which influence the development of plague waves, and due to Europe's geographical diversity, this paper focuses on one region, England, in its search for meteorological parameters contributing to plague outbreaks. The study period of this paper is defined by the arrival of Yersinia pestis in the British Isles in and the end of the fifteenth century.

During this time, England's population dynamics were mortality-driven due to recurrent epidemic disease; and public health measures, such as quarantining, had not yet been introduced, hence the influence of social factors on the formation of major plague waves was very limited. The geographical and temporal focus of this study allows for the combination of the series of English major plague outbreaks, verified in the original texts, with the high-quality climate reconstructions based on both documentary sources and proxy data available for this region. The detailed analysis of the mechanisms contributing to English plague waves presented in this paper, reveals a complex interplay of time-lag responses and concurrent conditions involving temperature and precipitation parameters.

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies , and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…. Marine ecosystems close to the coasts are highly susceptible to be affected both by the variability due to natural processes of the climate system as well as by anthropogenic activities.

The Gulf of California, located near the tropical Pacific region, whose influence on the long-term global climate has already been demonstrated, represents a great opportunity to assess the regional response to these effects. This reconstruction was based on the use of multiple indirect indicators or proxies of paleoproduction and geochemistry determined by isotope-ratios mass spectrometer interfaced with an elemental analyzer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry preserved in a high-resolution laminated sedimentary sequence collected in the slope of southeastern coast of the Gulf of California The main effects of these periods were higher precipitation conditions that generated a greater fluvial contribution during the MWP besides a bigger oxygenation of the water mass near the bottom.

These conditions were followed by an increase in exported production, decrease in the oxygen content of the water near the bottom and an increase in the denitrification during the transition to the LIA. The results confirm the existence of oceanographic and climatic variability on a secular scale in the Gulf of California associated with both global climatic periods. Bayesian versus politically motivated reasoning in human perception of climate anomalies. Ripberger, Joseph T. In complex systems where humans and nature interact to produce joint outcomes, mitigation, adaptation, and resilience require that humans perceive feedback—signals of health and distress—from natural systems.

In many instances, humans readily perceive feedback. This study explores human perception of feedback from natural systems by testing alternate conceptions about how individuals perceive climate anomalies , a form of feedback from the climate system. Results indicate that individuals generally perceive climate anomalies , especially when the anomalies are relatively extreme and persistent. Moreover, this finding is largely robust to political differences that generate predictable but small biases in feedback perception at extreme ends of the partisan spectrum. The subtlety of these biases bodes well for mitigation, adaptation, and resilience as human systems continue to interact with a changing climate system.

Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography. Bost, Charles A. Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward.

Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. The modulated annual cycle: an alternative reference frame for climate anomalies. Wu, Zhaohua; Schneider, Edwin K.

In climate science, an anomaly is the deviation of a quantity from its annual cycle. There are many ways to define annual cycle. Traditionally, this annual cycle is taken to be an exact repeat of itself year after year. This stationary annual cycle may not reflect well the intrinsic nonlinearity of the climate system, especially under external forcing.

In this paper, we re-examine the reference frame for anomalies by re-examining the annual cycle. We propose an alternative reference frame for climate anomalies , the modulated annual cycle MAC that allows the annual cycle to change from year to year, for defining anomalies. In order for this alternative reference frame to be useful, we need to be able to define the instantaneous annual cycle: we therefore also introduce a new method to extract the MAC from climatic data.

In the presence of a MAC, modulated in both amplitude and frequency, we can then define an alternative version of an anomaly , this time with respect to the instantaneous MAC rather than a permanent and unchanging AC. Based on this alternative definition of anomalies , we re-examine some familiar physical processes: in particular SST re-emergence and ENSO phase locking to the annual cycle. We find that the re-emergence mechanism may be alternatively interpreted as an explanation of the change of the annual cycle instead of an explanation of the interannual to interdecadal persistence of SST anomalies.

We also find that the ENSO phase locking can largely be attributed to the residual annual cycle the difference of the MAC and the corresponding traditional annual cycle contained in the traditional anomaly , and, therefore, can be alternatively interpreted as a part of the annual cycle phase locked to the annual cycle itself. In addition to the examples of reinterpretation of physics of well known climate phenomena, we also present an example of the implications of using a MAC against which to define anomalies.

We show that using MAC as a reference. A variant of the anomaly initialisation approach for global climate forecast models. This work presents a refined method of anomaly initialisation AI applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following particularities: - the use of a weight to the anomalies , in order to avoid the risk of introducing too big anomalies recorded in the observed state, whose amplitude does not fit the range of the internal variability generated by the model.

Results show that the use of such refinements improve the skill over the Arctic region, part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the North and South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Tropical Pacific the full field initialised experiment performs better. This is probably due to a displacement of the observed anomalies caused by the use of the AI technique. Furthermore, preliminary results of an anomaly nudging experiment are discussed.

In climate science, an anomaly is the deviation of a quantity from its annual cycle AC. Traditionally, the annual cycle is taken to be an exact repetition of itself year after year. In this study, we have reexamined the reference frame for anomalies by reexamining the annual cycle. We propose an alternative reference frame, the modulated annual cycle MAC that allows the annual cycle to change from year to year, for defining anomalies.

In order for this alternative reference frame to be useful, we need to be able to define the instantaneous annual cycle. We therefore also introduce a new method to extract the MAC from climatic data. In the presence of an MAC, modulated in both amplitude and frequency, we can then define an alternative version of an anomaly , this time with respect to the instantaneous MAC rather than a permanent and unchanging AC.

Based on this alternative definition of anomalies , we reexamine some familiar physical processes: in particular, the sea surface temperature SST reemergence and the ENSO phase locking to the annual cycle. We find that the re-emergence mechanism may be alternatively interpreted as an explanation of the change of the annual cycle instead of the interannual to interdecadal persistence of SST anomalies. Two additional examples are also presented of the implications of using a MAC against which to define anomalies.

We show that using MAC as a reference framework for anomaly can bypass the difficulty brought by concepts such. Climate during the Roman and early- medieval periods in North-western Europe: a review of climate reconstructions from terrestrial archives. Reichelmann, Dana F. High-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions are essential to identify possible influences of climate variability on landscape evolution and landscape-related cultural changes e.

North-western Europe is an ideal research area for comparison between climate variability and cultural transitions given its geomorphological diversity and the significant cultural changes that took place in this region during the last two millennia e. Compared to more global climate records, such as ice cores and marine sediments, terrestrial climate proxies have the advantage of representing a relatively short response time to regional climatic change. Furthermore for this region large quantity of climate reconstructions is available covering the last millennium, whereas for the first millennium AD only few high resolution climate reconstructions are available.

We compiled climate reconstructions for sites in North-western Europe from the literature and its underlying data. All these reconstructions cover the time period of AD 1 to We only selected data with an annual to decadal resolution and a minimum resolution of 50 years. This resulted in 18 climate reconstructions from different archives such as chironomids 1 , pollen 4 , Sphagnum cellulose 1 , stalagmites 6 , testate amoebae 4 , and tree-rings 2. The compilation of the different temperature reconstructions shows similar trends in most of the records. Colder conditions since AD for a period of approximately years and warmer conditions after AD become apparent.

A contradicting signal is found before AD with warmer conditions indicated by most of the records but not all. This is likely the result of the use of different proxies, reflecting temperatures linked to different seasons. The compilation of the different precipitation reconstructions also show similar. A tale of two springs: using recent climate anomalies to characterize the sensitivity of temperate forest phenology to climate change. To improve understanding of these impacts, we exploited two recent climate anomalies to explore how the springtime phenology of Northeastern The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation SO are investigated using a year of data set from through The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables and the SOL The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Ross sea sectors.

The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillating climate anomalies that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive negative phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower higher sea-level pressure, cooler warmer surface air temperature, and cooler warmer sea surface temperature in these sectors.

Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are clearly evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are apparently associated with the SOI include: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid- through early 1; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and, the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea, and the lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellingshausen Sea and central Weddell Sea gyre over the period Space-based systems are developing into critical infrastructure to support the quality of life on Earth.

Mission requirements along with rapidly evolving technologies have outpaced efforts to accommodate detrimental space environment impacts on systems. This chapter describes approaches to accommodate space climate and space weather impacts on systems and notes areas where gaps in model development limit our ability to prevent spacecraft anomalies. Influence and predictive capacity of climate anomalies on daily to decadal extremes in canopy photosynthesis. Significant advances have been made over the past decades in capabilities to simulate diurnal and seasonal variation of leaf-level and canopy-scale photosynthesis in temperate and boreal forests.

However, long-term prediction of future forest productivity in a changing climate may be more dependent on how climate and biological anomalies influence extremes in interannual to decadal variability of canopy ecosystem carbon exchanges. These exchanges can differ markedly from leaf level responses, especially owing to the prevalence of long lags in nutrient and water cycling. An analysis of one of the longest running North American eddy covariance flux towers reveals that single climate variables do not adequately explain carbon exchange anomalies beyond the seasonal timescale.

Daily to weekly lagged anomalies of photosynthesis positively autocorrelate with daily photosynthesis. This effect suggests a negative feedback in photosynthetic response to climate extremes, such as anomalies in evapotranspiration and maximum temperature. Moisture stress in the prior season did inhibit photosynthesis, but mechanisms are difficult to assess. A complex interplay of integrated and lagged productivity and moisture-limiting factors indicate a critical role of seasonal thresholds that limit growing season length and peak productivity. These results lead toward a new conceptual framework for improving earth system models with long-term flux tower observations.

Climate anomalies associated with the occurrence of rockfalls at high-elevation in the Italian Alps. There is concern about the increasing number of rockfalls at high elevation in the last decades. Nevertheless, the exact role of climate parameters in slope instability at high elevation has not been fully explored yet. In this paper, we investigate 41 rockfalls listed in different sources newspapers, technical reports, and CNR IRPI archive in the elevation range m a.

We apply and improve an existing data-based statistical approach to detect the anomalies of climate parameters temperature and precipitation associated with rockfall occurrences. The identified climate anomalies have been related to the spatiotemporal distribution of the events. Temperature represents a key factor contributing to slope failure occurrence in different ways.

As expected, warm temperatures accelerate snowmelt and permafrost thaw; however, surprisingly, negative anomalies are also often associated with slope failures. Interestingly, different regional patterns emerge from the data: higher-than-average temperatures are often associated with rockfalls in the Western Alps, while in the Eastern Alps slope failures are mainly associated with colder-than-average temperatures.

Recent variations in Amazon carbon balance driven by climate anomalies. Understanding tropical rainforest response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate -carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere NEE , a metric that represents the total integrated signal of carbon fluxes into and out of ecosystems. Sub-annual and sub-basin NEE estimates have previously been derived from process-based biosphere models, despite often disagreeing with plot-scale observations.

As such, our approach provides new insights about tropical forest response to climate. We find acute sensitivity of NEE to daily and monthly climate extremes. In particular, increased central-Amazon NEE was associated with wet-season heat and dry-season drought in We analyze satellite proxies for photosynthesis and find that suppression of photosynthesis may have contributed to increased carbon loss in the drought, consistent with recent analysis of plot-scale measurements. In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NEE i. Regional differences in post-drought recovery in and appear related to long-term water availability.

These results provide novel evidence of the vulnerability of Amazon carbon stocks to short-term temperature and moisture extremes. The effect of climate anomalies and human ignition factor on wildfires in Russian boreal forests. Over the last few years anomalies in temperature and precipitation in northern Russia have been regarded as manifestations of climate change.

During the same period exceptional forest fire seasons have been reported, prompting many authors to suggest that these in turn are due to climate change. In this paper, we examine the number and areal extent of forest fires across boreal Russia for the period within two forest categories: 'intact forests' and 'non-intact forests'. Results show a far lower density of fire events in intact forests times less and that those events tend to be in the first 10 km buffer zone inside intact forest areas. Results also show that, during exceptional climatic years and , fire event density is twice that found during normal years and and average areal extent of fire events burned area in intact forests is 2.

These results suggest that a majority of the fire events in boreal Russia are of human origin and a maximum of one-third of their impact areal extension can be attributed to climate anomalies alone, the rest being due to the combined effect of human disturbances and climate anomalies. The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation SO are investigated using a yr dataset from to The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables with the SOI.

The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillations that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive negative phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower higher sea level pressure, cooler warmer surface air temperature, and cooler warmer sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are clearly associated with the SOI include the following: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid to early ; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and the ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea and lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellinghausen Sea, and central Weddell Sea gyre during the period Four ENSO episodes over the.

The seasonal response of the Held-Suarez climate model to prescribed ocean temperature anomalies. I - Results of decadal integrations. Anomalies in ocean surface temperature have been identified as possible causes of variations in the climate of particular seasons or as a source of interannual climatic variability, and attempts have been made to forecast seasonal climate by using ocean temperatures as predictor variables. However, the seasonal atmospheric response to ocean temperature anomalies has not yet been systematically investigated with nonlinear models.

The present investigation is concerned with ten-year integrations involving a model of intermediate complexity, the Held-Suarez climate model. The calculations have been performed to investigate the changes in seasonal climate which result from a fixed anomaly imposed on a seasonally varying, global ocean temperature field. Part I of the paper provides a report on the results of these decadal integrations. Attention is given to model properties, the experimental design, and the anomaly experiments. Seasonal re-emergence of North Atlantic subsurface ocean temperature anomalies and Northern hemisphere climate.

A high-resolution coupled ocean atmosphere model is used to study the effects of seasonal re-emergence of North Atlantic subsurface ocean temperature anomalies on northern hemisphere winter climate. A member control simulation is integrated from September 1 to 28 February and compared with a similar ensemble with perturbed ocean initial conditions. The perturbation consists of a density-compensated subsurface deeper than m temperature anomaly corresponding to the observed subsurface temperature anomaly for September , which is known to have re-emerged at the ocean surface in subsequent months.

The ensembles display a wide range of reemergence behaviour, in some cases re-emergence occurs by November, in others it is delayed or does not occur at all. A wide range of amplitudes of the re-emergent temperature anomalies is observed. In cases where re-emergence occurs, there is a marked effect on both the regional North Atlantic and Europe and hemispheric surface pressure and temperature patterns.

The results highlight a potentially important process whereby ocean memory of conditions up to a year earlier can significantly enhance seasonal forecast skill. Improvement of statistical methods for detecting anomalies in climate and environmental monitoring systems. The article shows how the known statistical methods, which are widely used in solving financial problems and a number of other fields of science and technology, can be effectively applied after minor modification for solving such problems in climate and environment monitoring systems, as the detection of anomalies in the form of abrupt changes in signal levels, the occurrence of positive and negative outliers and the violation of the cycle form in periodic processes.

Synergies between climate anomalies and hydrological modifications facilitate estuarine biotic invasions. Environmental perturbation, climate change and international commerce are important drivers for biological invasions. Climate anomalies can further increase levels of habitat disturbance and act synergistically to elevate invasion risk. Herein, we use a historical data set from the upper San Francisco Estuary to provide the first empirical evidence for facilitation of invasions by climate extremes. Invasive zooplankton species did not become established in this estuary until the s when increasing propagule pressure from Asia coincided with extended drought periods.


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Hydrological management exacerbated the effects of post droughts and reduced freshwater inflow even further, increasing drought severity and allowing unusually extreme salinity intrusions. Native zooplankton experienced unprecedented conditions of high salinity and intensified benthic grazing, and life history attributes of invasive zooplankton were advantageous enough during droughts to outcompete native species and colonise the system.

Extreme climatic events can therefore act synergistically with environmental perturbation to facilitate the establishment of invasive species. Miralles, D. Vegetation is a central player in the climate system, constraining atmospheric conditions through a series of feedbacks. This fundamental role highlights the importance of understanding regional drivers of ecological sensitivity and the response of vegetation to climatic changes. While nutrient availability and short-term disturbances can be crucial for vegetation at various spatiotemporal scales, natural vegetation dynamics are overall driven by climate.

At monthly scales, the interactions between vegetation and climate become complex: some vegetation types react preferentially to specific climatic changes, with different levels of intensity, resilience and lagged response. This adds uncertainty to our projections of future climate and the fate of global ecosystems. Here, following a Granger causality framework based on a non-linear random forest predictive model, we exploit the current wealth of satellite data records to uncover the main climatic drivers of monthly vegetation variability globally.

This overall dependency of ecosystems on water availability is larger than previously reported, partly owed to the ability of our machine-learning framework to disentangle the co-linearites between climatic drivers, and to quantify non-linear impacts of climate on vegetation. Our observation-based results are then used to benchmark ESMs on their representation of vegetation sensitivity to climate and climatic extremes. Our findings indicate that the sensitivity of vegetation to climatic anomalies is ill-reproduced by some widely-used ESMs. Sensitivity of tropical forest aboveground productivity to climate anomalies in SW Costa Rica.

The productivity of tropical forests is driven by climate precipitation, temperature, and light and soil fertility geology and topography. While large-scale drivers of tropical productivity are well established, knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical lowland net primary production to climate anomalies remains scarce.

Most strikingly, the climatic controls differed between canopy production CP and wood production WP. Moreover, the climate sensitivity of tropical forest ANPP components was affected by local topography water availability and disturbance history species composition. Our results suggest that projected increases in temperature and dry season length could impact tropical carbon sequestration by shifting ANPP partitioning toward decreased WP, thus decreasing the carbon storage of highly productive lowland forests.

We conclude that the impact of climate anomalies on tropical forest productivity is strongly related to local site characteristics and will therefore likely prevent uniform responses of tropical lowland forests to projected global changes. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data.

The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation OLR anomalies , indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts.

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This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of continuing into the early part of During the period November - January climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications are that the following regions are at increased. Ding, Feng; Hearty, Thomas J. Over 15 years of AIRS products have been used by the climate research and application communities.

Giovanni provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. It is also a powerful tool that stakeholders can use for decision support in planning and preparing for increased climate variability. Global climate anomalies and potential infectious disease risks: Enhanced surveillance and other preparedness measures in predicted infectious disease hotspots could mitigate health impacts. Wintertime atmospheric signals significantly correlated with persistently autumn-early winter SCE anomalies are found in the leading two MCA modes.

In various forcing experiments, the ensemble-mean difference between simulations with these two extreme snow states identifies local, distant, concurrent, and delayed climatic responses. The localized response is maintained by persistent diabatic cooling or heating, and the remote PNA response results mainly from the increased horizontal eastward propagation of stationary Rossby wave energy due to persistent TP snow forcing and also a winter transient eddy feedback mechanism.