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This is only strengthened by the fact that extreme thrill seekers are already looking to leave Earth's atmosphere with orbital skydiving. Keith Cowing makes this prediction: "Orbital skydiving is the harbinger. If that happens, you'll see climbing on the Moon. It's possible climbing on the Moon could start for more practical reason. Cowing speculates that the crew of a lunar base might want to put radio repeaters and antennae on the tops of tall hills to help guide approaching spacecraft into landing.

Or the crew might just get bored and decide to try a little lunar hiking. The Moon also offers the perfect place to outfit the rest of your journey. Joe Romig explains that you can land near craters in the polar regions and start mining the Moon for water. You can save some of the water for drinking purposes, but a lot of it will need to be split into its component parts: the hydrogen for fuel, the oxygen for breathing. You can also set up solar collectors on the mountains to gather additional energy supplies.

If you blast off from the Moon with the power of something like the old Saturn V rocket, Romig estimates that you could reach Mars in a month, Jupiter in nine months, and Saturn in fifteen months. Mars is the perfect place to start your expedition. It's home to Olympus Mons, the tallest peak in the solar system, which is actually probably the easiest of the seven summits you'll climb.

The mountain is 27 kilometers high, three times the height of Mount Everest, but it's not nearly as steep - it's just a gentle upward slope the whole way, no more difficult than climbing the similarly gentle Mauna Kea in Hawaii. In fact, William Hartmann suggests that Olympus Mons is so flat that you'd barely realize you're climbing a mountain until you reach the summit.

You wouldn't even need a lot of specialty tools - most current alpine mountaineering equipment could work just fine on Mars without much redesign. There's also the added bonus that Mars is easily the most hospitable place in the solar system other than Earth. It's a little colder on Mars - the average temperature is Kelvin, or about degrees Celsius. That's definitely cold, but not all that much colder than the sorts of temperatures one might endure climbing some of Earth's tallest peaks, and your suit will be able to warm you right up.

Honestly, you'll be quite a bit toastier climbing Olympus Mons than the average climber trekking up Everest. There's some radiation on Mars, but the thin atmosphere will protect you from the worst of it, and it's nowhere near as severe as what you'll experience later on. Olympus Mons is a welcoming mountain, but its scope is almost impossible to imagine.

The mountain is the width of the state of Missouri, and it's actually impossible to see the summit from the base because it's beyond the horizon. Once you get to the top, you'll want to explore the caldera that's the last reminder of the mountain's volcanic past.

The caldera is 85 kilometers wide and 60 kilometers wide, and most amazingly it's 3 kilometers deep. And Olympus Mons isn't the only monster in the area - there are three other dormant volcanoes in the Tharsis Region of Mars, and they're all nearly as big as Olympus Mons. While you're on the Red Planet, you might want to make a side-trip from mountain climbing to explore Valles Marineris, the biggest canyon in the solar system.

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It's 4, kilometers long, kilometers wide, and 7 kilometers deep, utterly dwarfing any canyon on Earth. Nothing we see in the rest of our tour can compare with Olympus Mons or Valles Marineris in terms of sheer scope, but it's going to get a whole lot more difficult. So let's head to the first planet from the Sun and get this expedition started in earnest.

From a simple climbing perspective, Mercury isn't too tough. We haven't explored the planet's geology as extensively as that of Mars or Venus, so we don't know exactly what's the highest peak on Mercury, but it likely isn't much higher than three kilometers. That's a bit taller than the Appalachians, but nowhere near the same league as the Rockies. Most likely, you'll be heading up a cliff rather than a mountain, so be sure to bring your pickax and ropes. Oh, and remember to get them heat-shielded.

It's going to be a toasty Kelvin at the best of times, and up to Kelvin in the heat. That sort of temperature is difficult for us to imagine. It's not just that you and your suit that will be feeling the heat. The rocks on Mercury and Venus are permanently semi-melted, with a consistency similar to gooey concrete. Solid ground is a very relative term on a planet like Mercury. Mercury is locked in a orbital resonance with the Sun, meaning it rotates three times every two orbits around the Sun.

Your best bet will be to climb one of the cliffs when it's in the terminator, the twilight region between night and day.

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At that point, you'll be in the middle between the blazing heat of the Sun-facing side and the freezing cold of the dark side of the planet. It's still going to be plenty hot though, so shimmy up and down that cliff quickly so we can get to our next, even more serious challenge.

The next two summits are going to be the toughest on our trip, hands down, and Venus's Maxwell Montes might just win the prize for the most brutal mountain in the solar system. At 11 kilometers high, it's about three kilometers taller than Mount Everest. Its western side is very steep, but its eastern side is a reasonably easy climb. Upon reaching the Peloponnese the invaders were renamed Dorians , triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion. For centuries the Macedonian tribes were organized in independent kingdoms, in what is now Central Macedonia, their role in internal Hellenic politics was minimal before the rise of Athens ; the Macedonians claimed to be Dorian Greeks and there were many Ionians in the coastal regions.

The rest of the region was inhabited by various Thracian and Illyrian tribes as well as coastal colonies of other Greek states such as Amphipolis , Potidea and many others, to the north another tribe dwelt, called the Paeonians. During the late 6th and early 5th century BC, the region came under Persian rule until the destruction of Xerxes at Plataea. During the Peloponnesian War , Macedonia became the theatre of many military actions by the Peloponnesian League and the Athenians, saw incursions of Thracians and Illyrians, as attested by Thucidydes.

Many Macedonian cities were allied to the Spartans, but Athens maintained the colony of Amphipolis under her control for many years; the kingdom of Macedon , was reorganised by Philip II and achieved the union of Greek states by forming the League of Corinth. After his assassination, his son Alexander succeeded to the throne of Macedon and carrying the title of Hegemon of League of Corinth started his long campaign towards the east. Macedonia remained an important and powerful kingdom until the Battle of Pydna , in which the Roman general Aemilius Paulus defeated King Perseus of Macedon , ending the reign of the Antigonid dynasty over Macedonia.

Ultra-prominent peak An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1, metres or more. There are 1, such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger , are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry , from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1, metres of prominence.

On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland , the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya , Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen , many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia. In British Columbia , some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names.

Thirteen of the fourteen 8,m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7, metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3, metres, but only 22 with more than 4, metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy , Mount Siple , Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world.

All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the most prominent peaks worldwide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mountain in Thessaly. For the Martian inactive volcano, see Olympus Mons. For other mountains with this name, see List of peaks named Olympus. For other uses, see Olympus. Mount Olympus. Main article: History of Pieria regional unit.

Main article: Monasteries and churches at Mount Olympus. Further information: List of Balkan endemic plants. Butler In early modern literature, the name became associated with that of Belus , the legendary Assyrian king from Assyro-Babylonian bel "lord, master" ; see e. Algernon Herbert, Nimrod; a discourse upon certain passages of history and fable p. Olympus National Park. Management Agency of Olympus National Park. Retrieved 30 August The Boston Globe. Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 31 December Wild Flowers of Mount Olympos , Introduction, p.

Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Abingdon, England: Routledge. National parks of Greece. Alonnisos Zakynthos. Ultra-prominent peaks of Europe. Ancient Greek religion and mythology. Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures. Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus. Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho.

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos. Empusa Epiales Hypnos Pasithea Oneiroi. Angelia Arke Hermes Iris. Apate Dolos Hermes Momus. Circe Hecate Hermes Trismegistus. Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna Lake. Charonium at Aornum Charonium at Acharaca. Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus. Charon Charon's obol. Bident Cap of invisibility. Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle. Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia.

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Related Images. YouTube Videos. The volcano has a height of nearly 22 km as measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Olympus Mons is about two and a half times Mount Everest's height above sea level. Viking 1 orbiter view of Olympus Mons with its summit caldera , escarpment , and aureole. Mars Global Surveyor image showing lava flows of different ages at the base of Olympus Mons. The flat plain is the younger flow. The older flow has lava channels with levee s along the edges.

Levees are quite common to lava flows on Mars. The topographic terms acme, apex, peak, and zenith are synonymous. Climbers on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest. View from the summit of Switzerland 's highest, Monte Rosa. The summit of Mount Damavand , Iran. The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. Musala; from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish: from Musalla, "near God" or "place for prayer" is the highest peak in Rila mountain, also in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2, metres.

Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos. The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens , emblem of classical Greece. Alexander the Great , whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age. A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.

The Himalayas , the highest mountain range on Earth, seen from space. The Andes , the world's longest mountain range on the surface of a continent, seen from the air. Hillary and Tenzing Montes on Pluto 14 July A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill.

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  5. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mount Ararat , as seen from Armenia. Illustration of mountains that developed on a fold that thrusted. Pirin Mountain , Bulgaria , part of the fault-block Rila - Rhodope massif. The Catskills in Upstate New York represent an eroded plateau. The first ancient theatre of Larissa. It was constructed inside the ancient city's centre during the reign of Antigonus II Gonatas towards the end of the 3rd century BC.

    The theatre was in use for six centuries, until the end of the 3rd century AD. Part of the Byzantine castle of Trikala.

    Olympus Mons Volcano - Mars

    View of the Panagia Olympiotissa Monastery in Elassona. Macedonia is a geographic and former administrative region of Greece, in the southern Balkans. View of the Byzantine fortress in the old town of Kavala. Ancient coin depicting Cassander , son of Antipater , and founder of the city of Thessaloniki. The White Tower of Thessaloniki , a prominent Ottoman addition to the city walls, built in and rebuilt in , and symbol of the city.

    It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Depiction of Europa regina 'Queen Europe' in Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France c 15, BC. Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks.

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    Prometheus by Gustave Moreau. The myth of Prometheus first was attested by Hesiod and then constituted the basis for a tragic trilogy of plays, possibly by Aeschylus, consisting of Prometheus Bound , Prometheus Unbound , and Prometheus Pyrphoros. The Roman poet Virgil , here depicted in the fifth-century manuscript, the Vergilius Romanus , preserved details of Greek mythology in many of his writings.

    By Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio , circa — A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. One of the earliest preserved areas now called a national park. Manuel Antonio National Park in Costa Rica was listed by Forbes as one of the world's 12 most beautiful national parks. Since the local government reform it has been part of the Dio-Olympos municipality, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.

    Dion or Dio is a village and a former municipality in the Pieria regional unit, Greece. Since the local government reform, it is part of the municipality Dio-Olympos, of which it is a municipal unit. Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of mineral or organic particles on the floor of oceans or other bodies of water at the Earth's surface. Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones reddish layers at the cliff base and limestones brown rocks above , Virgin Formation , southwestern Utah , USA.

    Steeply dipping sedimentary rock strata along the Chalous Road in northern Iran. The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic rocks. Native gold from Venezuela. A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Eastern face of Kangchenjunga , the third highest mountain in the world , near the Zemu Glacier , in the Himalaya n region of Sikkim , India.

    The Aletsch Glacier , the largest glacier of the Alps , in Switzerland. Alluvial fans are triangular-shaped deposits of water-transported material, often referred to as alluvium. They are an example of an unconsolidated sedimentary deposit and tend to be larger and more prominent in arid to semi-arid regions. A vast 60 km long alluvial fan blossoms across the desolate landscape between the Kunlun and Altun mountain range s that form the southern border of the Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang.

    The left side is the active part of the fan, and appears blue from water flowing in the many small stream s. Alluvial fan in Death Valley. Alluvial fan in the French Pyrenees. Alluvial fan above Lake Louise , Alberta , Canada. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, and alpine tundra merges with polar tundra.

    Alpine tundra in Venezuelan Andes. Summer in Northern Sweden's Tarfala Valley with its alpine climate. The Morrison formation, while visually arresting in its vivid watercolor paints, provides little in the way of interesting solid rock geology. But the Dakota is another story entirely! It is filled with a wide variety of different consolidated layers, some strongly differentiated in grain size and composition.

    I spied rock after rock with complex structures that practically shouted for me to sit down and study—view after view into the local history of flowing streams, pebble transport, and shifting watercourses. The final capping layer of Dakota sandstone was eroded in intriguing ways, a series of curves in and out shaped around the embedded pebbles.

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    Kiri, Mike, and Darrel on the summit! Darrel and Mike heading east. Darrel and Mike dragged me away back up onto the next ridge portion of Olympus Mons, and we followed it eastward. We walked out onto a couple of southward-jutting promontories before encountering a literally breathtaking sight: the hills to the northeast of Olympus Mons Pavonis and Arsia Mons were just stunning, banded in even more vivid reds and purples in their long, inclined slopes.

    Crowned with snow and splashed with white all down their sides, the contrast only made the colors more of a feast for the visual appetite. I stared out over the expanse of rich desert beauty, panting from exertion and only wishing I could throw off my suit and climb around in the dirt close up. Darrel in the gully. We headed back west along Olympus Mons, seeking a gully to follow down that would not be too steep or too muddy for our use.

    These were all south-facing slopes, so they were lacking in snow and becoming progressively softer and muddier. We climbed down one level, then followed a twisting drainage gully whose sides steepened as we descended. We had to abandon walking on the patchy snow on the sides of the gully and get down into the wet course itself.