It is also believed that Lehi had daughters maybe even before Jacob and Joseph were born. Lehi's son, Nephi, mentions having sisters in his writings; their names and birth order are unknown. Some Mormon scholars and researchers speculate that the following archaeological sites and peoples may have ties to Lehi, or constitute evidence of the historicity of Lehi though these connections are not accepted by non-Mormon archaeologists :.
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Part of a series on the Book of Mormon Origin. Prophets and people. Historical authenticity and criticism. Main article: Archaeology and the Book of Mormon. This section does not cite any sources.
Believe and You're There, vol. 5: When Lehi Left Jerusalem
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 24 November There are 15 Old Testament references to "familiar spirits," and every one of them refer to mediums in witchcraft, including Is.
If the LDS believe the B. But, this text is really talking about the destruction of Ariel or Jerusalem, not about the B. LDS claim Is. Martin Harris mortgaged his farm to pay for publishing the first edition of the B. Harris desired to verify Smith's translation, so he took a copy of some of the "Reformed Egyptian" characters with Smith's translation to Professor Charles Anthon of Columbia University. LDS claim that Anthon pronounced the translation correct. Part of this event is recorded in the P. History But, Harris' visit to Anthon was very different from Is.
This text shows: 1 This is a parable and the subject is a vision, not a book. Isaiah was referring to the condition of the people at that time, and not about a book of some future time. Anthon could have said this only if he read it. But, Isaiah said the learned man could not read the book because it was sealed! The only way the professor knew the plates were "sealed" was because Harris told him they were. But the Mormon story has the book of gold plates delivered first to the unlearned Smith who copied some of the characters with his translation on a piece of paper which was taken to the learned Anthon.
In Isaiah, the same "sealed book" was taken to both the learned man and the unlearned man. But, Anthon did not receive any book - sealed or unsealed! But, Smith claimed he did read the book, even though he was unlearned. But, Anthon did not believe he was fulfilling prophecy, because in a letter to E. Howe, a Painsville, Ohio, newspaper editor, he relates the event as a hoax and a scheme to "cheat the farmer [Harris] of his money" and Harris did lose his money. Since the B. LDS leaders have certainly made some great claims for it.
For example, "The Prophet Joseph Smith said, "I told the brethren that the Book of Mormon was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book" T. He also said, "Take away the Book of Mormon and the revelations, and where is our religion? We have none" Ibid. This is another example of LDS prophetic inconsistency. What will be the consequences if they the United States do not embrace the Book of Mormon as a divine revelation?
They will be destroyed from the land and sent down to hell, like all other generations who have rejected a divine message" The Seer , p. The United States still has not embraced the B. Pratt also said, "Before this [the B.
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Smith, and the angel took the plates, and turned them over leaf after leaf, while, at the same time, the voice of the Lord out of the heavens told them it had been translated correctly, commanding them to send forth their testimony to all nations, Kingdoms, tongues, and people" J.
II, p. Joseph Smith told the same story in the D. I, pp. Pratt also claimed, "If we compare the historical, prophetical, and doctrinal parts of the Book of Mormon with the great truths of science and nature, we find no contradictions — no absurdities — nothing unreasonable" A. Contrary to Pratt's claims, the B. The following are examples beginning on page one:. I Nephi says Lehi, a devout Jew living in Jerusalem, kept a sacred record in the Egyptian language. But Jews were enemies of the Egyptians in BC. Since Hebrew was the sacred language and the Lord was then "against Egypt" Jer.
But, there are no rivers in all of Arabia now or in recorded history, and no river empties into the Red Sea! When it rains, which is rare, a wadi a dry riverbed will carry water for a short time. But a wadi is not a river. Also, no Hebrew named his child "Sam" v. I Nephi says that Lehi did not know what tribe of Israel he was from until the brass plates were brought to him from Jerusalem. That seems strange since Lehi had supposedly lived all his days in Jerusalem I Nephi Devout Jews of that era prided themselves in keeping meticulous family genealogies.
I Nephi has Lehi giving more specific "prophecies" of the coming of Christ than all Old Testament prophets put together! He supposedly lived in Jerusalem prior to some Old Testament writers and contemporary with others, but there is no Biblical or historical evidence of his existence in either the old or new world. In II Nephi , Lehi claimed he quoted a prophecy by that Biblical Joseph which said a latter day prophet named Joseph would be born as a descendent of Lehi. While II Nephi 3 is hard to follow because it mentions three different Josephs, it certainly sounds like Joseph Smith is to be a descendent of Lehi.
But, Joseph Smith's genealogy shows that his forefathers came from England. How could he be of Ephraim if he descended from Lehi who came through the lineage of Ephraim's brother Manasseh? II Nephi also says that Joseph Smith's enemies were to be confounded when they sought to destroy him.
In II Nephi and 23, Joseph, son of Lehi, was promised "thy seed shall not be destroyed," but Mormon and Ether say that the Nephites were "all destroyed. A "god" who would make promises and then break them is certainly not immutable or unchangeable as M. And what sort of foreknowledge or omniscience did He possess when He entrusted "the fullness of the gospel" to people who were annihilated? Some LDS writers have tried to explain this contradiction by claiming that "destroyed" does not mean "annihilated. If the Nephites were not annihilated, then the B.
Furthermore, if any Nephites survived, where are they? Seventeen people are specifically mentioned in I Nephi , 5; ; ; and Two of Ishmael's sons also had families I Nephi , and Nephi mentions his sisters in II Nephi , so there may have been a total of 25 people. But, II Nephi and 28 say that those few people divided into two opposing nations in less than 30 years. They were the righteous white skinned Nephites and the unrighteous dark skinned Lamanites who are the ancestors of the Native Americans. By the most rapid human reproduction, they could only add a few dozen people in that brief time, and most of those would still be children.
Therefore, those two nations could not have been very big! By contrast, Solomon's temple took seven and a half years to build I Kings , 38 with 30, levied Israelites and , hewers of stone and carriers I Kings How did those few Nephites build a temple like Solomon's in such a short time? II Nephi also says that all manner of wood, iron, copper, brass, steel, gold, silver, and precious ores were found here in great abundance.
But, the next verse says that the American temple was built like Solomon's except for the precious materials which "were not found upon the land! II Nephi shows that during their first 19 years in America, Laman and Lemuel two of Lehi's sons , along with their descendants and followers, turned dark-skinned because of disobedience. This phenomenal change of skin color is seen throughout the B. In III Nephi , the dark-skinned Lamanites Native Americans turned white within one year as a result of accepting the true gospel!
But in the edition of the B. Since both Nephites and Lamanites changed color according to their righteousness or unrighteousness throughout the B. Even the italicized words are copied from the KJV Bible! The italicized words were not in the original text, but were supplied by the KJV translators to give a better, smoother reading in English. Since the King James Bible was completed in A. II Nephi says all people, "black and white, bond and free, male and female," are alike unto God. But, the black race was not like others to the LDS Church concerning the priesthood until President Spencer Kimball's "revelation" in And females are still not like LDS males because females do not hold any priesthood authority.
Jacob says that David and Solomon's polygamy was abominable before God. Yet, D. How could that be true if polygamy was abominable before God? II Tim. Jacob says, "I cannot write but a little of my words, because of the difficulty of engraving our words upon plates" the gold plates translated by Joseph Smith. If it was so difficult to engrave words on the plates, why is Jacob so wordy? And why does IV Nephi say, "And thus did the thirty and eighth year pass away, and also the thirty and ninth, and forty and first, and the forty and second, yea, even until forty and nine years had passed away, and also the fifty and first, and the fifty and second; yea, and even until fifty and nine years had passed away.
In Jacob , the French word "Adieu" concludes the book of Jacob. How did a French word get into the English translation of the Reformed Egyptian language? The French language did not even exist until around A. Enos 25 says that Enos "began to be old" when his father Jacob was born years or more earlier I Nephi Omni has time counted by "moons. Mosiah says that they followed the law of Moses in offering the firstlings of flocks for burnt offerings. But, firstlings were never used for burnt offerings in the Mosaic law Deut. Jesus Christ was to be born "at Jerusalem," according to Alma But Micah and Luke state that it was in Bethlehem!
Alma also says that Mary "shall be overshadowed and conceive by the power of the Holy Ghost. In the J. Alma says, "And again my brethren, I would cite your minds forward to the time when the Lord God gave these commandments. Alma teaches that God is a "Great Spirit.
Alma says that in the sixteenth year "there began to be continual peace. In Alma , believers are called Christians in 73 B. But, Acts , declares they were first called Christians at Antioch about 42 A. Helaman says, "we read Helaman wrote this in 6 B. Since the book of John was written nearly years after 6 B. King James Version Bible? Mormons do not believe there was any contact between Israel and America after Lehi left Jerusalem and that is why they say Jesus had to bring the gospel to America Himself. But, if there was no contact between Israel and America, how did Helaman get the book of John to quote it?
Helaman and 27 say that darkness covered the whole earth for three days at Jesus' death. Compare that with the three hours mentioned in Matt. III Nephi 11 says that the great multitude gathered around the temple heard a voice from heaven which caused their bodies to "quake" all over and their hearts to burn. This voice declared not once, but three times, "Behold my Beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" compare with Matt. A Man then descended from heaven before their eyes and declared He was Jesus Christ. Then the great multitude not just doubting Thomas came "one by one until they had all gone forth" to feel His hands, feet, and wounded side.
The Call of Lehi
In III Nephi , Daniel's experience in the lion's den and the three Hebrew children's experience in the fiery furnace were also "outdone" by the three Nephites. These and other Bible stories are "enlarged" in the B. In IV Nephi and 22, one generation is equivalent to one hundred years. That concept is foreign to both the Bible and recorded history.
Ether mentions honey bees among living things that the Jaredites brought to America when they left the tower of Babel.
Mormon Claims Answered Chapter Four
But, archaeologists say honey bees were brought to America by the Spanish explorers after Columbus discovered America!. In Ether to , Jared's brother is instructed by the Lord to build eight barges in which to travel to America. Under God's direction they are made "tight like unto a dish" and "the length of a tree" v.
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Because they are air-tight without windows or light, Jared's brother questions God about how to get air inside the barge. God answered, "Make a hole in the top and also in the bottom; and when thou shalt suffer for air thou shalt unstop the hole and receive air. And if it be so that the water come in upon thee, behold, ye shall stop the hole, that ye may not perish in the flood" v. The Lord did not know whether water would come into the boat with holes in both the top and bottom, so He said if it does, then plug it up!
God also needed help in solving the lack of light in the barges, so He asked Jared's brother, "What will ye that I should do that ye may have light in your vessels? Jared's brother told the Lord to make two stones to shine in each barge's interior. Even though Jared's brother also asked, "Whither shall we steer? Did the barges navigate themselves? Notice what power moved the barges: "The Lord God caused that there should be a furious wind blow upon the face of the waters toward the promised land - and this wind did never cease to blow.
Thus, they were driven forth, three hundred and forty and four days" Ether , 8, At only three knots per hour they would have traveled farther than the circumference of the earth in days! That constant, furious wind blew them very slowly! Ether indicates that the Jaredites knew about Noah. Since there was no contact between the old world and the new world how did the Jaredites know about Noah? Ether says that steel was melted out of a hill and breakable windows are mentioned in Ether But, archaeologists claim that steel and glass windows did not exist when the Jaredites left the tower of Babel!
Steel is not made by melting it out of a hill either. Ether says that many prophets predicted extinction of the Jaredites if they did not repent. Later, two rival leaders, Coriantumr and Shiz, led their armies against each other in battle The text says of Corinatumr, "He saw that there had been slain by the sword nearly two millions of his people In preparation for the next battle, "they were for the space of four years gathering together the people After about six days of battle, there remained only "fifty and two of the people of Coriantumr, and sixty and nine of the people of Shiz" After two or three more days, only Coriantumr and Shiz remained, weary and wounded v.
And it came to pass that after he had smitten off the head of Shiz, that Shiz raised upon his hands and fell; and after that he had struggled for breath, he died" Men do not struggle for breath when they are beheaded! Verse 32 concludes the story saying, "Coriantumr fell to the earth, and became as if he had no life. Mormon and tell of another great battle centuries later at the same hill when all of the Nephites were killed.
That left only the dark-skinned Lamanites to be found by Columbus upon his arrival in America. Archaeologists have never found any evidence of such gigantic battles at "Hill Cummorah. Devout Mormons have often tried to defend the B. They have listed thirty ways such a book must be like the B.
But, most of their claims for the B.
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For example, they claim, "The first edition as you first dictate it to your secretary must stand forever. In the edition of the B. Joseph Smith claimed to be the author on both the title page and in the preface. The title page now says "translator" and there is no preface. I Nephi said, "Behold, the virgin whom thou seest is the mother of God. Mother of the Son of God. I Nephi said, "And I looked and beheld the Lamb of God, that he was taken by the people; yea, the everlasting God was judged of the world.
I Nephi said, " I Nephi originally read exactly like Is. Now it reads, " Petersen said, "A direct reference to baptism was plainly deleted from Isaiah " As Translated Correctly , p. Petersen was attempting to show how the B. Neither the Hebrew text of Is. Even as late as the edition of the B. Alma said, "He went forth among the people, waving the rent of his garment in the air, that all might see the writing which he wrote upon the rent. Mosiah said, "King Benjamin had a gift from God.
Sidney B. He blamed the error on Mormon and the gold plates, and said this was "another human error that Joseph Smith was glad to correct. But, if the B. And are there other errors in the B. More changes were made in the B. Alma declares, "I had not ought to harrow up in my desires, the firm decree of a just God, for I know that he granteth unto men according to their desires, whether it be unto death or unto life; yea, I know that he alloteth unto men, yea, decreeth unto them decrees which are unalterable , according to their wills, whether it be unto salvation or unto destruction.
It then read, "I ought not to harrow up in my desires — according to their desires That doctrinal change made it agree with D. Wherefore, I revoke the commandment which was given unto my servants Thomas B. Marsh and Ezra Thayre, and give a new commandment unto my servant Thomas Alma and 24 originally mentioned the use of "directors. There are many other changes that affect doctrine and history as well as grammar in the B. But, President Joseph Fielding Smith, the tenth Prophet of the LDS Church, wrote, "During the past week or two I have received a number of letters from different parts of the United States written by people, some of whom at least are a little concerned because they have been approached by enemies of the [LDS] Church and enemies of the Book of Mormon , who had made the statement that there have been one or two or more thousand changes in the Book of Mormon since the first edition was published.
Well, of course, there is no truth in that statement — there was no change of doctrine" Improvement Era , December, , pp. Anyone can compare the first edition with the current edition and see many changes — including doctrinal changes. Utah Lighthouse Ministry see bibliography also sells two reprints of the B. I, and the other is Changes in the Book of Mormon. Yet, Joseph Smith said that he and the three witnesses of the B. The translation of them which you have seen is correct and I command you to bear record of what you now see and hear" D.
Although the voice is not identified, the reader is left with the impression that it had to be the Lord since He commanded Joseph and the others to testify of what they saw and heard. The translation they saw was the one published in , so why was it changed? Did God decide it wasn't as good as He said it was? Or can men improve on what God did? I will now give you a description of the manner in which the Book of Mormon was translated Joseph Smith would put the seer stone into a hat, drawing it closely around his face to exclude the light; and in the darkness the spiritual light would shine.
A piece of something resembling parchment would appear, and on that appeared the writing, one character at a time would appear, and under it was the interpretation in English. Brother Joseph would read off the English to Oliver Cowdery, who was his principle scribe, and when it was written down and repeated to brother Joseph to see if it was correct, then it would disappear, and another character with the interpretation would appear.
Notice that Joseph read the English interpretation, but God was the translator! Joseph did not even have to look at the gold plates! No wonder he called the B. Martin Harris, another one of the three witnesses, also claimed that the B. But, critics have pointed out so many grammatical errors in the first edition of the B. Finally, Apostle B. Roberts wrote, "Are these flagrant errors in grammar chargeable to the Lord? To say so is to invite ridicule. The thoughts, the doctrines are well enough; but the awkward, ungrammatical expression of the thoughts is doubtless the result of the translator's imperfect knowledge of the English language — that old theory cannot be successfully maintained; that is; the Urim and Thummim did the translating, the Prophet, nothing beyond repeating what he saw reflected in that instrument" Defense of the Faith , pp.
This is the view held by most Mormons today. He knew as well as anyone the imperfections of the literary dress of the First Edition of the Nephite record and took a prominent part in correcting many of them in a later edition of the work " The Problems of the Book of Mormon , p. Since one of the titles of every LDS President is also "translator," why didn't Joseph Smith or one of his successors make the corrections by divine power? Talmage was not one of the LDS Presidents and therefore did not have either the title or divine power of "translator.
Very few Mormons know that the B. Yet, as noted, changes in doctrine, history, and grammar were also made. Book of Mormon Clarifies Doctrine. William A. Morton wrote in an LDS pamphlet, "Now, once we become thoroughly convinced that the Book of Mormon is true, it will, as I have said solve any theological problem that may confront us. We can get it in the Book of Mormon. Would we know concerning the pre-existence of spirits — the fall of man and the atonement — the principles and ordinances of the Gospel of Christ — the state in which spirits of men live between the time of death and the resurrection — we can find it in the Book of Mormon " Why I Believe the Book of Mormon to be the Word of God , pp.
But, the B. It either contradicts those LDS doctrines or it says nothing at all about them! For example:. But, Alma in the B. But Alma in the B. But II Nephi in the B. LDS believe that men can become gods and that God was once a man A. But, Mormon and 19 in the B. LDS believe there are innumerable gods P. Abraham But in Alma in the B. But Mosiah in the B. II Nephi also says, " All men Milton R. Hunter wrote, "The atoning blood of the man of Galilee washes away the sins of all mortals who through faith, repentance, and baptism, and through living every other Gospel principle to the best of their ability, have done everything within their power to bring about their own redemption" G.
But, Mosiah in the B. Verse 8 says that there are no other conditions whereby man can be saved. Thus, the B.