When Hebe, Juno's daughter and Hercules's wife, turned Iolaus, one of his companions, back to life, the prophetess Themis predicts the outcome of the future war of the Seven against Thebes. Alcmaeon will avenge the death of his father, one of the Seven, by killing his mother: she had sided with the Thebans for the promise of the "fatal gold," the necklace of Harmonia, wife of Thebes's founder Cadmus, which gave eternal beauty to whoever wore it.
Ovid uses a similar phrase when Perseus first encounters Andromeda, chained to a rock and sacrificed to a sea monster because of her mother's boastful comments. Perseus ask the girl for her name and that of her land. Ovid tells this story: Mercury had seen Aglauros and Herse, daughters of Cecrops, the founder of Athens, during a secret procession to the temple of Minerva.
Mercury fell for Herse, and made a deal with Aglauros to win her over. Minerva sent Envy to punish Aglauros for this transgression. A jealous Aglauros then refused to let Mercury see Herse and the god turned her into stone. Ovid describes a similar gesture: after Phaethon set the world on fire, Tellus raises her hand above her brow to protect herself from the heat. Ovid's Pallas Athena depicts this contest between Neptune and herself for the patrionage of Athens in the tapestry weaving competition with Arachne.
Stephen, stoned to death, which "weighed him down. The pilgrim's speech must have deceived or tested him, because Marco assumed the pilgrim would have known his fellow Tuscan Gherardo. Ovid uses a similar phrase -- "I am mistaken or wronged" -- when Juno can't find her husband Jupiter. Ovid tells this story in great detail, including her transformation into a nightingale. While Ovid often mentions Procne's rage or "ira" e. Dante explicitly mentions only one of the reasons he could cause laughter: Midas's regret about his granted wish to turn everything he touches into gold the other are the donkey ears Apollo gave him -- two stories Ovid tells.
Like Dante, Ovid calls Midas "miser" about his wish: in Ovid's account, Midas's hunger for riches led to actual hunger, as also his food turned into gold. Ovid recounts how Priam, king of Troy, had sent his young son Polydorus, together with a large treasure, to Polymnestor to save him from the Trojan War. Also called avaricious by Ovid, Polymnestor killed Polydorus for the gold.
Ovid's account of this period includes both features Dante mentions: the eating of acorns, and the streams of nectar. Ovid narrates how Erysichthon, punished by the goddess Ceres, suffers from constant hunger and his gluttony v. At the end, he consumes himself. Dante mentions two gluttonous souls, Ubaldin da la Pila and Boniface, and how for hunger their teeth bit the empty air. Ovid's Erysichthon, punished with constant hunger, does exactly the same. His phrase "I' mi son un che" translates Ovid's "ille ego," which he also uses to describe himself as a poet at the beginning of "Amores" 2.
When the pilgrim describes to Bonagiunta da Lucca how he writes, he also uses the image of the dictating Love Amor. The whole story is in Ovid, including Theseus's interventions. Ovid, who describes the battle between the Centaurs and the Lapiths at the party in great detail, provides Dante with two identifying traits of the Centaurs. The first is that they are "born from the clouds": their mother was the cloud nymph Nephele.
For the second, see v. The second was that the Centaurs, half-human, half-horse, had two chests: "duo pectora" in Ovid, "doppi petti" in Dante. For the first, see v. Ovid narrates Meleager's death, when his mother threw the branch, linked by the Fates to his life, in the fire to punish him for killing his uncles. Ovid narrates how she excluded Helice Callisto , one of her followers, after Jupiter impregnated her. Ovid describes ants in a similar way later the Myrmidons. Ovid has a similar simile, between long columns of ants returning home with mouths full of food and women crowding together at the teather.
Ovid tells Pasiphae's story, including the moment when she enters into a wooden shape. In Ovid's account, Pyramus committed suicide when he thought his lover Thisbe was dead. She appears to the dying Pyramus and calls his name. In the proem to the fifth book of the "Tristia," Ovid uses the same expression related to his writing. Ovid tells the story of Prosperina -- the young girl collecting spring flowers -- in great detail and how her mother lost her, and the world springtime. This is how Ovid describes the Golden Age. In Leander's letter to Hero, he calls out the waves as the obstacle that separates them.
Ovid describes how during the Golden Age flowers sprang unplanted "sine semine". Such a description is found in Ovid's "Metamorphoses. Helicon is mentioned in Ovid's story of Phaethon, as one of the places to be destroyed by the fire Phaethon caused. Ovid's story of the contest between the Muses and the Pierides takes place on Helicon, home of the Muses. Ovid describes the origin of Argus's many eyes. In one of Ovid's "Amores," he describes seeing a heifer in a dream, also whiter than freshly fallen snow.
Dante describes the light coming from the chariot, drawn in the procession in the Garden of Eden, to the rosy morning light. The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in that there might have been half a million or more. Italy's official language is Italian. Italian, adopted by the state after the unification of Italy , is based on the Florentine variety of Tuscan and is somewhat intermediate between the Italo-Dalmatian languages and the Gallo-Romance languages.
Italy has numerous idioms spoken all over the country and some Italians cannot speak Italian at all. Standardisation was further expanded in the s and s thanks to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian. Several linguistic groups are legally recognized,  and a number of minority languages have co-official status alongside Italian in various parts of the country. German has the same status in the province of South Tyrol as, in some parts of that province and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino , does Ladin.
In these regions official documents are bilingual trilingual in Ladin communities , or available upon request in either Italian or the co-official language. Education is possible in minority languages where such schools are operating. Florence Cathedral has the biggest brick dome in the world,   and is considered a masterpiece of Italian architecture. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the country, although Catholicism is no longer officially the state religion.
Most Italians believe in God, or a form of a spiritual life force. The Holy See , the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome , contains the central government of the entire Roman Catholic Church , including various agencies essential to administration. Diplomatically, it is recognized by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope , who is also the Bishop of Rome , with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State.
Italy has a rich Roman Catholic culture, especially as numerous Catholic saints , martyrs and popes were Italian themselves. All of the popes from to were from what is now Italy. In the 20th century, Pentecostalism , non-denominational Evangelicalism , were the fastest-growing Protestant churches, as well as Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormonism.
Starting from the s, immigration from Subsaharan Africa has increased the size of Baptist , Anglican , Pentecostal and Evangelical communities in Italy, while immigration from Eastern Europe has established large Eastern Orthodox communities. The Russian Orthodox Church has 49 parishes in the country as of The law includes several branches of Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, but does not recognise Islam.
At the beginning of the 21st century, there were more than , Eastern Orthodox Christians in Italy, including , Greek Orthodox ,  , Pentecostals and Evangelists 0. One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism , Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ.
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There have been many influential Italian-Jews, such as Shabbethai Donnolo died in , prime minister Luigi Luzzatti , who took office in , and Ernesto Nathan , outstanding mayor of Rome from to Rising immigration has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths. In , there were one million Muslims in Italy  forming 1. Independent estimates put the Islamic population in Italy anywhere from 0. Bologna University is the oldest academic institution of the world, founded in Italy hosts a broad variety of universities, colleges and academies.
Founded in , the University of Bologna is likely the oldest in the world. Milan's Bocconi University has been ranked among the top 20 best business schools in the world by The Wall Street Journal international rankings, especially thanks to its M. Other top universities and polytechnics include the Polytechnic University of Turin , the Politecnico di Milano which in was ranked as the 48th best technical university in the world by QS World University Rankings  , the University of Rome La Sapienza which in was Europe's 33rd best university,  and ranks among Europe's 50 and the world's best colleges  and in , the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Sapienza University of Rome 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings.
According to National Science Indicators — , a database produced by Research Services Group containing listings of output and citation statistics for more than 90 countries, Italy has an above-average output of scientific papers in terms of number of papers written with at least one author being from Italy in space science 9. The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale , which is organized under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis.
Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for more than 9. Italy ranks as having the world's 2nd best healthcare system,   and the world's 3rd best healthcare performance. For centuries divided by politics and geography until its eventual unification in , Italy has developed a unique culture, shaped by a multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and patronage.
The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora. Furthermore, the nation has, overall, an estimated , monuments of any sort museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains. Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, because of Italy's division into several regional states until This has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs.
Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements,  such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome , the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the lateth to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism , a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture , and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.
Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum , the Milan Cathedral and Florence cathedral , the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the building designs of Venice are found in Italy. Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. British architect Inigo Jones , inspired by the designs of Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian Renaissance architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by Andrea Palladio.
The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci : equally to Mona Lisa , it is the most famous, most reproduced and most parodied portrait and religious painting of all time. The history of Italian visual art is part of Western painting history. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting. However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania , in Southern Italy. Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons.
Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto. From Giotto on, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. They are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture.
Michelangelo's David. The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the midth centuries. In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello , Fra Angelico , Masaccio , Piero della Francesca , Andrea Mantegna , Filippo Lippi , Giorgione , Tintoretto , Sandro Botticelli , Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo Buonarroti , Raphael , Giovanni Bellini , and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective , the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylized art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterized art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco. Subsequently, in the 18th century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists such as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto.
Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova 's nudes, on the idealist aspect of the movement. In the 20th century, with Futurism , primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla , Italy rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture. Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico , who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow.
Dante , poised between the mountain of Purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the famous incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino 's painting, The basis of the modern Italian language was established by the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri , whose greatest work, the Divine Comedy , is considered among the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages.
There is no shortage of celebrated literary figures in Italy: Giovanni Boccaccio , Giacomo Leopardi , Alessandro Manzoni , Torquato Tasso , Ludovico Ariosto , and Petrarch , whose best-known vehicle of expression, the sonnet , was created in Italy. Carlo Collodi 's novel, The Adventures of Pinocchio , is the most celebrated children's classic by an Italian author. Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition which was heavily influenced by the Greek; as with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists tended to adapt and translate from the Greek.
For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides , and many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander. During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre , and it is still performed today. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling , acrobatics , and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio. From folk music to classical , music has always played an important role in Italian culture.
Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony , concerto, and sonata , can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music. Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina and Monteverdi , the Baroque composers Scarlatti , Corelli and Vivaldi , the Classical composers Paganini and Rossini , and the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini. Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music.
While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples, and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and the late tenor Luciano Pavarotti , Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.
Luciano Pavarotti , one of the most famous tenors of all time. Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Introduced in the early s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime.
Today, the most notable centers of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. Later, Italy was at the forefront of the progressive rock movement of the s, with bands like PFM and Goblin. Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music, with Italo disco , known for its futuristic sound and prominent usage of synthesizers and drum machines , being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco.
Today, Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival , which served as inspiration for the Eurovision song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto. Singers such as pop diva Mina , classical crossover artist Andrea Bocelli , Grammy winner Laura Pausini , and European chart-topper Eros Ramazzotti have attained international acclaim. Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s.
The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist films , reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy. As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres , such as sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns , were popular in the s and s. Galileo is considered one of the fathers of modern science. Through the centuries, Italy has given birth to some of the most notable scientific minds, particularly in modern and the contemporary era.
Prominent Italian Polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo and Leon Battista Alberti made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, engineering. Galileo Galilei , a physicist , mathematician and astronomer , played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model. Physicist Enrico Fermi , a Nobel prize laureate, led the team that developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory.
Other prominent physicist include: Amedeo Avogadro most noted for his contributions to molecular theory , in particular the Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant , Evangelista Torricelli inventor of barometer , Alessandro Volta inventor of electric battery , Guglielmo Marconi inventor of radio , Ettore Majorana who discovered the Majorana fermions , Emilio G.
In biology, Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy , Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi , whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex , paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine , Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In chemistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi- meson decay in Ennio de Giorgi , a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in , solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.
The most popular sport in Italy is, by far, football. Other popular team sports in Italy include volleyball , basketball and rugby. The male and female national teams are often in top 4 ranking of teams in the world, regarded as the best volleyball league in the world. The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasket , as well as silver at the Olympics in The Italian League is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe. Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country.
Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by the International Rugby Board. Felipe Massa at the Italian GP. Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well. Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country.
Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts. Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practiced sport in the country. Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in and the Fed Cup in and Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy. Italy has won, by far, the most world Grand Prix motorcycle racing. Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of 15 drivers' championships and 16 constructors' championships.
Historically, Italy has been a very successful nation in the Olympic Games , taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of Italian sportsmen have won medals at the Summer Olympic Games , and another at the Winter Olympic Games , for a combined total of medals with golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history and the sixth for total medals. The country hosted two Winter Olympics in and and one Summer games in , and it's bidding for the Summer Olympics. Emporio Armani shop in Hong Kong. Italian fashion has a long tradition , and is regarded as one of the most important in the world.
Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. According to the Global Language Monitor , Milan was nominated the true fashion capital of the world, surpassing other major capitals, such as New York, Paris, London and Tokyo, while Rome came 4th. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia , is considered the most important and prestigious fashion magazine in the world. Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design , industrial design and urban design.
The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass , and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design. Today, Milan and Turin are the nation's leaders in architectural design and industrial design. The city of Milan hosts FieraMilano , Europe's largest design fair. Some of the most popular Italian foods: pizza , pasta , gelato and espresso. Modern Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC.
Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan , ancient Greek , ancient Roman , Byzantine , and Jewish. The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta, fish and vegetables and characterized by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is the country's food industry, that rely heavily on traditional products: Italy is the country with the most traditional specialities protected under EU law. Sign In Don't have an account? Italian Republic Repubblica italiana.
Contents [ show ]. Main article: Name of Italy. Main article: History of Italy. Main article: Italy in the Middle Ages. Main article: History of the Italian Republic. Main article: Geography of Italy. See also: Category:Environment of Italy. Main article: Climate of Italy.
Main article: Politics of Italy. Giorgio Napolitano , 11th President of Italy , in office since 15 May Main article: Foreign relations of Italy. Main article: Italian Armed Forces. Main article: Economy of Italy. Main article: Transport in Italy. Main article: Demography of Italy. Main article: Immigration to Italy. Europe non-EU North Africa South Asia 8. East Asia 8. Latin America 7. Sub-Saharan Africa 6. Other 0. Main article: Languages of Italy.
Main article: Religion in Italy. Religion in Italy,  Religion Percent Christianity. Main article: Education in Italy.
Main article: Healthcare in Italy. Main article: Culture of Italy. The city of Venice , built on islands. The Leaning Tower and the Duomo of Pisa. The Royal Palace of Caserta. Main article: Architecture of Italy. Main article: Art of Italy. Main article: Literature of Italy. Main article: Music of Italy. Main article: Cinema of Italy. Main article: Science and technology in Italy. Main article: Sport in Italy.
Main articles: Italian fashion and Italian design. Main article: Italian cuisine. Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 19 December International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 October Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August United Nations. Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 30 October University of Rennes. Batoche Books. Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 19 November All Empires. Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 26 January Global politics in the 21st century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power.
Bibliographical Annotations and Orientations
Dacia Maraini. Roma: Laterza, Contenuta in: "Sessantotto. Robiony, Simonetta. Giovanardi, Stefano. Armida va a Helsinki. La Repubblica 1 settembre 19S4. La cui prima legge sull'aborto risale al Ramondino, Fabrizia. Il Mattino 5 luglio Li nave per Kobe. Milano: Rizzoli.
Secondo Basaglia il movimento di Psichiatria democratica doveva allora andare oltre la chiusura dei manicomi ed affrontare quel disagio sociale attra- verso il quale miseria, indigenza, tossicodipendenza, emarginazione, delinquenza, conducono alla follia. A Rigorous Diet: Food in Luisa Passerini's Autoritratto di gruppo Staiscy Diuorski University oj CaUjoruia, Los Angeles Current criticai studies have demonstrated that food, as the object of social constraints and personal desires, plays a centrai role in the creation and niaintenance of gender categories.
While across time and geography there are major diflerences in the relationship between wonien and food, it is also possible to identity contniuities. Instead, there is an onion. The onion is a pungent vegetable whose preparation requires tears. It is also a poor vegetable both in terms of price and nutritional value.
Thc narrator's description focuses on the inany layers ot an onion, relating theni to feinale subjectivity:"a slow shedding of skins, like an onion — back, back, you alniost can't capture it with the eye — -one woinan inside another, one woman through another. First, the onion introduccs the centrai metaphors of food and diet that run through Autoritratto. Any autobiography involves the selection and organization of past events to create a narrative which explains the narrator's subjectivity.
This organization is particularly intricate in Passerini's Autoritnitto. The odd nmnbered chapters are a collage of excerpts from past interviews with Passerini and the diary she kept during her psychoanalysis. The even numbered chapters are selections froni her interviews with par- ticipants of the revolutionary politicai movenients of interspersed with her coninientary. The fraginented and hybrid organization of the text fivors the creation of interpretive links between individuai and collective stories over the delineation of chronological tact, thereby interweaving a personal autobiography with that of an entire genera- tion.
As Derek Duncan denionstrates in his criticai essay "Corporeal Histories:The Autobiographical Bodies of Luisa Passerini," corporeality is a fundaniental component of Luisa's narrative for the body is "an autobiographical text in its own right. Because Luisa follows two diets, her relationship with food is intricate. Yet, the food she consumes can be divided into two opposing groups. Chocolate, nieat, truffles and wine contrast onions, couscous and punipkm. The fornier group is coniposed of foods that represent tradition; therefore Luisa labels thein her Piedniontese diet in reference to her home region.
In this way, she associates the Piedmontese diet with wealth, abundance and sociality. The latter group of foods belongs to the Steiner diet. The Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner beheved that ali elements necessary for mental and physical hcalth are already present in the body. Therefore, the purpose ot his diet is to activate the naturai resources of the body. For example, Steiner eliminated alcohol from his diet because it "produces physically and in an external way [ Sirice nieat contains plant material digested by an animai, it reduccs the activity ot human digestion and thus is also excludcd from Steiner's diet.
According to Steiner's philosophy plaiits are the invcrted image of the human body; the roots are the head, the stalk is the torso and the Icaves are the feet. While Luisa originally turned to Steiner's diet as a cure for chronic gastritis, the link between human and vegetable bodies, and nutntion and spirituality is a possiblc source for the con- nection between food and subjectivity in Autoritratto.
Although there is an overabundance of food in Aittoritriitto, there is very little digestione The unresolved problems of the past that reappear through Luisa's psychoanalysis and her research on are exprcssed through indigestion. Derek Duncan refers to the conflict between inges- tion and nidigestion when he states: "ingestion represents an aperture onto the world and the past, while distance and regret is often signaled through stomach cramps and a return to solitary mastication" While on a general level inciigestion demonstrates an inability to rec- oncile the past anci the present, it is frec]uently a sign of more complex unresolved psychic issues.
For Luisa the attempt to digest the collec- tive legacy of and her personal past occurs within the context of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a process whereby the repressed past is recuper- ated and assimilated into the present. In Autoritratto di gruppo the success of this assimilation is likened to digestion. When Luisa visits a doctor to complain about her gastritis he tells her that it will not he resolved until she has concluded her psychoanalysis.
To understand the doctor's comment it is necessary to consider Luisa's latcr statement that her psy- choanalyst compels her to "bring everything back to myself, insisting that I dissolve the external into internai.
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It's the ana-lysis, the lysis" Psychoanalysis involves the transformation of the external into the internai, just as eating does. By morphologically breaking apart analysis Luisa demonstrates that the word contains a reference to the enzymatic process ot digestion. Since psychoanalysis is a long, difficult process, digestion is lethargic. In a description of her generation's confronta- tion with its revolutionary legacy Luisa reveals a static, stunted attempt at digestion which parallels her personal psychoanalytic confrontation with the past: "The reconstruction of memory was difficult and tortuous.
It required remaining as if in c]uarantine for years, mulling things over inside oneself, apparently immobile" This indeterininacy is shown ori an objective level in Luisa's diet vvhich continues to waver between traditional and Steiner foods:"I continue iiot to know what to eat, not to be able to choose between the two nutritional systems" Until this process of mediation between present and past is conipleted and the quarantine is over, the stoniach issues reniain unresolved. The coniplexities of indigestion are apparent in Luisa's descriptions of her relationships with men.
Romantic and sexual distress becomes a soinatic refusai of food. Por exainple, during the s Luisa was in a long-terin, non-inonogainous relationship. After a sumnier apart, Luisa and her lover were to ineet in Paris. He was accoinpanied by another one of his lovers, Luisa's feniale friend. While awaiting the couple Luisa fills ili and sutfers "fever as jealousy. I couidn't swallow it with that fever" Cespite denying her jealousy, Luisa cannot ignore it. Eventually, she expresses her unhappiness "silently" through food. The psychic complexity of indigestion is also evidenced by a sexual relationship m the narrative present.
After a dinner with her married lover, X, Luisa suffers "violent [convulsions,] vomit that tails to expel the gluey brown rice [eaten at lunch. Yet, after she voinits, she wants her lover to come to her bedside and cure her. Both ofthe non-monogamous relationships described in her autobiography end with Luisa unable to digest food. In this way Luisa incorporates her refusai of 's tradition of free-love. Communalism was another integrai element of 's revolutionary politics and frequendy involved food.
In an interview with Passerini, Laura Derossi describes restaurants as the backdrop for the social aspect ot the nioveiiient:"When we went out to eat, at a minimum there were ten of US [ Pohtics and socialization oftcn occurred as much in tmttorias, bars and restaurants as in the university. Furtherniore, the Steiner diet disallows wine and coffee, two ingredients centrai to the politicai discussions of In fact, Luisa s dietary restrictions were so strict that they "reduced to a niininiuin the opportunities for socializing and sorcly tried those relationships that survived" Luisa's diet thus seenis to negate not only sociality in general, but also sociality as a specific correlate of revo- lutionary politics and instead privileges an isolated self-absorption.
While Luisa's dietary asceticisni negates some eleinents of her poltical past, it extends others. Her strict diet denotes a contradictory response to the heritage of since it is both a "rejection of its roots and subterranean lengthening of those roots" Although the diet appears to be an attenipt to purity herself of certain ineinories, her extremism in applying it can be read as a continuation of the cultural extremism ot The rigor vvhich Luisa dedicates to her diet seems to be another exainple of how the politicai is manifested through the body.
The division of food into acceptable and unacceptable groups, the "rigorous attention to not conibining the wrong foods" can be seen as a re-elaboration of an extreme politics which was not only intransigent in its ideology, but also, despite its rhetoric, hierarchical. As the iinportance of indigestion rather than ingestion in Luisa's narration demonstrates, her diet is based priinarily on a principle of exclusion over inclusion. Luisa is more concerned with punlying her body of harmful elements than incorporating helpful ones.
The mecha- nism of exclusion is particularly clear with respect to Luisa's mother. The role ot the mother in feminine identity is another contradictory legacy ot because the revolutionary niovement "legitimated in its extensions that which it denied internally, like temale physicality and maternity" The rcsult is that much of Luisa's autobiography is cen- tered on a reconsideration of her mother. In "Luisa Passerini's Autoritratto di gruppo: PersonalizingTheory," Graziella Parati notes that in Luisa 's autobiography "wonien are destined to personify the survival of the faniily structure [ This connection between wonien and food is reiterated in Luisa s understanding of the return to femininity as objective: the realni of food, clothes, jewelry" Luisa locates food as a choice, as one of the niany accessories that wonien use to define their identities.
Just as Luisa 's grey clothes reject the bright colors and jewelry of her grandniother, her strict diet rejects the giant pots ot sweet jani. However, the conscious decision not to eat foods wliich she associates with tradition is only one way Luisa distances herself froni the niaternal through food. Luisa s rejection of her lover X beconies physical through voniiting; siniilarly, her rejection of the niaternal beconies corporal. Her rejection is physical insohir as it is "not so niuch a conscious act of subjectivity as an obscure impulsive reflex, alinost a spontaneous withdrawal, an unniediated repulsion, out of nausea, disgust, aversion" Insofar as Luisa s rejection of the maternal is instinctively physical, it is a forni of abjection.
Luisa 's convulsions and voniiting niirror Kristeva s description ot abjection as "the spasins and voiniting that protect me. Luisa s painful abortion, which signifies her rejection of the role of motherhood and coincided with the death of the niost important maternal figure in her lite, her grandmother, is also a forni of abjection.
Yet, the abortion, which occurred on a kitchen table, can be linked to food. The foetus constitutes the liminal stage of human lite in which one is neither alive nor dead, neither in the world nor out of the world. Siniilarly, food in the mouth and in the stomach is stili "other;" it is in the body, but not yet part of it. Vomiting and abortion both reject fi-om the body objects which straddle the boundary of the self Through the description of an onion, Luisa associates her body with a plurality of female identities. She ciarifies this characterization later on in her autobiography when she States: "I bave various strata within me.
I, the other, and the void, there are at least three of us" 1 Through the abortion of her foetus, through the vomiting of maternal tbods, Luisa references and refuses these multiple layers of identity. While the figure of the mother is undoubtedly tied to the problem ot food in Autoritratto it is also linked to the genre of autobiography. According to Julia Kristeva, the niothcr and her body represent a non-verbal stage of lite. The sounds that link a newborn to its mother are those of the body: the heart beat, the laugh, the nursery rhyme.
Kristeva further claims that the act of speaking is a way for the child to differentiate him or herself from the body and the subjectivity ofthe mother. Therefore, every speech act refuses and at tiie sanie time references the mother and her body. Speaking and storytelling, like eating for Luisa, are processes that paradoxically remember and reRise the mother.
Eating and speaking are further associated through the mouth. In this context the choice of food is a corporal means of expression. Luisa speaks not only through tcxtual narration, but also through bodily narration. Luisa refuses her past, yet tries to accept it; similarly, she refuses her mother and her lovers, yet desires them. These contradictory move- ments between refusai and incorporation are transposed onto the level ot narration. The relationship between organization of written narrative and organization of bodily narrative is described by Luisa in the fol- lowing observation:"Our purpose is not a histoncal reconstruction but rather a mulling over and internalizing of some memories that remain too external to ourselves, too objective" The use ofthe word "digestion"points to how the process of coniing to teriiis with the past which autobiographical narrative enables is mirrored in the incorpora- tion ot food into the body.
Yet, as 1 bave demonstrated, Luisa's digestion frequently is thwarted and transformed into indigestion. At the end ot iier longest discussion on her diets Luisa states: "At the beginning ofthe eighties I had understood that the journey of lite is circular, not Hnear. And 1 had to begin my return" For Luisa this return occurs through the writing of her autobiography. In re- examining the past she must work through that which has remained un-digested by her subjectivity, the products of psychic indigestion.
While digestion and indigestion niight secni to he contradictory processes, for Luisa each is an elenient of self-narration. In the end, Luisa conies full-circle by recuperating that which she has expelled and aborted over time as the material of her autobiography. This circular return brings us back to the iniage of the onion. Siniilarly, Autoritratto is not a linear depiction ofa cohesive selt,but the Constant re-cuperation and re-elaboration of discourses of the self created across tinie.
Like the layers of the onion, the fragniented, non-hnear chapters of the autobiography demonstrate how past and present discourses not only run concentrically around each other, but also niay be seen and read through each other. Instead, Luisa's autobiography looks across the layers in an attempt to see one woman "through another. Notes 1. Muzzarelli, Maria Cuiseppma and Lucia Re, eds. Prospettive iiiterdiseipliiiaii. Passerini, Luisa. Italy, Lisa Erdherg.
The nanie Passerini will rcter to clic author ot. Duncan, Derek. Steiner, Rudolf. Prohlciiis of S'iitrition. Bells Pond:The Anthroposophic Press, It he is "unable to finish witir'aii experience, this kind of indigestion is just as much a physiological matter as the other one — and in many cases, in fact, only one of the consequences of that other one. Parati, Graziata. Personalizing Theory.
Minne- apolis: University of Minnesota Press, Leon S. New York: Columbia UP, Skubal, Susanne. Word of Moiitli: Food aiid l'ictioii after Freud. New York: Routledge, Following the assassina- tions of Malcolm X and both Kennedys, the erection of the Beriin Wall, the war in Vietnam, the first manned space flights, the Second Viitican Council and the invasion of technology throughout Europe, that single year was perhaps the most powerful and tectonic paradigm shift of the many that the decade already had witnessed. The student uprisings in Paris, the assassination of the Rev.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Italy, too, was participant in these epochal events, albeit in a sonie- what different nianner.
- Bibliographical Annotations and Orientations!
- We work all our lives and what do we get? (Small Town USA 1943-2001: Short True Story w/Photos).
These were followed by workers' protests, with massive strikes in the first half of the year. However, the national elec- tions ot diverted much attention, and uniquely peculiar events, including the June 10''' European Championship victory overYugoslavia and the declaration of the Republic of Rose Island off of the coast ot Rimini, made for a varied experience.
Artistically, saw Italy peering across new, unexplored ter- rain. Over the course ot the prcvious few years, a group of exhibitions throughout the country began introducing those who would soon he known as irte povcni. Rather; their footing had been cleared by a nuniber ot groups and individuai artists of an earlier generation.
This is not to detract froni the radicai innovations brought about by each of the participants in arte povera, but is instead to understand tully the intense and sustained developnient of the ininiediate postwar period. The two and a half decades that preceded the eniergence o arte povera brought about a series of acconiplishnients that, collectively, opened up the availability of those tactics utilized by arte povera in their own breakthroughs, breakthroughs that tinally severed the bindnigs of Italian art to High Modernisni.
That hitetiil year is to be understood as the moment in which the foci and contexts of the postwar generation give way to those of their successors, ushering in what would beconie Italian postmodernism. This is not meant to be a comprehensive history of that period. Neither is this to iiiiply or impose a telcological history of Italian art. The history established in this paper is neither linear nor preordained, but instead an aggregate of singular advances that niade possible the vocabularies and strategies employed by arte povera. Alniost immediately following the cessation of hostilities, a new generation of artists, nurtured by the anti-Fascist Resistance, emerged.
Their work was directly responsive to the events of the war, perhaps best illustrated by two portfolios of images taken froni the Resistance: Renato Birolli's Italia '44 and Renato Guttuso's Gott iiiit uiis.
The Evolution of Noun Classes from Latin to Italian
Both Birolli and Guttuso were affiliated with the Milanese group Corrente, which had been targeted by Mussolini himself. If the Fronte Xtioi'o can he characterized by any single trait, it would be its heterogeneity. The post-Cubisni of Birolli and Guttuso, Vedova and Pizzinato's Futurist-inflected dynamics, Turcato's non-objective abstractions, and Leoncillo's angular ceramics were ali welcomed into the group s project, along with the works of painters Antonio Corpora, Giuseppe Santomaso, and Ennio Morlotti and sculptors Pericle Fazzini and Alberto Viani.
This multiplicity of idiom was due, m part, to this generation being the first exposed to the full breadth of prewar Modernism through events such as the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna's Pittura Francese d'olmi and the retrospective cxhibitions at the Biennale and reports brought back by artists and critics abroad. Their coming together was bound to an anti-Facist, pro-Modernist rejuvenation, that is, an ideological grouping, not one contoured by a single unifying style.
This heterogeneity, however, proved to be the group's undoing. Those who both held membership to the PCI and painted with an abstract vocabulary were niade to choose one over the other. Some chose the PCI, others chose abstraction, and the Fronte Xiiovo was a memory by the early months of What is remarkably dissonant about the entire circumstance is the divcrgence of cnticism trom practice. Togliatti's prescriptions and the discourse they engendered situated realism and abstraction as antitheses, rcflective ofthe larger binaries ofthe time, both Gold War Communists vs.
Christian Democrats, East vs. West, etc. Realism and abstraction are permeable catego- ries, intermingled quantities that shuttle and oscillate within each work. None ot thcir works can be categorized as strictly one or the other. This probleniatizing of taxonomies was the great achievenient of the Fronte Nitoi'O and, though it was ultiniately unsustainable within the artistic-poHtical context of early Gold War Italy, it offered a new open- ness to artistic niethods and vocabukiries.
The Fronte Nuovo was not the only group struggHng to overconie the Hniitations of pohtical and artist categories. Carla Accardi's abstractions of the lates are lyrical, with reminiscences of objectivity, as are Ugo Attardi's, which are often based upon landscapes. Antonio Sanfilippo's is a much less reter- ential abstraction, built with patchcs ot color of varying formai rigor, and Giulio Turcato, who was also exhibiting with the Fronte Nuovo, had achieved the greatest distance from rcpresentation. Theirs, however, was an internai dissolution, with mdividual artistic agendas diverging and personal matters — Piero Dorazio's leavnig for America, Achille Perilli's military service, and the death of sometime member Goncetto Maugeri — intervening.
It was significantly less abrupt, artificial, and extcrnally induced than that of the Fronte Nuovo. Already by , Fontana was calling for an elaboration of painting and scuipture beyond their forniulas and boundaries. Noteworthy as some of the earliest installation work in postwar Italy, these also niaintained two points of focus that would prove lasting and durable into later decades: an embracing of industriai and inechanical technology and a persistent questioning of the necessity of the structural integrity of the art object. Holes, shafts, and the illusory solidity of light becanie Fontana's niaterials, entering into the discourse a radically de- centered notion of the materiality and behavior of painting.
The Spatialist project was, at its inost successful, a prescient break from the normative practices of painting. By decades end, Fontana was joined by others, ali ot whom enacted their own breaking through the boundaries of the medium. Consistent among these was a turn to the sculptural, whether through an actual mampulation of the painted supporr, or through a hybridizarion ot painting with an external process or material.
Perhaps best known among these are Piero Manzoni s Achromes. The clear differences with Fontana's practice notwithstanding, Manzoni similarly modulates painting towards "the material heterogeneity rendered inert in modernist painting. Fontana and Vedova are of an earlier generation. Manzoni and Bonalumi were significantly younger born and 1 and their emergence retiects an overlapping of generations that would move Italian art away from the primary thrusts of lates 96 ADRI.
DURAN and earlys into the more open and aggressively experiniental lates and early-iy This transition is of fundaniental iniportance as it synthesized the innovations of the earher period, aniplifying their proniinence, and incubating the idcals and strategies that would prove centrai to arie povera and the generation of Bonaluniis work at the end of the f s ni not entuely unlike Manzoni's. Canvases are punctured by wood and cenient, as it growing out froni within the weave of the canvas. C'iallena Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome.
These were followed, in the first years of the s, by nionochronie canvases with slight, bulbous protuberances, organized in regular grid patterns and others with rhythniic undulations and pinches that reniind one of flirniture upholstery. Bonalunii's constructions main- tain the sovereignty of the hanging, rectilinear support, but their sculptural skeletons and rolling, bulging surfaces exist in a dialogue beyond painting, dose to the sculptural but adequately described by neither. At the dawn of the s his career undenvent a substantive change of direction, largely the result ofa collaboration with composer Luigi Nono on the opera Intolleranza His scenography tor Nono's Intolleranza i included mobile spheres, suspended geometrie screens, portable screens carried by the actors, and tracked platforms onto which Vedova projected painted and manipulated slides and tilms.
Newly present in this scenographic work is the inclusion of direct references to contemporary Europe, derived froni Angelo Ripellino's libretto. Most importantly, the Reliefs of the earlys, though stili bound to the limitations of the Hat, quadrilateral support, niark Vedova 's break into three-diniensional construction.
Constructed of broken, slashed, and charred pieces of wood, bolted and lashed together with ropc and wire salvaged from the embankments of the Spree, Spandau, and around Karl-Marx-StraBc, the plurimi are opened up on the floor. Ikilinisclic '. Viewers are invited to inanipulate the plurimi, enacting the inultiphcity froiii which they take their nanie. Their surtaces are eticrusted with paint, pierced, and plastered with collaged print media, and often interspersed with recognizable glyphs.
They carry the scars of war — the niilitaristic decrep- itude and discontinuity of Bedin itself. Though perhaps not an intuitive pairing. Vedova s production during these years bears a certain kinship to that of Manzoni who vvas siniulta- neously enacting his own radicai departures froni the liniitations of High Modernisni. Fn-st, both left behind the Hniitations of the fiat, quadrilat- eral support in favor of a mobile, dimensionai practice that embraced both temporahty and the body of the viewer.
This niobiUty ot medium, forni and existence would prove one ofthe cornerstones of later endeavors. The fugitive, ironically, may have been the most consistent variable in Manzoni's career, and was most evident in his later works, which ofFer a set of breakthroughs centrai to the developments in art of the later s.
Foremost amongst the fugitive in Manzoni's production is the object itself Broken eggs, marker washed off ofthe body, and deflated balloons ofthe artist's breath ali speak to the insistence upon degradation embedded in these works. The work is often organic or, at times, takes on the behaviors ofan organism. Bound to this is the centrality oftem- porality. Each work exists as such tor a tinite period of time and, though a certain residue remains, each will inevitably dissipate. Furthermore, Manzoni's works ali prompt a questioning ofthe credibility ofthe artist, particularly in relation to the accessibility of any evidence ofthe physical existence ofthe work.
It is his given and perceived credibility that trans- forms eggs and bodies into works of art, imbues a wooden base with powers to do the sanie, and allows the whole ofthe Earth to be absorbed as a single sculptural object placed unwittingly upon its own base. Moreover, it is this credibility — and the attached certificate declaring authenticity, a concept which itself becomes remarkably slippery — that convinces the viewer that the length of line contained within a canister is as described and that tiiis of feces are wortli tlieir weiglit in gold. The dcbt to Duchaiiip notwithstandiiig, Manzoni's may have been the most revolutionary practice to that point, if not at ali, in postwar Italy.
His dcath in 1 96 1 abbreviated what may have been a long career, but his breakthroughs, along with those of his contemporaries, opened the ter- rain for the navigations that would emerge with iute povera. The niap of Itahan postwar art was reoriented, with Turin and Genoa rising in importance and Rome being reinforced as a center of indisputable importance. Though not unprecedented — one could quickly cite F.
He claimed a focus on contingency, events, ahistoricisni, the prcsent And, when paired with the Works of these young artists, this moment certainly would appear to be the onset of something entirely new and ditferent. It is criticai, however, to reassert the developments ot the previous decades when assessing the novelty ot arte povera. By no means is this to diminish its innovations, which were substantive in light ot these sanie previous decades, but instead to recalibrate our understandmg ot what these final years of the s meant within a larger temporal span.
As one Comes to understand the totality of arte povera it is unavoidable to recognize the incubation of many of its tactics in earlier projects. Furthermore, the actual or potential changeability of Ciiovanni Anselmo's sculptures, which eat salad, absorb atmosphenc moisture, and struggle against the energies of torsion, and the works of Pier Paolo Calzolari, Gilberto Zorio, and Jannis Kounellis, ali of which harness and activate chemical and physical phenomena, bear some debt to Manzoni's fugitive and organic work at the beginning of the decade.
Installation, a favored tactic of Kounellis and Pistoletto, also has its roots in earlier work, particularly during the moments in which the viewer becomes an activator ot or participant in the work. The difference of ideologica! World War II had ceased to be doniinant in the politicai maturation of these artists, giving way to the war in Vietnam and the mach opened social discourses of the period.
The lates were an intellectual landscape dominated by the new ideas of Eco, Lippard, and the Frankfurt School, much apart from those ofTogliatti and Marshall Pian Europe. Methodologically, this brief, albeit monumentai, moment of has always found itself positioned as the point of departure from which postmodernism emcrged in Italian art. This is certainly a credible and demonstrable argument. As such, however, what is often lost is the way in which historical periods are not marked by explicit beginnings and endings, but rather fade into and out ot one another, depositing sedi- nient upon which new foundations are laid.
Departures, particularly in the history ot art, are rarely sudden and unforeseen. Their identification is often retrospective, and this backward looking reveals not only what new has emerged, but also how that which is at one point fullv formed is at a previous point embryonic and developmental. With this awareness, it does US well to consider as not simply the moment at which Italian art of the previous decades is overtaken, but also the moment at which its seeds finally blossom and begin to germinate. The ideas in this paper are the result of a nuniber of conversations, discussions, and collaboratioiis with niany exciting and wonderfully supportive scholars and colleagiies.
Their expertise has been of great benefit to this work. Clurrendy, the niost accessible and thorough resource on iiitc poi'cni is Carolyn Chnstov-Bakargiev, ed.. Arre povera. London: Phaidon Press Lunited, iy9y. Italian art liad attained some notice on an interna- tional scale. For an overview, and contemporary, recounting ofpostwar Italian art, see Tristan Sauvage [Arturo Shwarz, pseud. A useful introduction in English, contemporary vvith the h'roiite Nuoro itself. Roderigo di Castiglia [Palmiro Togliatti, pseud. The manifesto was published in Forma 1, Rome, March Parma: Cjalleria d'Arte Niccoli, In the "Second Manifesto of Spazialismo," Fontana and the other signers called for "the painting to come out from its fraine and the sculp- ture from its beli jar.
Germano Celant. NewYork:Tlie Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Luca Massimo Barbero. Parma: Galleria d'arte Niccoli, Perhaps the most comprehensive publication on Vedova is Emilio I aiovo. This penod of Vedova 's production has been tracked, most recently, by Ursula Prinz. Die Schetikunq iUi die Berliiiisclie Galcric. Berlin: Berlinische Galerie, Kelly Wacker. Cambridge Scholars Press, S. These included references to anti-Fascist demonstrations in Italy, the Algerian revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the war in hidochina, John E Kennedy, and a recent tloodmg of Italy 's Po river as vvell as phrases such as "Two-thuds of liberation" and "Spain, tragic and sweet.
Sciitti e colloqui. Angela I. Milan: Ricordi-LIM, Celant, in Christov-Bakargiev Soprattutto nel corso del si ciaranno anche 'situa- zioni' di intervento locale [ Ci riferiamo, senza nessunissima intenzione di sovrapporre e ancor meno far coincidere tutte le complicanze ideologiche, concettuali e libellistiche che nei due casi si vanno assumendo, a una parte, invero cospicua, delle opere nate nell'ambito di quella poesia visiva, anche chiamata, in sue particolari diramazioni, poesia tecnologica che si va costituendo a partire dal Diviene norma l'assunzione generalmente seppure non necessariamente critica, polemica, ironica di materiali e moduli ricavati dalle manifestazioni tecnologiche, di massa.
Critica ed ironia coincidono con autocritica ed autoironia: l'artista agisce dall'interno accettando il mondo tecnologico ma tendendo simultaneamente a respingerne gli aspetti deteriori e a individuarne — strumentalizzandoli ai propri fini — gli aspetti positivi. Nelle Storie! In Proletari di tutti i paesi, iiiiitei'i! I tempi dell'arte sono passati.
Il lavoro di Simonetti deturnatore si concentra prevalentemente su personaggi considerati reazionari come i cowboy di Tex o i poliziotti di Diabolik , fuorilegge Diabolik o anonimi e di carattere erotico. DSL- scene di seduzione, ecc. Niente di meglio che rimandare a quella lettura per chiudere questa necessariamente spiccia rassegna. E la resignificazione raramente implica una presa di coscienza, ma si adagia sugli allori statuiti tiel mero capriccio parodico. Superficie senza prospettiva. E il Sessantotto, allora? Balestrini, Nanni e Primo Moroni. L'orda d'oro Milano: Feltrinelli, Baiestrini Moroni Debord, Guy e Gii Wolman.
Tonno: Nautilus, Debord Wohnan Debord Wolman Ecco un reale mezzo d'in- segnamento artistico proletario, il primo abbozzo di un comunismo letterario" Debord Wolman DehordWolman Hutcheon, ad esempio, avvisa quanto tipica del postmoderno sia la convivenza fra un "ironie rapture with the past," e il "paradox at the heart of that 'post:' irony does not indeed mark the difference from the past, but tlie intertcxtual echoing simultaneously works to affimi — textually and hermeneutically — the connection with the past.
A Poctics of Posrinodcriiisiii. New York-London: Routledge, S. Roma: Castelvecchi, Cosi chiudono il loro articolo:"! Il primo. Per un pruiiissimo approccio si possono consultare le parti dedicate a tale movimento all'interno dei libri: Vetri, Lucio. Ixttcratura e Caos. Milano: Mursia, Specificamente il capitolo "La poesia tecnologica" ; Barilli, Renato. Li iicoaiunn;uardia italiana. Specificamente il capitolo "Il gruppo 70," S. Di dovere citare nella lunga lista dei poeti visivi "fiorentini" che aderi- rono al Ciruppo 70, il super prolifico Eugenio Miccini, e poi, almeno.
Pignotti, Lamberto. Milano: Lerici, S. Pignotti, "Arte" Pignotti, "Poesia" Debord, Guy. Internazionale Situazionista 3 Torino: Nautilus, Ciononostante, giova rammentare che un altro gruppo orbi- tante intorno alla neoavanguardia ufliciale, quello dei napoletani delle riviste Documento Sud e poi Linea Su f citava, seppur occasionalmente e tardainente tiagli anni Settanta il pensiero situazionista.
Bonfighoh, Pietro. Bologna: Quaderni del Verri, Nel halloon si legge: "Il 28 settembre , saranno cento anni che abbiamo fondato rinternazionale situazionista. C'oimncia a prendere torma!. Dorfels, Gillo. Il y- Khayati, Mustapha. Internazionale Situazionista 10 Accame, Vincenzo. Milano: Edizioni d'arte Zarathustra- Spirali. Il progresso lo implica. Stringe da presso la frase di un autore, si serve delle sue espressioni, cancella l'idea falsa, la sostituisce con quella giusta. Infatti, cosi fecero i situazionisti.
Internazionale Situazionista 9 Torino: Bollati Bormghieri, ICS- Vergine, Lea. Roma: Arcana, Tonno: Naudlus, Barbieri, Daniele. Nel corso del testo, i'na teoria della tensione e del ritmo.