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Offering easily searchable advantages and disadvantages for each animal model and organized by disease topics, this resource aids researchers in finding the best animal model for research in human disease. Ethics and animal research: Foundations, basic principles, applications for animal models of human disease 2.
Psychological enrichment of animals in research 3. Large Animal Models 4. Animal models of cataracts 5. Animal models for retinitis pigmentosa 6. Animal Models for Atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction 7. Animal Models for cardiovascular research 8.
Animal models of cardiac disease 9. Animal models of metabolic syndrome Animal Models of Diabetes Animal models of obesity Models for the manipulation of energy expenditure Animal models for liver diseases Animal Models of Skin Regeneration Animal models of skin disorders Models of Chronic Kidney Disease Animal Models of Urinary Stone Disease Animals models for for healing studies after partial nephrectomy Animal models of IBD Animal models of stroke Zebrafish models of olfactory and neuromuscular dysfunction of degeneration Animal models of drug abuse Animal models of schizophrenia Animal models for the exploration of Klinefelter's syndrome The Use of Zebrafish in Medical Genomics Transgenic pigs as models for translational biomedical research Genetically modified animal models Mouse model of human disease by forward and reverse genetics Animal models of neonatal seizures Animal models for the study of neonatal disease Animal models of fetal programming Animal models of human viral diseases Animal models of breast cancer Animal models of systemic sclerosis: past, present, and perspective Animal models of multiple sclerosis Animal Models of Mood Disorders Pigs in Behaviour Models Models of Alzheimer's disease MPTP-induced animal models for Parkinson's disease Animal Models of Neurodegenerative Disease Animal models of mania Animal Models of Stress Coping and Resilience.
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Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns
Acknowledging this problem, the National Institutes of Health initiated the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium AMDCC 1 , with the goal of defining criteria for the development and testing of pre-clinical models particularly of diabetic kidney disease 2. Considering some of these basic criteria, as outlined in this article, researchers from all fields can improve the translatability of their in vivo discovery and development activities. Rodents remain the species of choice for most pre-clinical studies because of the relatively low cost of maintenance and ease of breeding and genetic manipulation.
Particular strains prove to be more or less susceptible to developing disease. For example, the commonly used C57BL6 strain is relatively resistant to developing diabetic nephropathy when compared to the FVB strain 3.
Mini Me: What Makes for Good Models of Human Disease?
As in humans, notable differences also exist between genders. This should be taken into consideration when that differentially regulated pathway represents a key pathogenic mechanism driving the disease or investigational drug mechanism of action.
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For example, male spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR have higher blood pressures than females and, thus, prove to be better models for cardiovascular and renal disease 4. The pursuit of a novel drug target in the pre-clinical setting requires establishing its expression in the model. Concordantly, demonstrating up- or down-regulation of the pathway through which the target is thought to act would support the utility of the model for other modulators of that class.
- No animal species is a reliable model for another.
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- Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease - 2nd Edition.
- As models to study disease.
From a logistical perspective, animal-based research is expensive and time-consuming. Researchers should therefore aim to employ models that:.
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Validating or invalidating a potential drug therapy or intervention represents a critical step in the drug development value chain. The quality and relevance of the data obtained at this step depends, in part, on having the right system to test in.
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Secondly, studying animal models that more closely reflect the human condition may help to improve our understanding of the disease process and thus reveal new ways to target it. Innovative alternative models are being developed to minimize the use and unnecessary suffering of animals in experimental research.