He returned a few months later to find his staff reduced from more than ten, to two subordinates. In July , after a build-up of hundreds of sightings over the previous few months, a series of radar detections coincident with visual sightings were observed near the National Airport in Washington, D. UFO incident. Future Arizona Senator and presidential nominee, the late, John McCain is alleged to be one of these witnesses [ citation needed ].
After much publicity, these sightings led the Central Intelligence Agency to establish a panel of scientists headed by Dr. Robertson, a physicist of the California Institute of Technology, which included various physicists, meteorologists, and engineers, and one astronomer Hynek.
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The Robertson Panel first met on January 14, in order to formulate a response to the overwhelming public interest in UFOs. Ruppelt, Hynek, and others presented the best evidence, including movie footage, that had been collected by Blue Book. After spending 12 hours reviewing 6 years of data, the Robertson Panel concluded that most UFO reports had prosaic explanations, and that all could be explained with further investigation, which they deemed not worth the effort.
In their final report, they stressed that low-grade, unverifiable UFO reports were overloading intelligence channels, with the risk of missing a genuine conventional threat to the U. Therefore, they recommended the Air Force de-emphasize the subject of UFOs and embark on a debunking campaign to lessen public interest. They suggested debunkery through the mass media, including Walt Disney Productions , and using psychologists, astronomers, and celebrities to ridicule the phenomenon and put forward prosaic explanations.
The apparent irresponsibility and the possible use of such groups for subversive purposes should be kept in mind. It is the conclusion of many researchers   that the Robertson Panel was recommending controlling public opinion through a program of official propaganda and spying. They also believe these recommendations helped shape Air Force policy regarding UFO study not only immediately afterward, but also into the present day. There is evidence that the Panel's recommendations were being carried out at least two decades after its conclusions were issued see the main article for details and citations.
In his book see external links Ruppelt described the demoralization of the Blue Book staff and the stripping of their investigative duties following the Robertson Panel jurisdiction. As an immediate consequence of the Robertson Panel recommendations, in February , the Air Force issued Regulation , ordering air base officers to publicly discuss UFO incidents only if they were judged to have been solved, and to classify all the unsolved cases to keep them out of the public eye. The nd AISS was assigned the task of investigating only the most important UFO cases with intelligence or national security implications.
These cases were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book, leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. In addition, UFOs called "UFOBs" were defined as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. If they were unidentified, the media was to be told only that the situation was being analyzed. Blue Book was also ordered to reduce the number of unidentified to a minimum.
All this work was done secretly. The public face of Blue Book continued to be the official Air Force investigation of UFOs, but the reality was it had essentially been reduced to doing very little serious investigation, and had become almost solely a public relations outfit with a debunking mandate. To cite one example, by the end of , the number of cases listed as unsolved had dipped to barely 0. Eventually, Ruppelt requested reassignment; at his departure in August , his staff had been reduced from more than ten precise numbers of personnel varied to just two subordinates and himself.
His temporary replacement was a noncommissioned officer. Most who succeeded him as Blue Book director exhibited either apathy or outright hostility to the subject of UFOs, or were hampered by a lack of funding and official support. Ruppelt wrote that Hardin "thinks that anyone who is even interested [in UFOs] is crazy. They bore him. Captain George T. Gregory took over as Blue Book's director in In fact, there was actually little or no investigation of UFO reports; a revised AFR issued during Gregory's tenure emphasized that unexplained UFO reports must be reduced to a minimum.
One way that Gregory reduced the number of unexplained UFOs was by simple reclassification. By this logic, a possible comet became a probable comet, while a probable comet was flatly declared to have been a misidentified comet.
How the U.S. Air Force Investigated UFOs During the Cold War
Similarly, if a witness reported an observation of an unusual balloon- like object, Blue Book usually classified it as a balloon, with no research and qualification. These procedures became standard for most of Blue Book's later investigations; see Hynek's comments below. Major Robert J. Friend was appointed the head of Blue Book in Friend made some attempts to reverse the direction Blue Book had taken since Clark writes that "Friend's efforts to upgrade the files and catalog sightings according to various observed statistics were frustrated by a lack of funding and assistance.
Hynek suggested that some older UFO reports should be reevaluated, with the ostensible aim of moving them from the "unknown" to the "identified" category.
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Hynek's plans came to naught. In , there were U. Congressional hearings regarding UFOs. In response, ATIC added personnel increasing the total personnel to three military personnel, plus civilian secretaries and increased Blue Book's budget. This seemed to mollify some of Blue Book's critics,  but it was only temporary. A few years later see below , the criticism would be even louder. By the time he was transferred from Blue Book in , Friend thought that Blue Book was effectively useless and ought to be dissolved, even if it caused an outcry amongst the public.
He largely continued the debunking efforts, and it was under his direction that Blue Book received some of its sharpest criticism. Physicist and UFO researcher Dr. James E. McDonald once flatly declared that Quintanilla was "not competent" from either a scientific or an investigative perspective,  although he also stressed that Quintanilla "shouldn't be held accountable for it," as he was chosen for his position by a superior officer, and was following orders in directing Blue Book.
Blue Book's explanations of UFO reports were not universally accepted, however, and critics — including some scientists — suggested that Project Blue Book performed questionable research or, worse, was perpetrating cover up. Take, for example, the many mostly nighttime UFO reports from the midwestern and southeastern United States in the summer of Witnesses in Texas reported "multicolored lights" and large aerial objects shaped like eggs or diamonds. John Shockley, a meteorologist from Wichita, Kansas , reported that, using the state Weather Bureau radar , he tracked a number of odd aerial objects flying at altitudes between about and feet.
Project Blue Book officially determined  the witnesses had mistaken Jupiter or bright stars such as Rigel or Betelgeuse for something else. Blue Book's explanation was widely criticized as inaccurate. Robert Riser, director of the Oklahoma Science and Art Foundation Planetarium offered a strongly worded rebuke of Project Blue Book that was widely circulated: "That is as far from the truth as you can get.
These stars and planets are on the opposite side of the earth from Oklahoma City at this time of year. The Air Force must have had its star finder upside-down during August. A newspaper editorial from the Richmond News Leader opined that "Attempts to dismiss the reported sightings under the rationale as exhibited by Project Bluebook [ sic ] won't solve the mystery Police officers Dale Spaur and Wilbur Neff spotted what they described as a disc-shaped, silvery object with a bright light emanating from its underside, at about feet in altitude.
The chase ended about 30 minutes later near Freedom, Pennsylvania , some 85 miles away. Five days later, following brief interviews with only one of the police officers but none of the other ground witnesses , Blue Book's director, Major Hector Quintanilla , announced their conclusions: The police one of them an Air Force gunner during the Korean War had first chased a communications satellite , then the planet Venus. This conclusion was widely derided,  and police officers strenuously rejected it.
In his dissenting conclusion, Hynek described Blue Book's conclusions as absurd: in their reports, several of the police had unknowingly described the moon, Venus and the UFO, though they unknowingly described Venus as a bright "star" very near the moon. Once people entrusted with the public welfare no longer think the people can handle the truth, then the people, in return, will no longer trust the government.
Books On Ufos & Extraterrestrial Beings
The result, this book, is endlessly fascinating. Reading the book is almost a necessary exercise after the creepy disillusionment of the film: there are more loose ends and unanswered questions than a film, understandably, is able to convey. The book, however, is challenging and masterful in its own right. The true believer will have some problems with the denigrating tone Pilkington sometimes takes it helps to understand that he too was once a true believer , but anyone really wanting to claim an interest in the field needs to read this book.
This may be the strangest book on the list. Constable makes the case that what we are seeing are enormous amoeba-like beings, more easily visible with infrared technology, that live in the upper atmosphere. This book is a favorite. A big, information-packed book. Dense, well-researched, it was pretty much the final word, during its time, on the government-is-hiding-UFOs debate.
Timothy Good gathers and, one after another, lays out the ways in which various world governments have hidden the presence of alien beings on earth. His sources are impeccable, impressive.
There have been subsequent tomes like it, but none have been quite so thorough and readable. You cannot have a list of UFO books without Adamski. His story tends to generate, in equal portions, awe and hate. Depending on your predilections, the book is either a wacky romp through midth century new age philosophy, or a rather important spiritual text. I feel both ways about it, depending on the day. A disciple of the late spiritual teacher Benjamin Creme , Gerard Aartsen has elsewhere written at length on George Adamski, who is an important part of this text, and tends to stick to the spiritual side of the UFO world; this is my favorite of his several works.
Something in his urgent, earnest call for understanding of and adherence to the messages given down from the space brothers feels true and good. For Vallee, the aliens-in-nuts-and-bolts-vehicles approach faded from relevance by the end of the s, as evidenced by this influential text on UFO cults and their shadowy tendencies. Part political conspiracy, part occult theory, Messengers of Deception set a bar for interdisciplinary ufologists for decades to come.
Vallee is that rare skeptic whose works expand from normalcy rather than adhere to it. His oeuvre is large, and pretty much any later Vallee text is an intoxicating read, but this book feels like the moment he began to really think deeply and with novelty about UFOs. Here we have Whitley again! This time with Jeffrey J. Kripal, a professor of comparative religion. All together, the text reads like a pop introduction to some of Vallee and co.
I asked my dad to read it, and he was really impressed. He even went on to read Communion right after! You should trust his opinion. Yes, there was a Gere-starring film. That was fine, but it totally missed the point. Though there are UFOs in this book, famously the one on which Indrid Cold, a sort of Man in Black seen by one Woodrow Derenberger , rode, this book deals mostly with the many odd events notably the titular Mothman creature leading up to a bridge collapse in West Virginia.
Part of a weirdo cabal of semi-ufologists perhaps just too weird for even that label including people like Gray Barker and others carrying the flag of Charles Fort , Keel is most famous for this book, but had loads of others in which certain readers would find great enjoyment. George LoBuono is some sort of genius. I follow him on Facebook and his wild, beautiful psychic musings are one of the few joys in my sad life.
This book does what it does and what is that?
Books on UFOs & extraterrestrial beings | Waterstones
Info Live Chat Comments Talk , big , book , canada , chris , hamilton , ontario , paranormal , parapsychology , rel-mar , robmcconnell , rutkowski , simulradio , simultv , ufos , xchronicles , xzbn , xzoneradiotv , xzonetv , xzonetvchannel , youtube. Chris Rutkowski's name is synonymous with UFO research the world over, and this book captures his most breathtaking research, along with new and exciting accounts, that will have you questioning "are we alone in the universe?
The renowned ufologist takes us on a tour of UFOs in Canada and around the See More world.
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He has studied UFOs, aliens, abductions, and even encounters reported by kids.