Anacreon of Teos. The special debt owed to the meter and themes of Alcaeus is acknowledged by the reference to the lyre of Lesbos at the close of Odes 1. Horace also admired the sixth-century- B. Bacchylides, who provided a model for the mythological Odes 1. Among the choral poets, however, the fifth-century- B. Although he admires—and imitates—Pindar's rushing torrents of verse, Horace prefers his own "slender Muse," whom he likens to a small bee fashioning painstakingly elaborated poems Odes 4. Horace's tenuis Musa plays several roles.
A poetic talent suited only for lighter, personal themes provides Horace an excuse, in a poetic form known as the recusatio , for not writing the epic praises of great men. He compliments Agrippa Odes 1. The poet's ethical as well as literary aesthetics are shaped by the opposition between the grand and the slight. As in the satires, there are many statements of Horace's preference for the small and simple over the grandiose. The opening poem, dedicated to Maecenas as judge of the worth of the collection, challenges the lyric tradition and offers Horace as a candidate for the ranks of the Greek lyric poets.
Horace writes that the rarefied company of the great Greek lyricists will mark him as learned and win him literary acclaim. In an extended priamel in which a series of foils highlight the poet's own preference , the poet rejects various pursuits that engage human ambition in favor of poetic success. In the middle of the poem, literary ambition is balanced by the equally Horatian image of a man taking a break from the long day, stretched out with some good wine in the cool shade or by a refreshing spring.
Meticulous dedication, the soul of Horace's poetry, is offset by a love of the simple pleasures of living in the present, enjoying the gifts of the hour. Serious poetic ambition is tempered by the comic self-deprecation recurrent in Horace's work: the poem ends with the image of an exalted Horace banging his head on the stars.
The priamel of the first ode hints at other themes familiar through the Satires and the Epodes —a love of the countryside that dedicates a farmer to his ancestral lands; the ambition that drives one man to Olympic glory, another to political acclaim, and a third to wealth; the greed that compels the merchant to brave dangerous seas again and again rather than live modestly but safely; and even the tensions between the sexes that are at the root of the odes about relationships with women.
While indebted to Greek literary tradition, the Odes are a quite Roman production. Horace's declaration of success in bringing Aeolic poetry into Latin meters centers on Rome: his poetry will last as long as the empire, extending from Rome to his beloved native Apulia. His boast of immortality—that he, a man of humble beginnings, will continue to win praise and appear contemporary in succeeding ages—has been more than fulfilled.
Not only a "monumentum aere perennius" monument to outlast bronze, Odes 3. Although Aeolic verse forms had been used in Latin by the early tragedians, by the comic playwright Plautus, and later by Catullus, who experimented with Sapphics and the fifth Asclepiadian, nothing like the Odes had ever before been attempted in Latin poetry. Although Horatian lyric would significantly influence later poetry, in antiquity few Latin poets imitated Horace's lyric precedent.
Greek Aeolic meters all begin with two syllables that may be either long or short; Horace nearly always begins the line with a spondee — —. The chief meters are Asclepiadic five variations, called first through fifth Asclepiadian , Alcaic, and Sapphic. But the Asclepiad meters, in all their variations, are only the second most common meter in Odes I-III 27 of the 88 odes.
The language that fills these complex metrical units is lucid and plain, often mined from the vocabulary of prose. Horace addressed the critical importance of pure diction and arrangement, obvious in all his works, in the Ars poetica : a clever juxtaposition rendering a familiar word new is the mark of superior diction A. These brilliant juxtapositions have lured and frustrated his translators. Pyrrha's beauty, for example, is "simplex munditiis" Odes 1. Like Pyrrha, the beauty of the rich economy in the odes has attracted many suitors in many languages, whose attempts at translation were gathered into the volume Ad Pyrrham by Ronald Storrs.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche's frequently quoted appraisal suggests the lapidary appeal of Horace's verse:. Horace's simple diction and exquisite arrangement give the odes an inevitable quality; the expression makes familiar thoughts new. While the language of the odes may be simple, their structure is complex. The odes can be seen as rhetorical arguments with a kind of logic that leads the reader to sometimes unexpected places.
Odes 1. The poem begins with a description of Mount Soracte and the countryside laboring under the snow and cold and concludes with a scene in the middle of Rome on a warm evening. It moves from the particular a snowscape and its pleasures a roaring fire and good wine to a general observation and exhortation weather changes; people should leave to the gods things beyond their control and not fret about the future.
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John Dryden's rendering of the advice of the poem adds rhyme :. Even the poet's distribution of meter shows the consummate artistry of the Odes. The first nine odes of book 1, for example, are often referred to as the Parade Odes, since each of them displays a different Greek meter made to sing in the Latin language. The meters are distributed among these poems as follows: first Asclepiadian, which appears in only one other poem in Odes I-III , closes the collection in Odes 3. The meters in other books are also carefully arranged. The first thirteen poems of book 2 alternate between Alcaics 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13 and Sapphics 2, 4, 6, 8, Variety plays with pattern in the rest of the book: odd-numbered poems continue to be in Alcaics; Sapphics appear only once in the remaining even-numbered poems Odes 2.
Similarly, book 3 opens with a six-poem series of Alcaics, called the Roman Odes because of their concern with Rome and its values. The poem that immediately follows this procession of stately Alcaics, however, is neither stately nor Alcaic but a light poem in the erotic tradition and Asclepiadian meter. The Parade Odes in the first book demonstrate a variety of themes and addressees as well as a variety of meters. Some are addressed to political dignitaries: the princeps emperor Augustus 2 ; Agrippa, Augustus's general and advisor 6 ; Sestius, consul during the year the Odes was published 4 ; and Munatius Plancus, one of the senators who had suggested the title Augustus for the princeps 7.
After honoring Maecenas and Augustus with the first and second odes, Horace reserves the third for Virgil. Scattered among these luminaries are characters either fictitious or otherwise unknown: Thaliarchus, whose name means "leader of the feast" 9 ; Pyrrha, the "fire girl" 5 ; and Lydia 8.
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Lydia is also the subject of three other erotic odes Odes 1. Many of the themes of the collection appear in the Parade Odes as well. Public poems look to the state—Augustus and the New Regime. Private poems praise wine and Eros, compare the cycles of the year with the seasons of human life in which springtime signals thoughts of death, not rebirth , and exhort one to live in the present, as in the famous phrase carpe diem seize the day, Odes 1. The capricious turns of life, often personified by Necessity or Fortune, and the ever-present specter of death put human aspirations and appetites in larger perspective.
Horace especially loves to explore the literary possibilities offered by the Hellenistic ethical goal of the tranquility that comes through balance, as in two stanzas Odes 2. The collection includes several hymns, such as Odes 1. Other odes issue invitations and celebrate parties, birthdays, and homecomings. The poems resonate more with affection for poetry and the Italian countryside than for the various lovers who appear in Horace's poetry.
While the love poems may lack the intensity of personal feeling found in the poems of Catullus, the importance and joys of friendship in a poet who calls both Virgil and Maecenas "half of my soul" ring true Odes 1. One of Horace's dearest friends is his Muse, his poetic talent, which is often the subject of a poem and always a part of it for example, Odes 1.
The world of the Odes is bound inextricably with their poetics. Part of Horace's persona—lack of political ambition, satisfaction with his life, gratitude for his land, and pride in his craft and the recognition it wins him—is an expression of an intricate web of awareness of place. Horace in the country on his own estate becomes quasi-emperor in his own right. His rural retreat is the ideal setting for poetry and the place where the gods especially smile on his poetic talents as in Odes 1.
But there is also a side of Horace that longs to be in the middle of the action, despite the attendant demands on his time and energy. Rome is the proving ground for poets as well as politicians, and Horace is not without competitive instincts. While Horace was composing the Odes , Augustus was, in a sense, composing a new Rome, or rather trying to fashion Rome and Romans to reflect the values they more boasted of than practiced. Italy had been torn by strife for as long as anyone alive could remember and for the last quarter century had first teetered on the brink of, then plunged into, civil war.
Augustus's vision included peace and renewal of the state on all levels—political, religious, domestic. Through an ambitious architectural program he constructed or refurbished temples and public buildings; through laws and public examples he exhorted Romans to live by the morals valued by their ancestors. Many of Horace's odes reflect and reinforce the call to renewal at the heart of Augustus's program.
In the Roman Odes for example, Odes 3. Much of what Horace says, familiar from his earlier work, is presented fresh in lyric, rather than satiric, arguments. The first ode, for example, argues for wanting just what is enough to avoid the anxieties that accompany excess of wealth and ambition. Beyond praises of the old-fashioned virtues of simplicity, chastity, reverence for the gods, tempered ambition, respectable poverty, and love of Rome, Horace's odes praise the princeps himself for bringing peace to an empire torn by war.
The odes cannot be divided easily between public and private, however. Often the two spheres blend, as in Odes 3.
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What did Rome think of this unprecedented accomplishment? Ostensible attacks on his poetics, however, are a favorite literary stratagem for example, Sat. A lyric hiatus of six years before Odes IV and Suetonius's remark that the fourth book was written at Augustus's request might also suggest they were not received as well as Horace might have liked. The ten-year gap separating the verse conversations of Satires II and Epistles I does not suggest that the satires were badly received, however; nor are Suetonius's remarks conclusive.
As often with ancient authors the truth is irretrievable. Three years later, in 20 or early 19 B. As with the rest of his works, Horace presents the first book of epistles as a poetry book, introduced by a programmatic poem and closed by a poem addressed to the book itself. The first poem of the collection announces to Maecenas the poet's intention to retire from Rome in general and poetry in particular in order to study philosophy, or, as he puts it, "what is true and fitting.
The philosophy of the Epistles is professedly practical—whatever is useful for the situation or whatever suits the poet's temperament at the moment. Unlike Lucretius in his Epicurean epic De rerum natura which, written a generation earlier, greatly influenced the letters , Horace in the Epistles is not concerned with explicating a particular philosophical system and winning over his audience to a new way of thinking.
Rather, the letters reflect the intellectual perambulations of someone ceaselessly analytical, yet eminently human and delightfully fallible. The philosophical stance in the letters combines an exploration of Socrates' belief that the unexamined life is not worth living, with Horace's awareness that examining one's weaknesses is not the same as mastering them. The letters are both a return to satire and a new literary experiment. They are verse conversations in a different voice and a different mode. Like the Satires , the Epistles are full of exempla from literature and life: the profligate Maenius, who had appeared in Sat.
Animal fables play a role as well: a puppy in Epist. The narrative stance is sometimes reminiscent of the satires as well. In Epist. Having listed a cornucopia of faults that philosophy can cure—such as greed, love of glory, envy, anger, laziness, drunkenness, and lust—Horace picks greed and applies it to his addressee, calling Maecenas quite inappropriately a merchant. Like Davus, the persona gets so enthusiastic about his project of philosophical reflection that he begins spouting whatever ethical formulae come to mind, forgetting, it seems, that he has just stressed that the object of his search is his own edification and betterment.
The human weaknesses catalogued in the first poem show the Epistles are a continuation of, rather than a break from, Horace's earlier poetry; the ethical concerns that had been part of the fabric of his lyric poetry and of his satires have become the explicit focus of the letters. The Epistles take place against a background of concerns both contemporary and timeless—independence, friendship, consistency, ambition, public versus private life, getting ahead and getting along with others, social advancement versus contentment, and, as always, literature.
MsoNormal, li. MsoNormal, div. Associations of place are especially marked. Geographical distance often invites reference to a physical place, and the epistolary genre lends itself to the investigation of the relationship between physical place and psychic state. On the most literal level Horace makes much of his surroundings, whether the location is the frenetic capital or his beloved country estate. Such exploration of place encompasses intangible place as well. Simplicity and clarity ethical, social, and political distinguish the countryside from its complicated urban counterpart.
While physical place can often have an impact on psychological happiness, the poet also stresses the priority of internal peace over external surroundings; he chides his vilicus overseer and himself as well for supposing a change of scene will bring happiness Epist. To his traveling friend Bullatius, he writes in Epist. The letters are addressed both to known historical individuals—such as Maecenas Epist. Some addressees appear only in the letters while others appear elsewhere—for example, Julius Florus is also the addressee of a second letter Epist.
In addition to being the addressee of Epist. In letters written to a range of addressees about ethical issues, the interplay between the specificity of social expectations and the universality of philosophical ideals comes to the fore. At times he seems to stand apart and scrutinize his society Epist. Horace keeps the reader aware of the potential for tension and conflict between human aspirations for the socially advantageous life and the ethically commendable one.
Instead of rationalizing the potential for conflict, Horace points to it. He suggests to Quinctius Epist. Horace does not expose Roman social life as a fraud but instead shows a complex ethical awareness in action among people of different social levels in a society that places a high premium on competition and advancement. So too he enthusiastically embraces reflective withdrawal in Epist.
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Horace presents himself as short, prematurely gray, fond of sunning himself, and as quick to be appeased as he was prone to anger. Augustus wrote that Horace composed poems to match his stature—short. Horace should remember that he is also stout and could measure the length of his poems by the circumference of his stomach. Such facetious letters from Augustus show that over the years Horace came to be on friendly terms with the emperor himself. In these letters the emperor encourages Horace to treat him as an intimate, addressing Horace with affectionate bantering.
Horace declined the post of secretary, pleading his own ill health. Apparently not slighted by the refusal, Augustus jokingly wrote a letter in which he assured the poet that he still thought highly of him, even if Horace had spurned a closer friendship. In addition to frequent generous gifts, Augustus honored the forty-eight-year-old poet by engaging him to write the hymn for the secular games Carmen saeculare , 17 B. The Ludi saeculares were intended to commemorate the transition from one saeculum or the longest human life span, counted as a period of one hundred years to another.
The previous ceremonies had taken place in B. Preparations began in the 20s B. From May 30 to June 3, the days and nights were full of unprecedented pomp and fanfare—rituals, sacrifices, and purification ceremonies that involved both Roman leaders and the people. According to Suetonius, Augustus asked Horace to compose victory odes for his stepsons Tiberius and Drusus after their successful campaign against the Vindelici in 15 B. Odes 4.
In the opening poem of the fourth book Horace declares himself too old for love even as he is swept away by desire for the boy Ligurinus. It is not the only erotic poem in the collection: Odes 4. The poet invites Phyllis to a birthday party for Maecenas in a poem that combines eroticism, a festive occasion with wine and song, and ethical reflection Odes 4. The poet of book 4 exults in his well-defined and secure place as esteemed poet of Rome.
In the style of Pindar he declares himself not a Pindaric swan but a bee of the Italian countryside fashioning tightly worked poems Odes 4. The swan soars; Horace stays happily by the Tiber. To the muse Melpomene, Horace expresses his gratitude for the literary prestige he has won Odes 4. Housman considered the most beautiful poem in ancient literature and translated in , moves from the flight of winter and the joyous return of spring to the ageless cycle of seasons and the ephemeral nature of human life:.
The lament on the brevity of life and the finality of death is immediately followed by two poems on the immortalizing power of poetry. In Odes 4. Instead, the poem offers Censorinus the gift of immortality: while all unrecorded merit fades away, poets have rescued the worthy from death forever.
The next poem makes a similar point Odes 4. Whereas throughout Odes I-III Horace used his poetic talents to promote a simple lifestyle rooted in the kind of values found in rural Italy, in the final book of Odes he celebrates renewed moral strength and peace. A comparison of Odes 4. Maecenas appears only once in the fourth book, in an ode that celebrates his birthday Odes 4. This shift has often been linked to an event that occurred the same year that Odes I-III were published.
Maecenas may have played a less- active role after this time, but the tone of Odes 4. Augustus had been the subject of many laudatory odes but not the direct recipient of one of the more informal sermones. The closest he came to receiving a letter was Epistle 1. Suetonius writes that when Augustus had read some of the sermones probably referring to the epistles , he wrote Horace a witty complaint, accusing him of not wanting to acknowledge their friendship.
Since all by yourself you shoulder so many and such important public affairs, you keep Italy safe by arms, furnish her with good values, correct her faults with laws: I should offend the public good, Caesar, if I should waste your time with lengthy conversation. The letter is, in fact, a fairly lengthy conversation lines about literature. The impulse to diminish contemporary literature has not, he says, discouraged his countrymen from trying their hands at verse. Horace advises Augustus to look on this literary mania as a good thing since poets are harmless folk, dedicated to their art and beneficial in their own way to the public good The poet is, in W.
The emperor should especially value the writers whose work is aimed at a small, select audience of readers, rather than those who seek to please the masses by writing for large public performances. Painstaking contemporary poets such as Horace may not have large public appeal, Horace argues, but they contribute to the lasting legacy of Roman literature. The letter has taken on a special irony over the centuries. Horace scoffed at the idea of preferring inferior older literature to more-recent and greater works, and insisted that a writer continually earn his audience.
Odes 3. Literature and ethics are the focus of the letter to Julius Florus Epist. Florus was also a poet, and Horace adopts the stance of a seasoned mentor. The opening sets the tone, which is as informal as the letter to Augustus is ceremonious. The Ars poetica remains in many ways a mystery.
The Ars was not grouped in the manuscript tradition as it is now, with the second book of the Epistles , but was listed as a separate publication. Its date of composition variously put between B. Sometimes called the Epistula ad Pisones Letter to the Pisos , the poem is better known by the title first recorded by Quintilian, Ars poetica. Some argue that the poem honors Cn. Calpurnius Piso consul in 23 B. The Ars itself is a rambling, difficult poem. Porphyrio says that Horace modeled his precepts of literature after those of Neoptolemus of Parium third century B.
She was one of only a handful of women in her graduating class. Sheindlin married and finished her degree at New York Law School. Then she divorced. A law-school acquaintance encouraged her to apply to an opening in the New York Family Court system. Mayor Ed Koch appointed her to a Family Court judgeship in ; four years later, she was made the supervising judge of Manhattan Family Court at In the meantime, she had married Jerry Sheindlin, whom she approached at a bar, sticking her finger in his face and demanding to know his name.
They divorced briefly in , soon after her father died, but reconciled within a year. They raised their family of five children in the Bronx. Sheindlin met Larry Lyttle, at the time the head of the production company Big Ticket Television, who agreed to shoot a pilot for a new courtroom TV program. The show debuted in September , showing on any channel that would take it; within three years, it reached the No.
Daytime TV had turned deeply emotional, powered by Oprah Winfrey, who had tissues, and Jerry Springer, who had security. Sheindlin, in turn, had no patience for fuss. Her show neither coddled nor exploited sob stories — it just cut through them to get to the truth. Sheindlin writes down the salary she wants, seals it in an envelope and presents it at the end of the meal. The set is mostly burgundy, with wood-paneled walls and gold-plated lamps and wall sconces.
Litigants stand behind two wooden tables, a jug of water and a few glasses before them. This is my job. Sheindlin pounced, asking him if he reported that income to the Social Security Administration. He had filed an illegitimate restraining order! Sheindlin was already back in her dressing room.
Jackson sits on her desk. Jackson and Sheindlin are good friends. They watch as if the cases were major plays in a sports game, even talking back to the TV screen. Between cases, Sheindlin might sign a few autographs or catch up on some emails, but she mostly plays gin rummy, a game she usually wins. The Judge read a fan letter — she receives dozens a day — aloud to me in her dressing room. Would you believe it, they all got jobs! Eventually, her break ended, and the Judge reapplied her lipstick and strode back to the bench, her jeans and sneakers just visible beneath her court robes.
If they did, there would be chaos in the streets all the time. They come from this type of home. Before she ever went on TV, she saw plenty of people change over the years, plenty of parents who completed addiction programs or found gainful employment in order to regain custody of their children, or kids who had straightened up and stopped causing havoc. She told me once about a beloved friend who had gained weight; Sheindlin set up a weekly weight check-in with her, for two years, to make sure she was staying healthy.
Sheindlin cites her life as an example of the American dream; she took what she was given and made the best out of it. They would rather wait 45 minutes for the confessional. We chastise people for sleeping what are, after all, only sufficient amounts. We think of them as slothful. But that notion is quickly abandoned [as we grow up]. Humans are the only species that deliberately deprive themselves of sleep for no apparent reason. The world of sleep science is still relatively small. Walker, who is 44 and was born in Liverpool, has been in the field for more than 20 years, having published his first research paper at the age of just It was while working on this that he stumbled into the realm of sleep.
One night, however, he read a scientific paper that changed everything. I realised my mistake. I had been measuring the brainwave activity of my patients while they were awake, when I should have been doing so while they were asleep. Sleep, it seemed, could be a new early diagnostic litmus test for different subtypes of dementia. After this, sleep became his obsession. I was always curious, annoyingly so, but when I started to read about sleep, I would look up and hours would have gone by.
No one could answer the simple question: why do we sleep? That seemed to me to be the greatest scientific mystery. I was going to attack it, and I was going to do that in two years. But I was naive. Formerly a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, he is now professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California. Does his obsession extend to the bedroom? Does he take his own advice when it comes to sleep? I take my sleep incredibly seriously because I have seen the evidence. There is, however, a sting in the tale.
His problem then, as always in these situations, was that he knew too much. His brain began to race. In the end, it seems, even world experts in sleep act just like the rest of us when struck by the curse of insomnia. He turned on a light and read for a while. Will Why We Sleep have the impact its author hopes? But what I can tell you is that it had a powerful effect on me. After reading it, I was absolutely determined to go to bed earlier — a regime to which I am sticking determinedly. In a way, I was prepared for this.
But in another way, it was unexpected. I am mostly immune to health advice. The evidence Walker presents, however, is enough to send anyone early to bed. Without sleep, there is low energy and disease. With sleep, there is vitality and health. More than 20 large scale epidemiological studies all report the same clear relationship: the shorter your sleep, the shorter your life.
When your sleep becomes short, moreover, you are susceptible to weight gain. Among the reasons for this are the fact that inadequate sleep decreases levels of the satiety-signalling hormone, leptin, and increases levels of the hunger-signalling hormone, ghrelin. However, processed food and sedentary lifestyles do not adequately explain its rise. Something is missing. Sleep has a powerful effect on the immune system, which is why, when we have flu, our first instinct is to go to bed: our body is trying to sleep itself well.