In plain english:. Now that we have an intuitive explanation, how do we turn that sucker into an equation? The usual calculus way: take a tiny unit of volume and measure the flux going through it. We need to add up the total flux passing through the x, y and z dimensions.
Imagine a cube at the point we want to measure, with sides of length dx, dy and dz. BetterExplained helps k monthly readers with friendly, insightful math lessons more. Popular Courses. Login Advisor Login Newsletters.
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What is Divergence? Divergence can occur between the price of an asset and almost any technical or fundamental indicator or data. Though, divergence is typically used by technical traders when the price is moving in the opposite direction of a technical indicator. Positive divergence signals price could start moving higher soon. It occurs when the price is moving lower but a technical indicator is moving higher or showing bullish signals.
Negative divergence points to lower prices in the future. It occurs when the price is moving higher but a technical indicator is moving lower or showing bearish signals. Divergence isn't to be relied on exclusively, as it doesn't provide timely trade signals. Divergence can last a long time without a price reversal occurring. Divergence is not present for all major price reversals, it is only present on some. Divergence is one of the common uses of many technical indicators, primarily the oscillators.
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The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. It can be used to help identify trends, help confirm reversals, and highlight where reversals may occur. It can be used to generate trade signals based on overbought and oversold levels as well as divergences.
Klinger Oscillator Definition and Uses The Klinger Oscillator is a technical indicator that combines prices movements with volume. Maps are shown for all humans and macaques tested. The plotted responses are averaged across the two lowest frequency ranges and the two highest frequency ranges averaging across harmonic tones and noise in both cases.
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Responses are plotted as a function of ROI size percent of sound-responsive voxels. Each human subject columns was reliability-matched to each monkey rows by subsampling runs N indicates the number of runs. For macaques, we used all available data. Bootstrapping was performed across runs for individual subject analyses, and across both subjects and runs for group data. Responses to harmonic tones and noise were averaged across all frequency ranges.
Voxels were selected as responding preferentially to low a or high b frequencies two lowest ranges vs. We then measured the response of the selected voxels to harmonic tones and noise in independent data, averaged across all frequency ranges tested left two panels. Tone vs.
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The number of selected voxels was varied as in other ROI analyses. Error bars show 1 standard deviation across subsampled sets of runs. Monkey data was slightly more reliable than the human data, due to the large amount of data collected, and thus we did not subsample the human data. Left plots show responses collapsed across sound intensity for all ROI sizes.
Same format as panels a, b. Human data from Experiment IA was used for comparison. Here we show results from all five macaques and subsample the human data to match reliability. Tonotopic outlines are shown for all but 2 human subjects in whom we did not have tonotopic data. Each human subject was matched in reliability to each monkey by subsampling runs N indicates the number of runs. For monkeys we used all of the available data.
Bootstrapping was performed across runs. Group a,b and individual-subject ROIs c,d preferentially responsive to voiced a,c or unvoiced calls b,d. Human subjects have been individually matched to each monkey subject in reliability by subsampling runs N indicates the number of runs. The type of noise had little effect on the maps.
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Responses to dichotic and diotic noise were very similar. Responses to the diotic noise are difficult to see on the figure because the response curve for the dichotic noise overlaps the curve for diotic noise. For each voxel, this figure plots the test-retest error for repeated measurements of the response to the same stimulus vs. Smaller errors indicate greater sensitivity. In macaques, test-rest responses were measured using a split-half analysis applied to all of the runs subdividing the dataset in half and averaging across each set.
In humans, in some cases we used fewer runs to match the reliability of each macaque tested. Reprints and Permissions. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Cortex Perception. Abstract We report a difference between humans and macaque monkeys in the functional organization of cortical regions implicated in pitch perception. Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Additional information Journal peer review information: Nature Neuroscience thanks Frederic Theunissen, Kerry Walker and the other, anonymous, reviewer s for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
References 1. Article Google Scholar 3. Google Scholar 4. Article Google Scholar 8. Article Google Scholar 9. Article Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Download references. Acknowledgements The authors thank G. Conway Authors Search for Sam V. Integrated supplementary information Supplementary Figure 1 Cluster-corrected maps. Supplementary Figure 2 Uncorrected maps using a more liberal voxel-wise significance threshold.
Supplementary Figure 7 Tone vs. Supplementary Figure 10 Maps of voxels preferentially responsive to voiced vs. Supplementary Figure 11 Response of ROIs preferentially responsive to voiced a or noise-vocoded calls b from individual humans left and macaques right. Supplementary Figure 12 Intensity dependence of voxels preferentially responsive to voiced or noise-vocoded calls.
Supplementary Figure 13 Effect of using dichotic vs.
Supplementary Figure 14 Sensitivity of fMRI measurements across auditory cortex in humans and macaques. Supplementary information Supplementary Figures 1—14 and Supplementary Note.