Many people think that a revolutionary era gives birth to music that belongs to it. The intention of this article is not to link arbitrarily terrorism to music. Even though the best part of the krautrock musicians came from leftwing backgrounds, they had absolutely nothing to do with the violence that RAF exerted, but it is no coincidence that the golden era of krautrock coincides with the most turbulent period of the modern German history.
In the prosperous W. The American way of life, which had taken hold of the German society, had diverted the interest of the majority of the people from politics and matters of ideology. The arrest of the ill-famed Eichmann and his trial in Israel brought back to the fore the atrocity of the Holocaust and the Nazi crimes.
Intellectuals, including Grass and Xambermas, revealed through their works the wounds that Nazism inflicted on the body of the German society. More radical ones would discern the phenomenon of selective memory in the entire Bonn Republic: a western capitalist establishment that cultivated indifference towards the history of the nation to ensure its affluence via consumerism, going hand-in-hand with the USA, as well as the anti-communist hatred.
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The appointment of Georg Kiesinger a former member of the Nazi party as a Chancellor added to the fear that spoke of shameless cynicism from the German democracy which was not yet done with its Nazi past, since the state apparatus was manned by a number of ex-Nazis. During the same time, the world was suffering from incidents that would make their mark on contemporary history.
The Vietnam War would smear the image of America, lifting off the liberal cloak that draped it. The French May of would turn out to be a milestone for the European youth and the riots from the students would spark the outbreak of European youth against an aged regime. The same year, the Prague Spring would be tainted by the Soviet invasion. In the wake of these events, the young people of Germany would finally get motivated, especially the students who would try to channel protest into creativity: they would either become active in the political arena or they would engage themselves in arts and rock music or they would turn to the armed fight, resorting with no second thought to violence in order to pursue their revolutionary visions.
On October 18, the German authorities announce the death of Andreas Baader, Jan-Carl Raspe and Gudrun Ensslin who were imprisoned with charges of terrorism offences and were kept in the so-called white cells in the prison of Stammheim. Their death was concluded as suicide. The existence of many blank spots in the case like where did they get the guns from to carry out the suicide pact rouse complaints whose target was the German state as the responsible for the death of the masterminds of the organization.
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During the s, riots broke out in West Berlin including an attack at the American Embassy. The young students began to form political entities, just like Kommune 1 which was created in West Berlin and it would not take too long to show its nonconformist disposition by issuing a proclamation applauding the attack at a mall in Belgium that claimed many lives, urging the Germans to do the same the German justice took exception to this and sued them, but everyone was declared innocent.
The situation came to a head when Rudi Dutschke a short-lived member of Kommune 1 , a vehement supporter of the student movement, was nearly killed by the mentally defective Nazi sympathizer Josef Bachmann. Raging protests broke out anew and Meinhof called people to resist through the column of her magazine.
A week before, Baader, Ensslin and two other people had set a department store in Frankfurt on fire and they were arrested shortly after. Baader, who had violated his probation, was arrested and imprisoned anew. Meinhof, who had resigned from the magazine she was working at, would assist him to escape, an act that would change her life for ever. To this day, psychologists and censors of public life have attempted to put their finger on how an acknowledged journalist of the left and mother of two children was converted to an active member of RAF.
Not long after that, the manifesto a fiery denunciation of capitalism and imperialism of the group was issued where its name was announced: Red Army Faction and its acronym RAF. Influenced by Che whose tactic was to give fights mainly in the countryside , they would seek to take the armed revolutionary fight to the urban centres, provided that they would inspire other revolutionary groups with their enterprises.
They believed that the conditions were rife for the fall of capitalism in a western country and its collapse would be sped up if they coordinated at the same time, the Red Brigades were formed in Italy that would follow a similar tactic. Horst Herold, who was responsible to track down and terminate RAF, aided by technology began to amass a huge volume of data, intruding the private life of thousands of civilians until he achieved his goal: the arrest of Baadar, Meinhof and other members of the group. During the presidency of the social democrat Willy Brandt, a decree was issued that forbade people who were considered to have radical views, especially if they were members of such parties, to work as civil servants.
When they were transported to the infamous cells of Stammheim, they went through tortures similar to these displayed in The Clockwork Orange according to their lawyers. They went on hunger strikes. Also, due to the prison conditions, it was decided to call upon a popular person, the intellectual Jean-Paul Sartre to step in and meet Baader in order to get across the demands of the prisoners to the wide public. The meeting illustrated the unbridged gap between the young Baader who was making up for the theoretical gaps in his mind with action and the aged philosopher who was in disagreement with the practices of the group, their hoary demands and, above all, the violence that was not befitting to the German left.
The trial of the members began amidst protests and was turned into a daily parody due to the attitude of the accused who were mocking the judges and were insisting on better living conditions. Meinhof committed suicide under ambiguous circumstances and the morale of the prisoners was constantly waning.
After numerous turnarounds of the authorities, the dead body of the kidnapped was found in a deserted car. An even more impressive attempt of claiming back the prisoners followed up by hijacking a Lufthansa airplane with the demand of exchanging the hostages with the prisoners in Stammheim. After a brief odyssey the hijacking came to an end with the release of the hostages and the death of three hijackers only Souhaila Andrawes survived as a result of the raid of the German Federal Police. After the death of the three founding members, RAF was regrouped and carried on its operations which were fizzling out with the passage of time until the fall of the Soviet Union sources speak of clandestine funding of the organization from the USSR.
Some sporadic attacks that followed up are held as the lingering swan song of RAF and terror over Europe. In the beginning of the s, the American culture swept over W. It featured primitive and harsh garage rock that was shifting effortlessly through various rhythms, ending up sounding wacky for the time.
The fact that the Americans were well aware that it was unlikely that their music would cross the borders of the country they were living in, liberated them from compromises of any kind. Unwilling to give in to the formulas of the time, they opted to go against the grain and their lyrics, when they made any sense, were genuinely biting against their own country.
The impact of his cult album, thanks to its anti-conformist attitude, would influence heavily a musical genre that would come into being a few years later: krautrock. At the time, the genius German composer Stockhausen was on the crest of his wave having earned respect from many directions for his radical outings. The album Kontanke which was released in took everyone by storm with its unprecedented electronic sounds seven solid years before synthesizer arrived on the scene.
The groundbreaking Hymnen would also be a huge source of influence and inspiration and would establish him as the mentor of a number of German musicians. The decision of this great musician to give lectures about experimental music in the USA which were attended by bands like Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, and the fact that he in return would attend a gig of the latter, for which he pronounced himself impressed, made many soon-to-be krautock musicians, who not long before thumbed their nose at rock, to reevaluate.
At the end of the s the rock music was marching through West Germany as native bands began to imitate foreign ones, achieving quite a success. In stark contrast to this success, there was a musical tendency that was not keen on being defined by what was happening abroad, instead the search of new forms of expression and the development of a distinctive style was the priority in this turbulent world.
After meeting with an orphan summoner girl Eiko Carol , she leads them to the ruins of Madain Sari where Vivi ponders over his existence and is comforted by Zidane. They find Kuja at the Iifa Tree and witness him kill Brahne during his quest to overthrow his master, Garland , to become the master of the worlds Gaia and Terra.
He enlists the sentient black mages from the Black Mage Village promising to prolong their lifespan if they follow him, and when Vivi learns of this he is upset, knowing Kuja is a liar. The black mages are abandoned by Kuja when he learns of the power of Trance and return to their village. The party learns of the mysterious world of Terra, and after obtaining the elemental mirrors from Ipsen's Castle set out to place them in the four elemental shrines.
Vivi and Steiner join forces to visit the Wind Shrine where Steiner shields Vivi from the blustering wind with his body, and the two defeat the shrine guardian , Tiamat. After opening the portal to Terra and traveling there, Zidane becomes troubled after learning he was created by Garland.
Vivi empathizes with him, having gone through a similar identity crisis himself, and with his friends' help, Zidane snaps out of his depression. They confront Garland who is killed by Kuja who uses his new-found power of Trance to annihilate Terra. The party ventures into Memoria where Vivi helps the party defeat Trance Kuja and the mysterious Necron. Vivi is the only one absent, instead being represented by several children, each of whom looks like Vivi.
It is uncertain how Vivi's "sons" came about as the Iifa Tree has collapsed, and the source of Mist, an ingredient used in black mage production, is gone.
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The monologue during the ending is spoken by Vivi, indicating he has expired by the time the ending takes place, as he is saying goodbye to his friends and the final words of his monologue are "Farewell. My memories will be part of the sky ", an allusion to death in the world of Final Fantasy IX. Because the speaker of the lines is not specified it has incited speculation among fans on Vivi's fate and who is the speaker of the monologue.
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The game's Japanese version is more explicit on the issue, as the speaker uses a speech pattern and pronouns that only Vivi used throughout the game. Vivi wields staves in battle, his special ability is Focus which boosts his magic power, and his skillset is Blk Mag which casts offensive and elemental magic. Vivi has access to many support abilities which can improve his magic or shield him from statuses.
Vivi also appears briefly as a boss in the second battle against Prison Cage. Like other characters, a Mirror version of Vivi can be summoned by the Epitaph. The song is paced at a fast tempo and is mildly syncopated, which elaborates the aura of Vivi's curiosity.
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The song "Black Mage Village" uses parts of Vivi's theme in its melody in its second half, and the song "Limited Time" is the same melody, but slowed down. Vivi's design is inspired by the Black Mage job, a Final Fantasy tradition, although he forgoes wearing a robe in favor of a jacket of the same color. In an early draft for the Final Fantasy IX opening sequence,  Vivi would have ended up on the Theater Ship stage during the play, and Baku would have been quick to incorporate ad lib, asking Vivi to use a fire spell.
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Vivi would have created a wall of fire separating Steiner who is up on the stage trying to stop Tantalus from kidnapping Princess Garnet and his corps of paladins from the others, and Garnet's hood would have caught on fire. As Garnet would have tossed her robe away revealing her identity to the audience, the paladins would have attacked Tantalus and Vivi would have joined in on the battle on the player's side, with Vivi the only one able to use real magic, the others' "magic attacks" being mere special effects.
In the final game, Tantalus fights the battles against a lone Steiner and Vivi does not become part of the play. Vivi has made appearances in the following games in the Final Fantasy series :. Vivi has a Play Arts action figure, released in with a Mage Staff , extra hands, and display stand as bonuses. Two Coca-Cola bottle cap figurines for Vivi also exist, one fully colored and a "red crystal" version. Vivi is also the present tense of the Italian verb vivere , which also means "to live", therefore Vivi can be translated as "You live", or also as the imperative "Live!
These are possible allusions to his search for the meaning of his existence, his abilities with black magic and maybe even his struggle to prove he is not a puppet to do others' bidding.
Terrorism and krautrock in postwar Germany
His name was later changed into "Orunitia", the romanization of the Japanese pronunciation of "Ornitier", in the Greatest Hits release. Removed from Final Fantasy IX references, it is not easy to ascertain how many instances of "Ornitier" are authentic surnames and how many are pseudonyms obliquely inspired by Vivi. If "Ornitier" is a true surname, it may be derived from Latin ornitharius , which means "pertaining to birds". The more common uses of the Latin root in English relate to "ornithology": the study and observation of birds.
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