This resulted in an aggressive military campaign known as the Pacification of Libya against natives in Libya, including mass killings, the use of concentration camps, and the forced starvation of thousands of people. Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling , Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica in Libya, from their settlements, slated to be given to Italian settlers. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, characterized by one-party totalitarian regimes run by charismatic dictators, glorification of violence, and racist ideology.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, then spread to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left—right spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state, and technology.
The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. The war resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens. Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and they regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and respond effectively to economic difficulties.
Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature, and views political violence, war, and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy with the principal goal of achieving autarky self-sufficiency through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.
Since the end of World War II in , few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The terms neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far right with ideologies similar to or rooted in 20th century fascist movements.
The term fascist comes from the Italian word fascismo , derived from fascio meaning a bundle of rods, ultimately from the Latin word fasces. This was the name given to political organizations in Italy known as fasci, groups similar to guilds or syndicates. The Fascists came to associate the term with the ancient Roman fasces or fascio littorio —a bundle of rods tied around an axe, an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate carried by his lictors, which could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.
The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. This ideology was based on a revolt against materialism, rationalism, positivism, bourgeois society, and democracy. Its intellectual school considered the individual only one part of the larger collectivity, which should not be viewed as an atomized numerical sum of individuals.
They condemned the rationalistic individualism of liberal society and the dissolution of social links in bourgeois society. Social Darwinism, which gained widespread acceptance, made no distinction between physical and social life, and viewed the human condition as being an unceasing struggle to achieve the survival of the fittest. Its emphasis on biogroup identity and the role of organic relations within societies fostered legitimacy and appeal for nationalism. New theories of social and political psychology also rejected the notion of human behavior being governed by rational choice, and instead claimed that emotion was more influential in political issues than reason.
At the outbreak of World War I in August , the Italian political left became severely split over its position on the war. The Italian Socialist Party PSI opposed the war but a number of Italian revolutionary syndicalists supported war against Germany and Austria-Hungary on the grounds that their reactionary regimes had to be defeated to ensure the success of socialism. Angelo Oliviero Olivetti formed a pro-interventionist fascio called the Fasci of International Action in October Similar political ideas arose in Germany after the outbreak of the war. After the end of the World War I, fascism rose out of relative obscurity into international prominence, with fascist regimes forming most notably in Italy, Germany, and Japan, the three of which would be allied in World War II.
Fascist Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy in and Adolf Hitler had successfully consolidated his power in Germany by Hitler and Mussolini: Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were the two most prominent fascist dictators, rising to power in the decades after World War I. During the s, Japan moved into political totalitarianism, ultranationalism, and fascism, culminating in its invasion of China in These measures were considered by many in Japan as refusal by the Occidental powers to consider Japan an equal partner.
On the basis of national security, these events released a surge of Japanese nationalism and resulted in the end of collaboration diplomacy that supported peaceful economic expansion. The implementation of a military dictatorship and territorial expansionism were considered the best ways to protect Japan. In the early s, the Ministry of Home Affairs began arresting left-wing political dissidents, generally to exact a confession and renouncement of anti-state leanings. Over 30, such arrests were made between and In response, a large group of writers founded a Japanese branch of the International Popular Front Against Fascism and published articles in major literary journals warning of the dangers of statism.
The new military leadership would rescind the Meiji Constitution, ban political parties, replace the Diet of Japan with an assembly free of corruption, and nationalize major industries. Kita also envisioned strict limits to private ownership of property and land reform to improve the lot of tenant farmers. Thus strengthened internally, Japan could then embark on a crusade to free all of Asia from Western imperialism. Although his works were banned by the government almost immediately after publication, circulation was widespread, and his thesis proved popular not only with the younger officer class excited at the prospects of military rule and Japanese expansionism, but with the populist movement for its appeal to the agrarian classes and to the left wing of the socialist movement.
In the s and s, the supporters of Japanese statism used the slogan Showa Restoration, which implied that a new resolution was needed to replace the existing political order dominated by corrupt politicians and capitalists, with one which in their eyes , would fulfill the original goals of the Meiji Restoration of direct Imperial rule via military proxies. The first 20 years were characterized by the rise of extreme nationalism and a series of expansionist wars. After suffering defeat in World War II, Japan was occupied by foreign powers for the first time in its history, then re-emerged as a major world economic power.
The extreme right became influential throughout the Japanese government and society, notably within the Kwantung Army, a Japanese army stationed in China along the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railroad. During the Manchurian Incident of , radical army officers bombed a small portion of the South Manchuria Railroad and, falsely attributing the attack to the Chinese, invaded Manchuria.
The Kwantung Army conquered Manchuria and set up the puppet government of Manchukuo there without permission from the Japanese government. International criticism of Japan following the invasion led to Japan withdrawing from the League of Nations. The withdrawal from the League of Nations meant that Japan was politically isolated. Japan had no strong allies and its actions had been internationally condemned, while internally popular nationalism was booming. Local leaders such as mayors, teachers, and Shinto priests were recruited by the various movements to indoctrinate the populace with ultra-nationalist ideals.
They had little time for the pragmatic ideas of the business elite and party politicians. Their loyalty lay to the Emperor and the military. These ambitions led to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in After their victory in the Chinese capital, the Japanese military committed the infamous Nanking Massacre.
The Japanese military failed to defeat the Chinese government led by Chiang Kai-shek and the war descended into a bloody stalemate that lasted until Japan reacted by forging an alliance with Germany and Italy in , known as the Tripartite Pact, which worsened its relations with the U. In July , the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands froze all Japanese assets when Japan completed its invasion of French Indochina by occupying the southern half of the country, further increasing tension in the Pacific.
Francisco Franco December 4, — November 20, was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from until his death. As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic in With the elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Hardcover , pages. Published July 4th by Macmillan first published July 1st More Details Original Title. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
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The Invasion of Ethiopia – Mussolini’s Crazy Plan For Restoration of the Roman Empire
More filters. Sort order. Aug 14, Sam Worby rated it it was amazing. An absolutely delicious book. History that reveals both the sweeping big picture and depth and context.
The Italian Wars,
History that shows how contingent developments were that now seem inevitable while convincingly arguing for economic underlying patterns. Properly analytical stuff that makes judgements and argues persuasively I think for well-reasoned interpretations. Accompanied by great pen portraits and exciting, action-packed narrative. Topped off with a democratic style and pop cultural references to m An absolutely delicious book. Topped off with a democratic style and pop cultural references to make me smile. Finally, and best of all, a history that makes full use of legal sources and explains the use and force of various legal systems.
I loved this history of Theoderic, Justinian, Charlemagne and the development of the papacy. Highly recommended! Peter Heather's study of Western Europe after the fall of Rome comes in four parts, with the first three being similar, and the fourth different. Each one is about a separate attempt to restore 'imperial' rule to the Western Roman Empire. Part one starts with the background of Theoderic, specifically his time as a hostage in Constantinople, and his exposure to Roman civilization.
It moves onto Gothic politics, and does a good job looking at them, and how through a series of gambles, and deals, he Peter Heather's study of Western Europe after the fall of Rome comes in four parts, with the first three being similar, and the fourth different. It moves onto Gothic politics, and does a good job looking at them, and how through a series of gambles, and deals, he ended up as the leader of a reduced, but cohesive group of Goths, and took on the job of expelling Odoacer from Italy.
The resulting Ostrogothic Kingdom is shown as an attempted restoration of the Empire to Western territories. Despite later disagreements, Theoderic had started with orders from Constantinople, and his later effective control over Visigothic Kingdom in Gaul and Spain allowed him to dominate most of the Western Empire's former territories, and the intent was purely to be seen as the Western Emperor.
The problem was the conjoined Gothic states did not stay so after Theoderic's death, which leads to the second part, Justinian's reconquest of substantial part of the Western Empire. Heather shows that Justinian attempted to legitimize his reign with a couple gambles, law reform and war with Persia, which did not work out. The expedition to Africa and invasion of Sicily were very opportunistic schemes to restore legitimacy.
The eventual Justinian law code only went forward based on the political capital gained from success in the west, and the section ends with analysis of the idea that Justinian's wars crippled the Eastern Empire in the long run, and generally comes up negative. I think he didn't consider the impacts on manpower nearly enough, but economically, he's on reasonably solid ground.
The third section is about Charlemagne's crowning as Emperor in , and the subsequent collapse of the state over the next few generations. There's some very good analysis in here about how the need to reward followers both allow a moderate sized state to grow quickly when there's plenty of rewards to give out , and forces it to come apart once that growth slows or stops.
Each change in rulers requires a new round of payments to make sure of loyalties, and a few years to 'feel out' which members of the court are the most competent and loyal. The common thread through the book is the idea how the Romans saw divine approval and power as intertwined.
In Christian terms, if God wanted you to be Emperor, then no force on Earth could stop it, and if you were the Emperor, then obviously God wanted you to be so. And since the Emperor was chosen by God, then he had authority over the Church. The fourth section shows this being turned on its head. Charlemagne's administration produced a set of standard texts for education inside the Christian Church.
There is a good discussion of the forgery of the Donation of Constantine , which claims the Western Empire was effectively handed over to the Pope in Rome. The idea presented here is that this was not a Roman or Papal forgery, but actually came out of the Carolingian churches. Until this point, the archbishops were the main authority, but if the distant Pope was the real head of things, then the bishops didn't need to listen to the nearby archbishops. Then, a generation or two later, officials brought up in this tradition end up installed in Rome by German Emperors, and they worked to reform the Papacy into what they thought it should be, an ultimate source of ecclesiastical and temporal authority.
Trying to see this last as an 'imperial' project so that it fits in with the rest of Heather's theme hurts this last part of the book. Each part of the book interleaves with the rest, and while it is by no means a complete history of the period, it does a lot to examine just how the Western Empire did not manage to get reestablished. His analysis is always sound and well thought, with deep insights. His books are always a great pleasure to read, and this book is no exception.
This book is interesting, detailed, scholarly, balanced, and very intellectually rewarding for any reader who is seriously interested in in-depth analysis of this historical period encompassing the attempts at restoration of the "Roman Empire" by Theodoric, Justinian and Charlemagne, but also with a final section containing a relatively brief analysis of the evolution of the Christian Church through the Early and High Middle Ages. In summary, another of Peter Heather's masterpieces.
Baffling, I would have never expected this sort of anachronistic, and ultimately meaningless, judgments from an historian of Peter's calibre. But make no mistakes: apart from this minor intellectual slip, this is a great read, thoroughly enjoyable, fully deserving 5 stars. Highly interesting take on "Roman Empire vs barbarians" and "successor empires and the papacy". This book has four main parts: Theoderic the Goth and Byzantium, Justinian's reign, Charlemagne and the papacy, and the rise of the papacy.
The blurb on the cover didn't really make that clear, at least not to me, which is why I'd thought I'd spell it out here. That's the setting, and Heather gives us a highly educational and entertaining read about the substance of empire and religion for these separa Highly interesting take on "Roman Empire vs barbarians" and "successor empires and the papacy". That's the setting, and Heather gives us a highly educational and entertaining read about the substance of empire and religion for these separate periods.
You can tell Heather is either aiming for a more general readership given the numerous references to The Godfather , or shooting off lingering frustrations about meticulous argumentation and endless debate about details common in academia given characterisations like 'bullshit'. Probably a bit of both. Overall though, the subjectmatter only lends itself for levity occasionally, and Heather keeps the narrative going commendably.
As mentioned, Heather gives us four specific situations, and then goes about reconstructing them, emphasizing the political, administrative and religious context. He gives us a detailed larger picture, and often refers to previous chapters to make a point. His grasp of material is impressive, but of course not unexpected given his list of publications. He manages to give a fair but critical view of players and circumstances, and several continuous themes he keeps returning to. Very interesting read in this respect. Very interesting in all respects for those who like to read about these periods.
Jan 23, Tim rated it liked it Shelves: history.
A reasonable summary of several occasions when successors sought to recreate in territory and political trappings in some fashion the western Roman empire. A little less enjoyable and informative than his other books. His informal style is maybe stronger here. His style does make the story flow easier in general, though it can be distracting; he clearly has deep knowledge of the subject, and he clearly states when there are differing opinions from his own.
A nice discussion at the end provides A reasonable summary of several occasions when successors sought to recreate in territory and political trappings in some fashion the western Roman empire.
The Walwal incident
A nice discussion at the end provides an introductory explanation on the coincidental not-directly intended rise of Rome as the leader of a unified Church. Mar 27, Katie Bayford rated it it was amazing. Peter Heather casts a wry eye over centuries of packed history - Goths, Vandals, Franks, Byzantines, Persians, Muslims, Popes - and evaluates every one how they came to be, why they came to be, what it actually was they did in an accessible yet highly intelligent way. A must read. Mar 28, Bar rated it it was amazing.
As always, a delightful, intriguing and satisfying read from start to finish. Picking up from where The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians dropped off, Heather guides us through the chaos of AD and the new pecking order in the Mediterranean and demonstrates the attempts by various heads of state to recreate a Roman Empire and why they ultimately failed. Perhaps the most underrated ruler of his era, Theodoric takes his place front and centre as we witness his j As always, a delightful, intriguing and satisfying read from start to finish.
Perhaps the most underrated ruler of his era, Theodoric takes his place front and centre as we witness his journey from a young and charismatic prince to the head of the Pannonian Goths. Having outmanoeuvered his Gothic rivals and scheming emperors Leo and Xeno he even came to the aid of the latter in returning from exile and reclaiming the throne at Constantinople , he eventually turned towards the eternal city and ousted Odoacer from Rome and established a more tolerant, thriving and essentially Roman Kingdom of Italy.
Friction between the Arian Christian Goths and Chalcedonian Christian Romans was minimal, Theodoric paid homage to the Eastern Roman emperors as the supreme rulers of the post-Roman world and initiated a number of building programmes in Rome and Ravenna ranging from restoring early imperial aqueducts to repairing dilapidated buildings and establishing new churches and public monuments.
Sadly, some of the churches were destroyed around the centuries proceeding and following the Renaissance, public monuments being targetted by the French revolutionary terrorists, the Jacobins , or having been subjected to the age-old Roman process Damnatio memoriae , he and his court being removed from the artwork of his Christ the Redeemer palace church and his bones being scattered after his mausoleum was converted to a church in the wake of the Justinian conquests.
At the height of his power, Theodoric ruled the Italian peninsula, the western half of the Balkans, most of the Iberian peninsula, the Burgundians north-west of the Alps and the Vandal kingdom of North Africa. Heather sufficiently demonstrated the inherently-sectarian nature of the Germanic nations, particularly when it came to succession and the division of inheritance. Political marriages broke down, sons and daughters were killed and the empire fragmented again just before his death, leaving it up for grabs by the Eastern Romans and Franks.
From here we are introduced to Justinian and the reign marked by lightning-fast conquests, drawn-out wars similar to the Iraqi and Afghanistan Wars and ambitious literary projects. An inherited rivalry with the Sassanian Persians saw it culminate in a number of minor Persian victories along the frontier before the Shah's death allowed Justinian to conclude a peace treaty with his successor and free up his manpower.
However, his reign had now been dogged by insecurity, the Persian defeats and the Nika riots which he supressed with fatal force, and he needed to secure support by the aristocrats and broader civilian population. By now, the boards he'd assembled to sort and compile centuries of Roman jurisprudence and rulings were being published, setting him on the path to eternal fame, but this was not enough in the meantime to cement his rule. The opportunity came as the divided Vandal forces allowed his general Belisarius to sail without opposition to the North African coast and steamroll through the capitals before returning Carthage into the imperial fold after a century of separation.
Justinian was now emboldened enough to set his sights on Rome, initiating a protracted war as the Italian Goths continued to stubbornly hold out, regroup and launch new counter-offensives, taking the best part of 20 years to finally end. Only a plague would tranquilise the tensions and result in another truce.
Although Justinian cannot be assigned the blame, his rule was part of the 3 generations which fermented the right conditions for the rise of Islam under forces. Remember, Rome and Persia had been financing their Arab vassals similar to Sunni and Shiite proxies fighting it out in Iraq and Syria over the last 2 decades to fight on the fronties where they maintained no presence and had no oversight of what was happening on the ground in a social or political context.
Khosrau I's grandson, Khosrau II , was forced to flee following an usurpation of the throne and found refuge in emperor Maurice's court. It was with his support that he was able to reclaim his throne at Seleucia-Ctesiphon and further improve the relationship between the two superpowers.
However, the rebellion and usurpation of the throne at Constantinople by Phocas resulted in the execution of Maurice and the wrath of Khosrau being unleashed upon the Eastern Romans. Heraclius took the throne from the unpopular and ineffective Phocas, executed him and turned the tide with the climax of the war taking place around Nineveh. The year war exhausted both empires, their gold had been spent, their armed forces dead or depleted and their land that produced their food and revenue had been devastated.
Similar to the previous truce between Justinian and Khosrau which lasted about half a century, another period would be needed for both sides to recover and return to prosperity, a period of respite which would not be found as the Muslim Arab armies made their way through the Mesopotamian valley and captured the wealthy Eastern Roman provincial capitals, and the entire empire in the case of the Persians. With all of the wealth and manpower at his disposal, Charlemagne proceeded to convene councils and meetings where the outcome would result in the reinvigoration of Latin studies and the patronage of countless monasteries, churches and cathedrals, renewing the literary cult of Europe and preserving so much of the knowledge penned during the Roman era.
With the Roman papacy and Frankish monarchy working hand-in-hand, European Christendom had been made uniform and was now operating with one spirit and mission. Thus was the African land-question raised. But there was also a religious difficulty. Many of the soldiers in the late army of Belisarius, especially the martial Heruli, were Arians. The Vandal priests who still remained in Africa found access to these men, and inflamed their minds with a recital of the religious disabilities to which they, the conquerors as much as the conquered, were subject.
The prohibition of Justinian was positive. No baptism nor any other religious rite was to be performed by or upon any man not holding the full, orthodox, Athanasian faith. The time of Easter was drawing nigh, at which it was usual to baptize all the children who had been born in the preceding year. No child of a Herulian would be admitted to the holy font, no Herulian himself would be permitted to share in the solemnities of Easter, unless he first renounced the creed of his forefathers, the creed which had perhaps been brought to his rude dwelling on the Danubian shore by some Arian bishop, disciple or successor of the sainted Ulfilas.
As the evil genius of the Empire would have it, there was yet a third element of disaffection cast into the African cauldron. The greater part proceeded to their appointed stations and faithfully served the Empire which had robbed them of their country. But four hundred of them, finding themselves at Lesbos with a favoring wind, hoisted their sails, forced the mariners to obey their orders, and started for Peloponnesus first and then for Africa. Arrived at the well-remembered shore, they ran their ships aground, landed, and marched off for the uncaptured stronghold of Mount Aurasius.
Here they received a message from the soldiers at Carthage who contemplated mutiny, soliciting their assistance, which, after solemn oaths and promises given and received, they agreed to furnish to the mutineers. So, when Easter drew on, all was ripe for revolt.
The mutineers agreed among themselves that Solomon should be slain in the great Basilica of Carthage on Good Friday, and that this crime should be the signal for the insurrection to break out. They took little care about secrecy: the guards, the shield-bearers, many even of the household servants of the Eunuch, were in the plot, but none betrayed it, so great was the longing of all for the Vandal lands.
So, unsuspecting evil, sat Solomon in the great Basilica, while the ceremonies went forward which commemorated the death of Christ, and which were meant to be signalized by his own. The conspirators gathered round him. Each man, with frowns and gestures of impatience, motioned to his neighbor to do the deed of blood, but none could bring himself with his own arm to strike the blow.
Either the sanctity of the place, or old loyalty to their general, or else the still unstifled voice of conscience, prevented any from volunteering for the service; and they had not taken the precaution of selecting the arch-murderer before they entered the sacred building. Tomorrow , said they, in the same place the deed shall be done.
On the morrow Solomon again sat in the great Basilica; again his would-be murderers assembled round him, again the same invisible influence stayed their hands. When the service was over they foamed out into the Forum, a disappointed and angry crowd. For five days the mutiny seemed to have been checked, but at the end of that time, when the soldiers within the city saw that their revolted comrades were pursuing their career of ravage outside unchecked, it burst out with fresh fury.
The soldiers collected in the Hippodrome, and shouted out the names of Solomon and the other chief authorities in the state, loading them with every kind of coarse abuse. Not a word of his soft eloquence was listened to; but believing him to be secretly opposed to Solomon and his policy, the mutineers with loud shouts acclaimed him as their leader. With loud and tumultuous shouts the mutineers, self-constituted guards of Theodore, escorted him to the palace of the Prefect.
There they found another Theodore, captain of the guards, a man of noble character and a skilled soldier, but for the moment unpopular with these rebels. Him they slew, and having thus tasted blood, they dispersed themselves through the city, killing every man whom they met, Roman or Provincial, who was suspected of being a friend of Solomon, or who had money enough about him to make murder profitable. They entered all the houses which were not guarded by the few still loyal soldiers, and carried off all the portable plunder that they found there.
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At length night came on, and the mutineers, stretched in drunken sleep in the streets and forums of the city, rested from their orgie of rapine. He pressed them to take food, though sadness and fear had well-nigh deprived them of appetite, and then had them conveyed to the harbor. After rowing in an open boat for nearly forty miles, the fugitive Governor and his suite reached Missua, on the opposite eastward shore of the bay of Tunis, a place which was apparently used as a kind of supplemental port, owing to the original harbor of Carthage having become too small for its trade.
At Missua they felt themselves in comparative safety, and from hence the Eunuch despatched Martin to Valerian and the other generals commanding in Numidia, on the west of the Carthaginian province, to warn them of the mutiny, and to endeavor, under the shelter of their forces, to win back by gold or favor as many as possible of the mutineers to their old loyalty.
He also wrote to Theodore, giving him a general commission to act for the imperial interests in Carthage as might seem best at the time, and then Solomon himself, probably taking some ship of war out of the roadstead at Missua, set sail for Syracuse with Procopius in his train, and, as we have seen, arrived there in safety to claim the assistance of Belisarius. Meanwhile the insurgents, who had by this time found that Theodore the Cappadocian would not lend himself to their seditious designs, assembled on the plains of Bulla, a short distance to the south of Carthage, and there chose out Stutza, one of the body-guard of Martin, and acclaimed him as their king.
Stutza, if not endowed with any great strategic talents, was a man of robustness and hardihood. He found under his standards no fewer than revolted soldiers. These were soon joined by Vandals, partly the recent fugitives from Constantinople, partly those who had escaped the notice of the conquering host two years before.
They were further joined by that usual result of anarchy in the Roman state, a large number of slaves. The united host aimed at nothing less than driving out the imperial generals and making themselves lords of the whole northern coast of Africa. They at once marched to Carthage which it is hard to understand why they should ever have quitted , and called upon Theodore to surrender the city. Despair at this ruthless deed filled the hearts of the scanty defenders of Carthage, and they were on the point of surrendering the city to the insurgents. Such was the state of affairs when in an hour all was changed by the arrival of Belisarius.
He sailed from Syracuse with one ship, probably the same which had brought the Eunuch, and with one hundred picked men of his body-guard on board. It was twilight when he arrived. The mutineers were encamped round the city, confident that on the morrow it would be theirs. Day dawned: they heard that Belisarius was inside the walls: awed by the mere name of the mighty commander, they broke up their camp and commenced a disorderly retreat, or rather flight, never halting till they reached the city of Membressa on the Bagradas, fifty-one miles south-west from the capital.
Here they at length ventured to encamp; and here the terrible Belisarius came up with them, having only men under his standards, whom by gifts and promises he had persuaded to return to their former loyalty.
History of Italy
As Membressa itself was unwalled, neither army dared to occupy it. Belisarius seems to have crossed the Bagradas, which is not a rapid though a pretty copious stream, without opposition, and encamped near to its banks. The mutineers, whose army must have been five times as large as his, pitched their camp on an elevated spot, difficult of access.
Both commanders, according to classic custom, harangued their men, or at least the Thucydidean historian whom we are following thinks proper to represent them as thus encouraging their troops. Belisarius, while deploring the hard. This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue? Upload Sign In Join. Home Books History. Save For Later. Create a List.
Summary Italy and her Invaders, consisting of eight volumes, was an expansive history of Italy from Valens to Charles the Great finished in Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. The chief generals under Belisarius were Constantine, Bessas, and Peranius.
Sicily welcomes the Invaders As yet, however, there was little opportunity for the display of military skill on the part of Belisarius, for his first laurels were all easily gathered, in the region of politics rather than of war. Palermo taken The line of wall skirting the harbor was that which attracted the attention of the Byzantine general. Dialogue between Theodahad and Peter. The following strange dialogue then passed between them: Theodahad.
I conjecture that he will. But if he should chance to quarrel with the terms, what will happen then? Then, noble sir, the next thing will be that you will have to fight. Is that fair, dear Ambassador? What do you mean by that? The letter gave supreme delight to the Emperor, and obtained the following reply. Justinian to Theodahad. The War in Dalmatia. This prophecy, couched in mysterious characters, which are a marvel upon the page of Procopius, had been thus interpreted: First Rome reconquers Afric.
Then the World Is with its progeny to ruin hurled. The Privilege of Ambassadors. The African Land-question.
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Failure of the Plot against Solomon The mutineers agreed among themselves that Solomon should be slain in the great Basilica of Carthage on Good Friday, and that this crime should be the signal for the insurrection to break out. Arrival of Belisarius Such was the state of affairs when in an hour all was changed by the arrival of Belisarius. Start your free 30 days. Page 1 of 1. Close Dialog Are you sure? Also remove everything in this list from your library.