Sulla, an army commander, was a dictator of Rome, and Gaius Caesar was granted proconsul imperium in the eastern provinces during the early years of the Roman Empire. Both, therefore, were heavily involved in accruing power in the context of foreign exploits.
E Douglas. Patrick McGushin.
Bristol, The textual reference of the New Atlantis is the Old Testament, in particular the books of Kings and Chronicles, which tell the stories of King Solomon the third King of ancient Israel. When Bacon moved from the classics to advising his contemporaries on how to conduct themselves in relation to gaining an empire of knowledge, he made the absence of greed a precondition.
Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. New Organon. The English colonial context with which Bacon was concerned in this respect was Ireland. Declared a kingdom in , in the late sixteenth-century Ireland was repeatedly subject to colonising expeditions by the English. Beginning three years after the Munster rebellion in , well- known humanist Sir Thomas Smith sent three failed expeditions to the north of Ireland.
The military element was powerful, as soldier-settlers were to defend the land and quash resistance. While the expeditions continued, Bacon became more hesitant, particularly in his advice to prominent courtiers such as the Earl of Essex.
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The European context in which Bacon wrote is illuminating here. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Spain was the most powerful European empire and had conquered vast tracts of land in North and South America. Making Ireland British. X, In return the grantee was theoretically obligated to protect his wards, to instruct them in the Christian faith, and to defend their right to use the land for their own subsistence. After attending the University of Salamanca, he was ordained into the priesthood in He accompanied the expedition to occupy Cuba in After Indian resistance, Las Casas intervened albeit unsuccessfully on behalf of the Indian Chief Hatuey to overturn his death sentence.
Herma Briffault. Cambridge, MA, They argued that to possess land legitimately was to have dominium over it. Regardless of whether Bacon had read Vitoria and de Las Casas, he was certainly aware of the violence of the Spanish, which was at odds with his own classical ideal of government through the laws, and over men who were taught to reason and use knowledge. In fact, Bacon often contrasted different forms of government. To haue commaundement ouer beasts, as Heard-man haue, is a thing contemptible: to haue commaundement ouer Gally-slaues, is a disparagement, rather than an honourytherefore it was euer holden, that honors in free Monarchies and Common- wealths, had a sweetnesse more, than in Tyrannies, because the commandement extendeth more ouer the wils of meny.
He warned against dispossession and annihilation not only in his advice to the English monarchs, but also to Robert Cecil, and the Duke of Buckingham. Throughout his work, Bacon advocated bringing just laws to the Irish. As many scholars point out, Tacitus expressed anxiety about the Roman Empire through favourably comparing the virtues of the colonised with the questionable morality of the Romans. XIII, M Salmon. A Drey, Ed. Good government, in the classical republican tradition, relied upon moral citizens. For Bacon, virtuous colonisers also ensured against the corruption of knowledge caused by the abuse of indigenous people.
It was a fundamentally novel development of classical anxieties. His concern was with the recovery of the hearts—and minds—of the Irish. The Irish, as an ingenious people, had to be cultivated with the aid of English knowledge about good government and laws. It was a plan to foster educated citizens based upon an idea of the proper uses of knowledge. It is known that Bacon also read Nietzsche seriously.
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He echoed Nietzsche's existential argument that after the death of God man must create himself, despite having a sense of the self and existence as being without value or meaning. Bacon's work demonstrates the effort in re-defining one's self and reclaiming one's self from its relations with others. It is necessary to review Nietzsche's thoughts on the mind and the body to see his alternative position in the recent history of Western thought and to track his influences on Bacon's figuration of bodies.
Behind your thoughts and feelings He lives in your body; he is your body. For Nietzsche, soul or mind is "only a word for something about the body" and human beings are "simply bodies, and nothing else. In The Gay Science , Nietzsche read philosophy as a misunderstanding of the body and emphasized the decisions of individuals. He said:. Even the determination of what is healthy for your body depends on your goal, your horizon, your energies, your impulses, your errors and above all on the ideals and phantasms of your soul.
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Only then would the time have come to reflect on the health and illness of the soul, and to find the peculiar virtue of each man in the health of his soul. In one person, of course, this health could look like its opposite in another person. Finally, the great question would still remain whether we can really dispense with illness - even for the sake of our virtue - and whether our thirst for knowledge and self-knowledge in particular does not require the sick soul as much as the healthy, and whether, in brief, the will to health alone is not a prejudice, cowardice, and perhaps a bit of very subtle barbarism and backwardness.
We can now see Nietzsche's phantom on Bacon's bodies, and also the influences of his notion of Dionysian man, as outlined in Twilight of the Idols :. He enters into every skin, into every emotion: he is continually transforming himself The strict maintenance of a significant and select demeanour, an obligation to live only among men who do not "let themselves go," completely suffices for becoming significant It is decisive for the fortune of nations and of mankind that one should inaugurate culture in the right place - not in the "soul" as has been the fateful superstition of priests and quasi-priests : the right place is the body, demeanour, diet, physiology: the rest follows.
While others in the Western tradition see the subject as part of the world, and one who needs the perspectives of others in order to feel part of the world one inhabits, Bacon's bodies choose instead to escape from and deform these perspectives. In this way and in the concern of sexuality, Bacon's artistic choice echoes the effort of some feminist scholars.
To take Judith Butler as an example, one finds in her writings disruption of the continuity between sexed anatomy and gender and sexuality, which privileges the sexed anatomy as the origin of a singular, sexual identity, that is, heterosexuality. The way to disrupt it is to demonstrate that bodies are not the prepared site or space for a pre-existing performance, or the raw material over which the social or cultural mask is hung, but are brought into being through the performance itself.
Butler asserts that there is no body that pre-exists discourse, and therefore, no sexuality that is natural to bodies. Bacon's bodies also remind us that the body is not an originating point or yet a terminus; it is the result or an effect. Some philosophical writings now hint that the body does have the status of a realm of underlying truth, and try to recover it from medicine or sociology by making it vivid again.
The works of Bacon's contemporaries Jacques Lacan, Merleau-Ponty and others theorize that a body is not properly a human body, a human subject or individual, unless it has an image of itself as a discrete entity or as a gestalt. Distinct from all these notions, Bacon's bodies are reconstituted in new forms, which is outstanding with respect to the normative bodies and its related histories in his culture.
It would be interesting to look at an alternative in another tradition or historical discourse. Since this alternative should not be read by way of a parallel comparison but rather related through cultural differences to the theories of the body we have discussed, I feel comfortable in introducing the artistic principles of Ku K'ai-chih c. Ku K'ai-chih c. His teachings have been followed for a long time and have become the main school of Chinese portraiture.
Here is a summary of the features of his artistic practice: . The brushwork is delicate with little modulation. Confucian thoughts about body and mind are reflected in Ku's theories of painting, stated in his own writings and records of his followers. His theories incorporated Confucian thoughts as follows:. Ku emphasizes the subject's head and face, particularly the eye or the pupil of the subject, which he believes can speak for the subject's soul or spirit.
Things an artist needs to care about include the personality of the subjects especially historical or legendary figures , social classes and the subject's relation to other characters in the painting. Things of equal importance are the reactions the subject expresses, the social constraints or rituals that affect the subject's bodily behaviors; the positions or places where the subject and other characters are situated, and finally, the related setting or environment.
Only through one's hard study can one grasp the essence of the subject and related artistic transformations. Ku admits that it is easier to paint animals than landscapes, but painting humans is the most difficult. One should not miss the moral implications of Ku's theories, for his discussion of spiritual rhythm mainly refers to the moral qualities of his subjects, and those of the artist as well, which enable one to grasp and understand what is important.
In the scene a fairy bids farewell to the young scholar, who had fallen in love with her, for his good fortune and future, and sails away in her magic boat. The flying sleeves of the clothing and the setting of willow trees are said to have grasped the spiritual rhythms of the characters, in praise of love, and virtues of sacrifice. This painting shows the emperor gazing doubtfully at a concubine seated in her sofa bed.
The text accompanying the illustrations echo the woman's saying, "If the words that you utter are good, all men for a thousand leagues around will make response to you. But if you depart from this principle, even your bedfellow will distrust you. We should note that Confucian teachings greatly influence Ku's principles, in particular the Confucian theories of mind and body, which should be discussed for the purposes of this paper.
It is generally believed that at least three theories of the body are found in the early Confucian school in the pre-Ching dynasty before 2 B. They are Mencius' relational theory of the body and the mind, Hsun Tzu's social theory of the body, and the ancient natural theory of the body. All these theories imply the inseparable relation of body and mind.
No body is without the implication of the mind and no mind is without its embodiment. While each Confucian theory emphasizes a certain aspect, the conclusive contemporary connotation is that the body is a compound of one's conscious, physical, social and cultural dimensions. These theories are influenced by two traditions: the Confucian one of rituals - the human body is always ritualized or socialized; and the traditional ancient natural theory of the vital force ch'i. I would like to focus on Mencius' B. Some citations and readings that have significant implications for Chinese figure painting, are offered below.
Anyone possessing these four and claiming that he cannot do what they require is selling himself short.
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If he claims that his prince cannot do what they require, he is selling his prince short. Since, in general, the four beginnings exist within us, it remains only to learn how to enlarge them and bring them to a fullness. This may be compared to the first flicker of a fire, or the first trickle of a spring.
The "Four Beginnings" are the four fundamental feelings and sentiments that constitute forms of moral knowledge, the so-called liang-chih. These are feelings and sentiments of compassion, shame, modesty and reverence, and include the distinction between right and wrong. These feelings and sentiments are believed to be natural, and can be immediately accessed when a person is situated in proper circumstances. The feelings and sentiments can produce virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom respectively, and the inclination to act accordingly when the moral subject interacts with others.
Mencius considered liang-chih the ontological foundation of virtues, and its relation to the body is that it needs to be nurtured and preserved. He said,. Do not seek in your Vitality for what you do not find in your heart. The second of these statements I find to be all right; the first, I disapprove. For will is commander over the Vitality, while Vitality is what fills our persons. Will is of the highest importance; Vitality stands second. That is why it is said, 'There is no disorder in the Vitality where will is maintained.
Nothing, we think, throws stronger light upon the immense part which personal and practical affairs played in Bacon's moral speculations than his letter to Essex, after the latter's victory at Cadiz. There is an eager and trembling minuteness of analysis, which fnen never dis- play, except when their whole being is stimulated by close personal, almost family, considerations.
Bacon's advice to Essex in regard to the Queen.
Hence tilt cunning of the serpent of which Bacon is accused. But as Cicero well says, men will do for their friends what they will not do for themselves, and so also relations, or people standing in a position almost analogous to relationship, will descend into particulars below the dignity of public life. All those statesmen were like members of a com- mon family. To acknowledge to past deficiencies, and not set them up as wilful. Mind, be adds, and harp upon this.
Not to parade his scorn of Leicester and Hatton. I know, he adds, that they are far enough from you in Merit, but you know how the Queen likes them. When you pay her a compliment don't look as if you did not mean it.
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Make some show of having some eager pursuit, and drop it to please her. Again, he advises him not to parade his military character, which he ought to have left at Plymouth on his way home from Cadiz. But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in shows to the Queen. Her Majesty loves peace. She is avaricious. A military dictator is a natural subject of her fear. And so Bacon goes on through two octavo pages more of close print, refining and re7 fining, and analyzing and analyzing, with a minuteness utterly. That much of Bacon's advice seems, in itself, in- trinsically mean, we do not for a moment deny ; but what we feel very strongly is, that until we eau place ourselves in the peculiar focus of his own familiar position, and of the.
Bacon's Essays. By Allis Wright, M. Macmillitn personal relations of the great family of statesmen who then.