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Some of the dialects are not mutually intelligible. In Mainland China, Mandarin is taught starting in elementary school, and the entire educational system is in Mandarin. Yet for many people from the southern regions, Mandarin is not their mother tongue or everyday language.

They speak their own dialects at home, and often only speak Mandarin at school and on official or professional occasions. Even for those interviews conducted in Mandarin, many participants still from time to time resorted to using certain expressions unique to their local dialects for people from the North, this means variations of Mandarin , to articulate certain reactions and feelings.

The study of masculinities | Qualitative Research Journal | Vol 14, No 1

The story in Chapter 3 also shows that dialect is not 68 immune from the invasion of official discourses, and its use may not necessarily prevent participants from resorting to master-scripts in the representation of their experience. Three of the fifteen participants had studied or lived outside of China.

When they told their life story one in the Sichuan dialect to me, a Chinese researcher based in Canada, they sometimes used English words in their narratives. One woman, a lesbian artist Chapter 4 , has had long exposure to transnational queer culture and the global gay network. Not surprisingly she also used English to evoke certain queer issues. The use of English words was partially facilitated by the specific narrative context, when both participant and researcher spoke the same second language.

This brought a hybrid quality to the narrative exchange, involving not only language choice, but translation and synthesizing, appropriation of different ideological resources, and the construction of hybrid cosmopolitan gender identities. The researcher will ask open-ended questions only when necessary, in order to elicit the telling of the life story and to encourage the narrator to continue.

It is generally recommended that in a life story interview, the fewer questions asked, the better Atkinson However, there are limitations to this interviewing method, because of the masculine conventions traditional narrative forms convey, as discussed earlier. As feminists such as Smith, have argued, women often unconsciously follow a masculine paradigm of what is important and worthy of telling, and minimize or leave out women-specific experiences. Rachel DuPlessis asserts that one way to subvert and rewrite master narratives so that women can be represented is to change the conventional patterns of narrative closure.

My solution was to conduct the interviews in two parts: in the first part the research participant tells her life-story straightforwardly, as she sees fit, and in the second she retells it, in response to open-ended questions from the interviewer. The second telling often takes the form of a conversation, with my gender- specific probing intervening through open-ended the questions. I invited them to comment on their understanding of gender identity in relation to femininity, especially with regard to appearance fashion and style. At the end, I asked each woman to reflect upon the storytelling process and give her assessment of her life.

I used a checklist of questions adapted from the sample life-story interview questions provided by Atkinson ,16 with some revisions. I made notes when I listened to each life-story, and invited further commentary on any aspects that seemed to be missing. The life story told in the first part is often invaded, revised or replaced by the retelling and reflection in the second part.

Contradictions and conflicts often emerge, as will be seen in the four stories that I will analyze in depth. In my analysis, I indicate whether the narrative extracts are from the first or second part of the interview when I cite them; this should help the reader to contextualize the narratives, and speculate on the gains of the retelling. Their cooperation creates a feminist narrative project that goes beyond the usual narrative conventions of what is worth telling and how, and becomes a collaborative endeavor enabling conflicting, desires and previously un-representable experiences to be conveyed.

The gaps, contradictions, and revisions between the two parts of the storytelling bring hidden aspects and emotions to the foreground. The retelling empowers the narrator as she gains self- knowledge through telling her life as a woman and reflecting on it. Juxtaposing verbal and visual representations As a further stimulus to reflection, and a means of reviving memory and rethinking some of what was told the first time around, I also invited the participants to show me their personal photo albums or art work , which convey a different type of information about physical appearance in relation to gender, over time.

Considering the limits of oral narrative, paying attention to these visual images helped me work against the conventional, culturally consecrated primacy accorded 72 to the mind over the body, and provided access to alternative ways of knowing. In both cases, what is not said, or not shown, but may be implied, provokes a reflection on the limits of the sayable or showable or the hearable or seeable , and the relationship between them.

While I have not made extensive use of the photographic material provided by other participants in this project, it is an aspect that I intend to follow up on in future research. Especially in oral narrative, the pre-defined path may be disrupted by language and the telling context. Throughout the process, I was made aware of my own role as addressee, occupying an in- between status of intermediary between Chinese and Western contexts.

When themes and patterns emerge from these stories, I examine existing research to help me understand and interpret them. Theories and concepts have been called upon after my listening to these narratives, rather than being chosen beforehand. In this process, theory is borrowed, and returned with interest. The third conveys a lesbian life-story in a specifically Chinese context, where national or class identity is eclipsed by the transnational dimensions of global queer politics.

The last is that of a successful, cosmopolitan businesswoman who has lived abroad and seems to represent fulfillment of the current dream. Liu See Jeffreys and Ross I use this term to refer to scholarships written in English, by researchers in Europe, North America, and Australia, including both white feminists and those of Chinese descent. I put diverse studies into the same category as they are all more or less speaking to a shared intellectual community. Speakers of different dialects of Chinese have historically used one single formal written language.

The contemporary Chinese written language is based on the grammar and vocabulary of Mandarin. When the participants are good storytellers and feel more comfortable talking about their lives in front of a stranger, the telling flows smoothly, their stories are told with fewer interruptions, and the structure of their life stories are more a product of their own. Some participants were not very good at telling their life stories; they often stopped and needed my guiding questions to move on. In these cases, the structure of their life stories is more heavily influenced by my questions and is less an independent product of their own.

Sample questions are attached in Appendix II. It signifies the collectivity of kinswomen in the semiotics of Confucian family doctrine. It valorizes notions of female passivity, biological inferiority, intellectual inability, sexuality, and social absence. Being a woman no longer implied traditional femininity associated with fragility or weakness, but revolutionary, proletarian force. This interpretation, however, results from a conflation of gender and sexuality. Wearing plain, faded, and patched clothes with no personal style or adornment signaled not so much a rejection of femininity as of the bourgeois lifestyle, and implied identification with the proletariat Chen Pre-marital chastity and sexual fidelity within marriage were required for both men and women.

It is important to note that the Maoist refiguration of gender changed over time. The ACWF was closed down though later revived in during the Cultural Revolution, after being accused of raising gender issues in opposition to class interests, and of distracting women from political life by focusing too much on family problems.

There are also gaps and discrepancies between normative prescriptions and lived realities. In both academia and popular culture there was a surge of interest in gender differentiation and discourses that affirm gender difference and heterosexuality Woo ; Croll Furthermore, Barlow points out that the Maoist gender discourse inscribed gender difference at the level of reproductive physiology, positioning material re production as the site of difference, but did not theorize personality in physiological terms.

In the pre-liberation and immediate post-liberation period, the CCP leadership defined class primarily in socio-economic terms. Abstract classifications became lived representations, as the functions of class status include not only representation but also distribution of resources Billeter P. Watson Class determined the distribution of property, rights, opportunities, power, and prestige. In short, a person's entire social reality was defined in terms of her or his class label White 2; Billeter , The definition takes into account personal class status, subjective attitude sixiang towards the socialist regime, and their individual behaviour biaoxian Billeter ; White This new explicit system of class status was introduced to control the comprehension of social relations, and the strict categorization of people created a new stratification system that institutionalised inequalities of power.

In official rhetoric, the triad of worker-peasant- soldier gong nong bing was glorified as the most progressive and leading force in socialist China Billter The two distinct groups received different treatment in terms of salary, health benefits, housing, medical care, and retirement pensions. The cadres became a new elite group distanced from other citizens, and their children enjoyed superior status and privileges Kraus Her paternal grandfather was an old-style private-school teacher and a doctor.

Her paternal grandmother hereafter referred to as Nainai was illiterate and had bound feet. Lin was born in the Mao era, in , and was fifty years old at the time of the interview. Her family moved to Beijing when she was two. Lin was brought-up by Nainai and is very close to her. Lin finished high school and was sent down to live and work in the countryside for two years , when she was aged In , Lin came back to Beijing and worked in a post office for five years. In , she obtained a job as a librarian where her mother worked.

In , Lin quit that job and began work as an office administrator for a small company belonging to a university, with only two employees. She was still in this position when I interviewed her. Lin married her husband, a doctor at a university hospital, in at the age of twenty- eight, and has a daughter. She lives in a three-bedroom apartment on the outskirts of Beijing, and drives to work.

Lin wants to travel or live abroad with her daughter after retiring. I have used information from both parts of the interview in my analysis, and indicate the sources of the extracts by noting whether they are from the first or second part of the interview. She was a housewife. But my Nainai was a typical Shandong person. She was very bold and uninhibited, upheld justice and was very loyal to her friends. She stood up against the Japanese, and…because she had lived as a widow since she was in her 30s, she was very tough. Her positive evaluation of Nainai challenges the negative perception of a housewife.

Then they suspected me having leukemia During this period, to be honest, why did I like Nainai? My Nainai cooked about batches of Chinese herbal medicine for me. The heat penetrates into the joints, to treat them, to treat rheumatism. It was very effective. In practice, the picture is more complicated. Working women in the Maoist time, especially those living in the cities, had some resources and strategies to deal with their double burden. Even though the dining halls and collective childcare and collective washing and sewing circles disappeared after the ending of the Great Leap Forward campaign Manning, , they were still largely available in urban areas, mostly provided by working units.

Female neighbours or colleagues might sometimes help as well. Before the Cultural Revolution some families hired maids or nannies, or left babies in the care of host families. After the Cultural Revolution started, hiring a maid or nanny was regarded as bourgeois exploitation and was forbidden.

Some had their grandparents living with them or nearby, lending helping hands. When older women did appear in some of the model operas and films of the Cultural Revolution, they were frequently honored as the mother of revolutionary heroes or volunteers see also Paul Clark Evans sees this choice of representation as signifying the cultural associations of revolution with the future, and thus with the youth who can transform the socialist ideals of the present into reality. They were perceived as women who were uneducated, politically backward, and economically dependent, whose work at home was not recognized as work.

Their lives were described as centered on the wok, ignorant of the outside world and new 95 thoughts. They also experience emotional and intellectual struggles and identification conflict between two very different gender models, valorized for very different reasons. Lin identifies with Nainai not only emotionally, but also intellectually. If a woman is gluttonous, then there will be trouble. It is also not OK for a woman to be lazy. So I always remember these two teachings. Other things are not essential. So my Nainai…is illiterate, and had a very strong belief in the feudal mentality fengjianguanlian.

You are complaining about doing the laundry? What is such a big deal about that? As a chaste widowed mother who managed to bring up two sons by herself, Nainai enjoyed a socially recognized and respected position in the old gender system, but lost her social privilege and experienced marginalization in the Mao era. Nainai made it very clear that no matter what had changed in the outside world, inside the home tradition ruled. In this narrative, Lin is more sympathetic towards her Nainai than her mother. They have left her with conflicting views and perceptions about herself and how she should live her life as a woman, a topic to which I will return shortly.

Coming from an elite family of cadres, Lin grew up with a sense of class privilege and distance from the workers and peasants. Her family lived in a house assigned by the Ministry where her father worked. It is in a big courtyard in a quiet lane where the residents saw themselves as different, and kept a distance from their neighbors behind high walls. The neighbours outside the courtyard were mostly workers, clerks, and small private business owners—the local population of old Beijing. There were clearly demarcated special and social boundaries between the two groups of residents in the same lane.

As a result, her family lost its social and political status and privileges. They were all Red Guards, and we were not. On the first day of class, I fell asleep. It was some kind of public accusation meeting Everybody was laughing at me. He was a rebel party member zhaofanbai. They were just like those hatchet men dashou 16…At that time, what was in my mind was that we were different from them.

Even today, this idea of disliking kids of the workers and peasants is still deeply rooted in my mind genshendigu.

For her, they were the same as the students who beat up her father. On one hand, Lin desired to be part of the Revolution and to become a revolutionary heroine; on the other hand, the social positioning of these heroines in terms of class and political background did not match her own social location and implicitly disqualified her. Yet Lin managed to find her own heroine: That was during the Cultural Revolution.

At that time, all the movies we had were the eight revolutionary model operas. I remembered every line of them…. So I went home and used ink and I painted a mole on my face. I felt really great! Really, I remembered every line of the movie clearly….. And then, I watched the news before the movie. Today is the first time Chairman Mao meets the Red Guards.

Tomorrow was the second time Chairman Mao meets the Red Guards. At the end then it was the 13th time Chairman Mao met the Red Guards. Still I watched. I love movies. I also loved to watch Chairman Mao meet the Red Guards. One of the influences Jiang Qing exercised in these productions is that six out of the eight pieces featured female protagonists which furthered her own political agenda.

The heroines in the revolutionary operas therefore all come from peasant or worker backgrounds. Meng Yue argues that these female images were used to convey the political code of class struggle rather than gender messages, and these female protagonists represented a class rather than a gender stance. While Lin was familiar with all these Chinese female protagonists in the operas, her deepest identification went a foreign heroine.

The movie Rather Die than Surrender18 is similar to many Chinese stories about revolutionary martyrs. The protagonist in the movie was a student living in a city. After graduating from middle school, all the students in her class were assigned jobs working in a factory. Being a worker in a big state- owned factory was a prestigious job in the Mao era. It was not only politically favorable but also offered permanent employment with job security and cradle-to-grave benefits. Skilled workers could earn higher salaries than some cadres and were widely respected, at least in official discourse.

Being such a worker was a dream for children from ordinary families. Lin, however, was firmly against going to the factory to be a worker, and rejected her first employment opportunity. By the time she graduated from high school, the wave of sending youth to the countryside to be re-educated by the peasants had come. Having escaped from being a worker, Lin faced an even worse fate in her value system : to be a peasant.

She eventually managed to return to Beijing and obtained a job still in the worker category at a post office. In , when Lin met her future husband, class identity, combined with occupation, was her primary criterion of desirability in a potential marriage partner: So we dated… Firstly, he works at Peking University.

But Beijing Daxue, these four characters really attracted me. Lin , part 1. After years of denouncing intellectuals, there was a shift of attitudes in the Party in the post-Mao era. Regarded as the victims of political campaigns in the Mao era, intellectuals were redeemed and renewed their status, whereas workers became the embodiment of the shame of socialist history in official and popular discourse. After having been forced into the class categories she hated, in the post-Mao era she undertook a journey of disassociating herself from workers and peasants, in order to be associated with cadres and intellectuals, pursuing a career and family life typical of an educated elite.

Even working hard like hell, my spirit was high. We are always very vigorous. The big hoe I used was a lot taller than me. So sometimes I yelled at him. Do you think I am tough? No, that is not tough. Even now, I am not tough. I am not very tough. But if there is unfairness, I like to speak out. I have to say it. Just like this. I rode a bicycle.

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I went hiking and swimming, I did everything…. I am a person who is not squeamish. I was never squeamish jiaoqi. I have always been like that. Lin , part 2 Jiaoqi is not only a gendered but also a classed quality. It is seen as a negative feminine attribute associated especially with bourgeois women in the revolutionary discourse of the Mao era.

In a time when bourgeois and elite classes were being publicly denounced, the feminine attributes associated with those classes, such as domesticity, delicacy, and self-indulgence, were the target of criticism and seen as shameful. As a member of the proletariat and a revolutionary, a woman should not expect special treatment for any real or imagined specifically female needs.

By emphasizing that she was not jiaoqi, Lin identifies with the attitude that women should be like men and not show or admit any physical weakness, if they are to receive, or deserve, respect: 22 I never show my weakness. It seems my mom was like this. My mom … In many ways I took after my mom…. When the papers came in, we needed to transfer the papers, then print, print a very small amount. The men would arrange the papers and our documents; I went over to have a look at them setting the papers.

I felt I could do it too. I also could do it. I could even do better. Telling this story in the present, Lin is now critical of the necessity of appearing to be a strong woman. I think, actually, women should exhibit their weak side. It is very laborious. With this man around the new hyper-feminine woman should not need to appear to be tough herself in order to survive.

It is not foreseen that she may need to defend herself against the tough guy! Many Chinese women, like those in the West, find themselves torn between these two models. I am a very well qualified housewife. I have the breakfast ready in the morning, have the kid ready to go. I can only say that I am a very well qualified housewife. I also enjoy doing housework very much. I feel that to make the home nice and orderly is a very happy thing to do.

I could give up my job. I make the home nice. Just be a housewife. No ambitions Actually if I put in some effort, in , if I had stayed in Shenzhen, I might have earned a lot of money. But this home, I never could turn away from this home. Lin , part 2 In this narrative, Lin repeats three times that she is a very well qualified housewife, obviously trying to convince herself that this is what she could or should be. Since she now has one, that path is no longer open to her, and her narrative retrospectively justifies her choice. The return to a male-led nuclear family popular in modern middle class myth is as unattainable for most families in China as it is in the West, and women have the same doubts about whether they would like to return to it.

Under the influence of popular cultural products from the West and other parts of Asia, especially Taiwan,24 Korea and Japan, this model has made a come-back in China. I really dislike that. No fine breeding. Men never give up seats to women on the bus. I just really dislike that. I just like Western civilization.

I like it very much… Why did I send my daughter abroad? I just want her to learn the foreign civilized life. I like it very much. Lin Part 2 Obviously, Lin has not yet experienced the reality of living in the West, where two incomes are necessary for most families to survive and seats on buses are rarely given up. What she imagines as a current way of life elsewhere is in fact long gone, reminiscent of the s post-war period when Western women were forced into suburban domesticity in order to provide work for returning soldiers.

The situation is similar in post-Mao China, and a parallel shift has occurred in what is expected of women. In both China and the West women have been expected to act like men when it suits the national economic and political interest, but to revert to womanly submission when it does not. In both contexts, women have much to gain and to lose with every shift in expectations, and end up having to negotiate, like Lin, a way between conflicting paths. The main difference in the Chinese context is the overt association of conventional masculinity and femininity with the class structure.

The hardworking, tough body that she was once proud of is perceived as a body whose strength had been exploited and desires suppressed. This awakening body now becomes a site and source of agency, which Lin acts upon and from which she derives identity and power. Her body has literally changed: once that of a short-haired, uniformed, anonymous worker, it has now softened into a more glamorous and decorative feminine body: I never wear make up.

I also never knew how. These her ears were pierced two or three months ago. I just had them pierced two or three months ago…. Xiao Xing a younger colleague … said it would be a pity to live a life as a woman but never pierce your ears. That would be a pity, yep. We should have whatever a woman should have. I said that makes sense …. If you say I am really into dressing up, I am not particularly like others. If you say I am not into it at all, but I, when I dress up, I want them to match well, it must be appropriate.

I must dress up appropriately, I feel, it must be what I feel is appropriate. She takes advantage of the post-Mao liberalized atmosphere to redeem the revolutionary urban elite femininity that she had to suppress in the Mao era, without abandoning all the values associated with the Maoist woman: I always have short hair.

Now I am planning to grow my hair …When I was in elementary school, our math teacher made a very deep impression on me. Two little braids. Then round them up, connect one to another, like this… Oh, I felt it was really pretty I have always wanted to have a hairstyle like that one I felt it seems like all the adults and kids have that style…. Very poor taste. Lin , part 2 Figure 2 See the hairstyles of the women on the right and left. The two-braids-up hairstyle see figure 2 was very fashionable in the s in Chinese cities. The traditional Chinese hairstyle for women in the first half of the twentieth century was one long braid, with girls leaving it to fall down behind, and married women putting it up into a bun.

These styles later evolved in the cities into girls having two braids, and more fashionable girls or married women having short or permed hair. For Lin, thes are associated with a happy childhood, as part of a new, privileged elite cadre group. Lin has embraced the new possibilities and found ways to express her sometimes ambivalent ideas on femininity. Her life story can be summarized as a series of three discrete periods: a childhood of being loved and spoiled by Nainai; growing up in a chaotic time, confused, angry, and scared; a struggle of resistance to becoming a peasant and a worker, and a journey to find a space where she could belong.

The narrative has a turning point in , when Lin was thirty years old and got married and started to work at Peking University. Over one hour and ten minutes, as she provided a mainly chronological account, Lin spent a whole hour narrating her first thirty years, and took less than ten minutes to recount the last twenty years of her life. The type of conflict presented in this story of her life has the protagonist battling against those in control of society the Cultural Revolution and against a specific category of antagonists the proletariat.

In the end, the heroine overcomes obstacles and hardships, and triumphs by successfully reaching her destiny and achieving her goals: in the home of her dreams, a husband she chose because of his superior social class, and the non-manual job she wanted. Life after the happy ending is assumed to continue without conflict, and the plot is over. In this scenario the heroine is a coherent subject, and little internal conflict is revealed. It was originally a type of public performance in which party organizers mobilized and taught poor peasants to speak up about their experiences in a language of class exploitation, as part of public accusation sessions against the landed gentry Hinton It was later performed in urban factories as well.

Rofel points out that speaking bitterness is a political praxis of signification that creates the new socialist subject: the subaltern as speaker. As a genre, speaking bitterness organizes disparate experiences into a plot of overcoming life's bitterness through socialist means, subsuming the individual in a collective endeavor, with the upper classes as the common enemy. After the socialist revolution, the function of the speaking bitterness story changed from mobilization to educating the next generation. The state brought out workers and peasants to tell children about their experiences of class exploitation.

While this narrative strategy was practiced as propaganda during the land reform period, it has persisted for different reasons. Rofel shows that women workers also adapted the strategy of speaking bitterness in the post-Mao era to contest public discourse about them and unsettle the universalizing vision of modernity that has displaced them. Class is the essential building block of the speaking bitterness narrative edifice: it structures the relations between all its characters, as class conflict provides the plot and class hatred jieji chouhen the motive for action.

She is always very clear about her class preference and allegiance, and her unshakable conviction about which class she belongs to is a major motif in her story. Her narrative about her family trauma and the unjust treatment she received at school and in the countryside takes up the legacy of speaking bitterness, echoing many memoirs and other accounts of the Cultural Revolution. As a plausible outcome of the class conflict, her persistent dislike of the proletariat is established as a well-grounded motif that drives the development of the plot.

The choice of a narrative genre is never a simple choice of form or style, but implies strategies to organize and interpret human experiences in a meaningful way. A certain genre enables but also limits what can be told, and how events are intended to be interpreted. This framework privileges the first thirty years of her life and emphasizes her class identity, while generally playing down the gendered aspects of her experiences and her identity as a woman.

When the overt conflict between classes withered away in the post-Mao context, Lin could not find a narrative model that would enable her to impose a structure on the last twenty years of her life. In the interview with Lin, I employed the method discussed earlier, beginning with an initial straightforward, spontaneous and uninterrupted telling of her life story, followed later by further exploration based on open-ended questions initiated by me. Many aspects emerged only in the process of retelling, through interaction between the interviewee and the researcher. The omission of this significant part of her life in the first part of the interview reflects a problem that often occurs when women engage in oral history.

Some women may also feel it is either embarrassing or trivial to tell stories about the female body and its reproductive function. In her story about childbirth, Lin mentioned that she did not want to give birth at the hospital where her husband works, even though she would have received much better care and treatment, because people there knew her and it would have been too embarrassing.

Such events are still seen as private and almost shameful, to be hidden from public scrutiny. In the second part of the interview, Lin had a chance to talk about her dissatisfaction with her marriage. Her reflections on being a wife and mother conveyed her struggle to negotiate a personalized gender project that can meet the needs of her own imagination and desire. A sense of class difference and conflict was internalized by Lin, and comes out in her narrative through intense emotions of anger, hatred, and extreme distaste for workers and peasants on the one hand, and loyalty and affection for the unjustly persecuted elite class on the other hand.

Even in her stories about her Nainai and her mother she uses language related to class, or political and geographical attributes, rather than references to their gender. In the table below, I coded her allusions to these two women. Other than the last line, the attributes used to describe the two women are all gender- neutral, or are often associated with masculinity in a Chinese context.

There are very few references to their physical appearance, and none to their sexuality. Most of the attributes mentioned were related to political class or geographical region characteristics, rather than manifestations of gendered qualities. These qualities transgress and transcend the traditional gender scripts for women in China. Many of the qualities she ascribes to these women she admires are those that were often used to describe revolutionary labour heroines. Lin consciously or unconsciously absorbs or rejects, carries on or abandons, denies or affirms all these models in the formulation of her individual gender project.

Her theory of gender performativity thus assigns the opportunity for cultural transformation of gender to individuals or a collective of individuals , as dominant gender scripts are challenged, revised, and stretched in the process of their individual enactment. Furthermore, individual variations in performing gender scripts mean that the performance is never the true copy of an existing original but always an approximation or parody of a model that no one really embodies. How gender is played out is subject to negotiation, struggle and resistance.

What cultural resources are available depends on the specific cultural environment as well as individual circumstances, and each gender project is often the result of the innovative synthesizing of various models. As for how subversive an individual project can be, that partly depends on the level of consciousness or reflectivity of the individual. Therefore even an unconscious gender project may pose challenges in its own way to hegemonic models and contribute to the diversification and democratization of gender performance in individual lives.

For a discussion of this incident, see Barlow On this day, women have half a day off from their work, so they can participate in various celebrations. Even the most radical Chinese leaders have recognized the need for unequal rewards during a prolonged period of socialism. The inequality under socialism was understood as a transitory inequality which would wither away and transform itself into true equality see Kraus The oral narrative has gone through various layers of interpretation in the process of transcription and translation into English.

Please note that this is my reconstruction of her life story according to the information I selected and sorted from the interview. I apologize for converting her vivid, rich and interesting life story into a more boring outline. The structure and the amount of detail of certain events, as reflected in my analysis, do not necessarily convey the way they were organized and appeared in her narrative. For instance, Jacka describes the importance of grandmothers in caring for young children in rural China.

In some families, husbands and other male family members also helped, but they were not usually the default major caregivers. The term dashou is not gendered in Chinese. The major cultural product during this period was the eight some say nine revolutionary model operas produced under her supervision. These eight dramas became almost the only cultural works available, and the same stories were adopted in various genres and forms.

See Roberts a, b, They were later given up by a traitor and arrested by the Fascists. They withstood torture and promises of gain, and never surrendered. Their works were banned. Their social location still makes them a constant reminder of Maoist history, and their very existence recalls an embarrassing past that many are eager to leave behind. This chapter examines the experience of one such woman.

The life story told by Dong is that of a rural immigrant worker now living in Beijing. Her account demonstrates that both Maoist and post-Mao constructions of gender involve not only the reconfiguration of gender roles in terms of the types of work and domestic tasks expected from women, but also the re-mapping along class lines of femininity itself in relation to masculinity, and of the affects and self-esteem associated with these attributes.

The humanities and social sciences are more interested in the social imposition, expression, and interpretation of shame. For instance, research in anthropology and sociology has addressed the cultural meaning and function of shame in different social and historical contexts. There are also studies that break disciplinary boundaries and try to understand shame in terms of both its bodily aspects and cultural context, like those of American psychologist Silvan Tomkins, whose clinical work inspired queer theorist Eve Sedgwick to examine shame in a context of transgressive sexual orientations.

Many researchers have investigated various aspects of shame from different perspectives, and consequently their definitions of shame and its causes vary. Nonetheless, it is commonly recognized that shame is one of the most profound and widespread social and reflective emotions. In this chapter, I understand shame as a socially oriented affect that involves the internalization of the authority of the other. My discussion of the role of clothing in constructing gender identity and producing shame in the Mao period and in post-Mao China makes reference to psychological, philosophical, sociological, and feminist research on shame, placing shame in its social, historical and cultural context, which brings out the intersections of class and gender.

Among various types of shame, such as shame related to sexuality, body, and transgression etc. In the Western world, a widely accepted definition of shame, from William James , ,1 understands it as the displeasure which a person experiences upon realizing that she does not measure up to the values which she embraces.

Shame generally involves both the self and the other: the consciousness of self from the point of view of the other. However, being seen and judged by an Other is crucial in provoking public shame. In her philosophical discussion of emotions related to self-assessment and self-esteem, Gabriele Taylor points out that shame is only experienced when one identifies with the critical audience, perceiving their degrading judgment as valid judgment. Sociologist Theodore Kemper analyzes shame in terms of power relationships in human interactions, and argues that how a person perceives the other in relationship to the self constitutes the essential structure of shame.

In other words, as Jacoby states, those who are superior define the standards and are the authoritative judges. The values that one embraces, but is unable to live up to, thus cause shame. People experience shame over a variety of things: accent, physical features, parental background, clothes, type of work, and so on. In a society organized into various hierarchies, membership in a certain gender, race, or class evokes a sense of inferiority.

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He presents shame as a spectrum with five types or degrees of shame Situating shame in the social location and social systems that produce it highlights the links between the shame socially disadvantaged groups experience and the central role shame plays in the construction of race, class, gender, and other social relations. A which combines gratitude, apology, avoidance, shame, and embarrassment. Traditionally in China the Confucian concept of li propriety governs all relationships, and shame is the consequence of straying from li. Even though shame is undoubtedly implemented as a major technique of social control, in Confucian philosophy it is more than merely a cognitive response to external sanctions since it is also seen as having an important moral effect in the personal cultivation of Confucian values.

Shame is thus seen as an important positive force that pressures individuals to meet expectations in social exchanges. For Confucius and his followers, a society guided by li should foster a sense of shame among its members. She argues that, rather than the present general Western understanding of shame as often either visual or sexual in nature an aspect which will be discussed below , early Confucian texts reveal a concept of shame as a response to disconcertingly blurred boundaries.

Following Mead , [] , anthropologist Ruth Benedict argues that countries such as Japan have a 'shame' culture which depends primarily on external sanction and how one's moral conduct appears to outsiders, whereas most Christian societies have a guilt culture that depends on internal sanction and emphasizes the individual's internal conscience.

As Takeo Doi , [] points out, this distinction implies that the shame culture is inferior to the guilt culture, and tends to identify Western European and American cultures as conforming to a model reflects internal self- regulation rather than external pressure. According to Gershen Kaufman and Donald Nathanson , shame is a universal affect that occurs across cultures, but is experienced and reacted to differently in different cultural traditions. In Many Faces of Shame , Nathanson observes that Jewish and Chinese people experience shame in distinct ways not shared by most Americans.

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    Chen, Chun-Liang Functional and structural characterization of the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from Enterococcus faecalis. Chen, Ji Investigating and expanding the functionality of RNA catalysts: Studies of the hepatitis delta virus, the hammerhead, and the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like ribozymes. Chen, Keru Physiological aspects of relative changes in nitrogen and plant density stress tolerances over a year period of US maize hybrid introductions.

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    Chisama, Benjamin Franklin Farmers' use of mobile phone technology for agricultural information services in Lilongwe District, Malawi. Chiu, Charles Yicheng The effects of chloride-based deicing chemicals on degradation of portland cement mortars with alkali reactive aggregate. Choi, Meena A flexible and versatile framework for statistical design and analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic experiments. Choi, Mun S Pilot study of the effect of high-protein, renal-appropriate meals during hemodialysis on intradialytic hypotension in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Chojnacki, John T Dynamic triaxial compression experiments on borosilicate and soda-lime glass.

    Cho, Younghyun Development and evaluation of a watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model. Chu, Jou-Mei Mechanical properties of transgenic silkworm silk at high rate impact. Chulis, Kimberly Data mining Twitter for cancer, diabetes, and asthma insights. Clark, Christopher Lewis The investigation of carbon-fluorine bond activation by uranium and evaluation of a tris-oxazoline based tripodal ligand to support low-valent uranium centers.

    Clinkenbeard, Paige E Teen suicide and other destructive behaviors in contemporary young adult literature: The subjects, the literature, and what it means for educators. Coley, Scott M On the consequences of skeptical theism. Collins, Scott J The impact of global environmental changes on an exotic invasive species, Slliaria petiolata garlic mustard. Conrad, Alicia E Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution and abundance of riffle beetles Coleoptera: Elmidae in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana.

    Cook, Amanda C Essays on health insurance. Cook, Timothy Daniel Expanding M cyclam chemistry; cobalt acetylide complexes for charge delocalization, and functionalized nickel complexes for CO2 reduction. Corkran, Sydney Cooper Comparison of processing parameters in large and small scale beef processing plants and their impact on Escherichia coli prevalence. Corsten, Anthony Nicholas Evaluation of several pre-clinical tools for identifying characteristics associated with limb bone fracture in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Coskun, Esra Language and attribution: Women and identity. Coulthard, Glen J A descriptive case study: Investigating the implementation of web based, automated grading and tutorial software in a freshman computer literacy course. Cox, Perry L Lightcraft Previzion in distance education. Crespo, Jonah Greenfield Asset allocation in frequency and in 3 spatial dimensions for electronic warfare application. Croft, Marcia M The role of African leafy vegetables in food security.

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    Du, Mike Realtime dynamic binary instrumentation. Dundar, Aysegul Learning from minimally labeled data with accelerated convolutional neural networks. Dunn, Jonathan M Nanoscale phonon thermal conductivity via molecular dynamics. Durkes, Abigail Cox The effects of acidified pepsin on porcine vocal fold tissue: Developing a porcine model of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

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    Feng, Qingyu Hydrologic and water quality impacts from perennial crop production on marginal lands. Ferialdy, Arfinandi Graph theoretical analysis of the Dynamic Lines of Collaboration model for disruption response. Fezi, Kyle S Modeling transport phenomena and uncertainty quantification in solidification processes. Frappier, Ann M An investigation of composite failure analyses and damage evolution in finite element models. Fu, Jiahong Uncertainty quantification on industrial high pressure die casting process.

    Fu, Rong Early parental loss, socioeconomic stressors, and health in later life: Evidence for gender disparity. Gabet, Ryan M A comparative forensic analysis of privacy enhanced web browsers. Gaeta, Christopher M Quit playing with your watch: Perceptions of smartwatch use. Gaffar, Md Explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference time domain methods for general electromagnetic analysis. Gaitonde, Aalok Jaisheela Uday Thermal transport in lithium ion batteries: An experimental investigation of interfaces and granular materials.

    Gall, Aaron R Magnesium regulates transcription of the mgtA magnesium transporter gene in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium via prolyl-bond formation during translation of the mgtL leader ORF. Ganatra, Yash Yogesh Passive thermal management using phase change materials. Gangaraju, SricharanLochan Machine-to-machine communication for automatic retrieval of scientific data. Ganguly, Samiran Spintronic device modeling and evaluation using modular approach to spintronics.

    Gao, Jiejun Nanoparticle toxicity and molecular mechanisms in fish: A case study with silver nanoparticles. Gao, Mengqi Toner usage prediction. Gardner, Nathan W Investigation of an energetic coupling between ligand binding and protein folding. Garrity, Jordan M Design and analysis of a high performance valve. Geesey, Bryce A Utilizing tunable signal interference control topologies with electromechanical resonators. Ge, Jiaqi Sequential pattern mining with uncertain data. Gentry, Patrick L A new reality: Funding formula changes and property tax caps and their effects on the role of the school superintendent in the state of Indiana.

    Gettings, Patricia E Understanding the communicative processes of baby boomer women adjusting to retirement: Connecting micro and macro discourses. Ge, Yifan Investigating spatial distribution and dynamics of membrane proteins in polymer-tethered lipid bilayer systems using single molecule-sensitive imaging techniques.

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    Glas, Zoe Elizabeth Mitigating conflict: A human dimensions analysis of mesopredators and their management. Glavin, Nicholas Robert Ultra-thin boron nitride films by pulsed laser deposition: Plasma diagnostics, synthesis, and device transport. Goblet, Valentine Pascale Phase of flight identification in general aviation operations. Lucian Soca. Gokhale, Vaibhav V Design of a helmet with an advanced layered composite for energy dissipation using a multi-material compliant mechanism synthesis.

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    Groen, Jessica A We'll find the time: Performing traumatic hope through fictions of child maltreatment. Guidry, Brett W Finding the ghost with the machine: Breaking through the assessment center validity ceiling by exploring decisional processes using new sources of behavioral data within virtual assessments. Guo, Tian Effect of bioenergy crops and fast growing trees on hydrology and water quality in the Little Vermilion River Watershed.

    Guo, Tianqi The effect of confinement on the development of an axisymmetric wall jet in confined jet impingement. Guo, Xingye Thermomechanical properties of novel lanthanum zirconate based thermal barrier coatings - an integrated experimental and modeling study. Gupta, Ravi Digital signal processors as HPC accelerator and performance tuning via static analysis and machine learning. Gupta, Rohinish Modelling and control of a parallel through-the-road plug-in hybrid vehicle.

    Gurule, Kaitlyn An analysis of digital forensic units. Guzzetti, Davide Coupled orbit-attitude mission design in the circular restricted three-body problem. Haderlie, Jacob C Modeling methods for merging computational and experimental aerodynamic pressure data. Halimi, Ghulam Hazrat Can Afghanistan achieve self-sufficiency in wheat? Limitations due to market integration. Halimi, Ghulam Hazrat Trade and agriculture policy options to improve the wheat subsector in Afghanistan. Hall, Derrick R. Hammond, Max A The influence of collagen crosslinking and treadmill exercise on the mechanics, composition, and morphology of bone at multiple length scales.

    Han, Arum How training set and prior knowledge affect preschoolers' perception of quantity and early number learning. Han, Chang Wan Characterization of heterogeneous catalysts using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. Haney, Alison M A matter of faith: The role of religion, doubt, and personality in emerging adult mental health.

    Han, Jaemin Multi-session Network Coding characterization using new linear coding frameworks. Haria, Hiral Jayantilal A novel mode-switching hydraulic hybrid for an on-highway vehicle: A study of architecture and control. Harris, Mary Beth Women writers and the genealogy of the gentleman: masculinity, authority, and male characters in eighteenth-century English novels by women. Hassan, Khaled MD. Hawkins, Elizabeth Marie Organizing historical agricultural data and identifying data integrity zones to assess agricultural data quality.

    Hay, Martha E Design of nitroxide-based radical polymer materials for electronic applications. Hayrapetian, Allenoush Analyzing and evaluating security features in software requirements. Hazlitt, Robert A Synthesis of a malvidinglucoside derivative with a difluoromethylene linkage. Heijnen, Michel J. H Failures in adaptive locomotion in healthy young adults. Heneghan, Joseph M The biology and management of waterhemp in Indiana. Hengge, Neal N Enzymatic liquefaction of untreated corn stover. Herrera Perez, Ruth Marisol Influence of the 3D microenvironment on glioblastoma migration and drug response.

    He, Zijian Service-level based response by assignment and order processing for warehouse automation. Hickle, Mark D Synthesis, design, and fabrication techniques for reconfigurable microwave and millimeter-wave filters. Hinh, Robert Tool comparison of semantic parsers. Hinkel, Irina A What is contemporary art? Hjortland, Nicole M Defining the regulatory determinants in substrate catalysis by biochemical, biophysical, and kinetic studies for the development of specific small-molecule inhibitors of ubiquitin specific proteases 7 and Hodde, Whitney The effect of climate change on the economics of conservation tillage: A study based on field experiments in Indiana.

    Hodson, Stephen L Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications. Hoggatt, Will Development of a fluidic mixing nozzle for 3D bioprinting. Holgate, Horane A Development and initial validation of a culturally responsive classroom climate scale. Hollandbeck, Gaelle Florence Effect of volunteer corn density on deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum in hybrid corn.

    Hollingshead, Nicole A Examining the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and ethnic bias on medical students' pain decisions. Holzer, Corey T The application of natural language processing to open source intelligence for ontology development in the advanced persistent threat domain. Hoogewind, Kimberly A Climate change and hazardous convective weather in the United States: Insights from high-resolution dynamical downscaling. Houston, Saori M A longitudinal study of the development of fluency of novice Japanese learners: Analysis using objective measures. Houtman, John A Design and plan of a modified hydroponic shipping container for research.

    Hou, Yangyang Low rank methods for optimizing clustering. Hrycik, Allison R Spatio-temporal diet variation and movement decisions of Lake Erie yellow perch. Huang, Hsin-Ying Examination and utilization of rare features in text classification of injury narratives. Huang, Shouyuan Parametric and design analysis on thermoelectric generators. Huang, Wanfeng Concurrent detection and isolation of cellular and molecular biomarkers.

    Huang, Wenhan Parallelized ray casting volume rendering and 3D segmentation with combinatorial map. Huang, Yuqian Pattern exploration and event detection from geo-tagged tweets. Huang, Zhi Vehicle sensor-based pedestrian position identification in V2V environment. Huang, Zun Wave propagation and imaging in structured optical media. Huckabee, Alexis G In-column polymer modifications: Advancing polymer bonded phases. Hudspeth, Matthew C Multi-axial failure of high-performance fiber during transverse impact. Hughes, Kyle M Gravity-assist trajectories to Venus, Mars, and the ice giants: Mission design with human and robotic applications.

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    Kebede, Ammanuiel A Asphalt pavement preservation using rejuvenating fog seals. Keith, Melissa G Autonomy and motivation: The impact of task difficulty. Keller, Christine E. M Biochemical changes in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Kendall, Jordan D Hydrocode modeling of oblique impacts into terrestrial planets. Kesari, Aditi Factors affecting transduction efficiency of pseudotyped viral vectors incorporating alphaviral glycoproteins. Khan, Ishita K Protein function, diversity and functional interplay.

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    Khan, Raza A A high-performance communication topology for decentralized protocols. Kharangate, Chirag Rajan Experimental, theoretical and computational modeling of flow boiling, flow condensation and evaporating falling films. Khatri, Hari Raj Synthetic studies of heparan derivatives: Glycosyl couplings and post-glycosylative modifications. Khern-am-nuai, Warut Essays on value creation in online marketplaces.

    Kiernicki, John J Redox-active ligand uranium complexes for approaches to multi-electron chemistry. Kim, Dae Woo New marked point process models for microscopy images. Kim, Huisung Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies. Kim, Hyung Suk Implementing a wireless monitoring solution for a biomechanical telemetry system. Kim, Janghyun Evaluating the performance of passive chilled beams with respect to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. Kim, Jeonghwan High extinction ratio subwavelength 1D infrared polarizer by nanoimprint lithography.

    Kim, Jongbum Plasmonic devices based on transparent conducting oxides for near infrared applications. Kim, Jooho Examining consumers' risky food consumption behavior in restaurants. Kimmey, David L Feature extraction to improve nowcasting using social media event detection on cloud computing and sentiment analysis. Kim, Min Jung Restaurant menu design and food choice process. Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels.

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    Layfield, Allison S Pedagogy and profit: Multiethnic literature, gender and young adult publishing. Lear, Trevor R Liquid metal particle popping: Nanoscale to macroscale. Lee, Alli Elizabeth Exploration of alumni perceptions regarding career development and impact of the Indiana 4-H program. Lee, Heui Chang Device design factors for enhancing the functionality of chronic intracortical microelectrodes.

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    Legg, Emily M Listening to our stories in dusty boxes: Indigenous storytelling methodology, archival practice, and the Cherokee Female Seminary. Lei, Weiran Enhancing travel experience with the combination of information visualization, situation awareness, and distributed cognition. Leng, Yujun Preliminary design tools in turbomachinery: Non-uniformly spaced blade rows, multistage interaction, unsteady radial waves, and propeller horizontal-axis turbine optimization.

    Levine, Stephen E Dynamic transverse debondong of a single s-2 fiber. Li, Ang Flammability limits of alternative aviation fuels. Li, Gaojin Hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms in complex fluids. Li, Lingnan Maximum empirical likelihood estimation in U-statistics based general estimating equations. Lili, Wang Climate change impacts on soil erosion and nutrient losses in the Great Lakes region. Lim, Heejong Essays in operations management. Li, Mozhu Differences in context: Revealing expert-novice graph knowledge in biology.

    Lippitt, Katelyn A Neural processes mediating rhyme processing in young children who stutter. Lischke, Fabian Design of self-supported 3D printed parts for fused deposition modeling. Liu, Chao Three dimensional moving pictures with a single imager and microfluidic lens. Liu, Chenyang Improving programmability and performance for scientific applications. Liu, Hui Modeling of frame structures undergoing large deformations and large rotations. Liu, Jiabao Numerical optimization of a 6-cylinder diesel engine intake and exhaust manifold. Liu, Shaoqing Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics with mechanistically-based biogeochemistry models and in situ and remotely sensed data.

    Liu, Xiaohui Analysis of a next generation energy system based on the integration of transportation subsystem details. Liu, Xin Water absorption and desorption in concrete. Liu, Xin Analysis of slender structures using mechanics of structure genome and open source codes. Liu, Yangfan Efficient modeling of sound source radiation in free-space and room environments. Liu, Yu Modifications to Johanson's roll compaction model for improved relative density predictions. Liu, Yucheng Modeling of human perception for near-threshold local distortion in natural images.

    Liu, Yue Structural studies on cell entry of respiratory enteroviruses. Liu, Yuhang Measuring the effect of cold storage, captive supply, and concentration on the marketing margin in the U. Liu, Yun Three dimensional unsteady flow and active morphing effect in flapping wings. Li, Yiran The effect of static and dynamic aging on fatigue behavior of Sn3. Li, Yue Hua qian zhao zui shou looking for trouble at own expense - a study of tourist mis behaviors. Li, Zhang Optimal monitoring and mitigation of systemic risk in lending networks. Llanos Lucas, Fernando The role of experience in processing foreign-accented speech.

    Lockman, Jennifer Danielle College students' suicidal ideation: Testing the predictions of the existential - constructivist theory of suicide. Lopez Otero, Julio Cesar Bilingualism effects at the syntax-semantic interface: Evidence from the Spanish present tense. Lopez Perez, Nelyan Degradation of high performance polymeric fibers: Effects of sonication, humidity and temperature on poly p-phenylene terephthalamide fibers. Lotz, David Allen Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system. Lou, Fangyuan A study on flow development in an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance.

    Love, Heather A Suicidal ideation following the termination of romantic relationships with consideration of family-of-origin functioning and self-efficacy. Luan, Chi-Cheng Feelings of doing good for myself or others: Discussing effects of self-conscious emotions on sustainable consumption. Lucas, Jason M Connecting models of configuration spaces: From double loops to strings. Lu, Cheng Content-based image analysis with applications to the multifunction printer imaging pipeline and image databases. Lui, Pan Priscilla Disentangling universal and cultural-specific risks to mental health among Asian Americans: A multi-site longitudinal investigation.

    Regulation in Infant Formula Safety. Luo, Qianwen The cloud-radiative forcing of the U. Luo, Zhe Understanding in-plane thermal transport in crystalline semiconducting thin films. Luttermoser, Timothy J Nestmate recognition in odorous house ants Tapinoma sessile : Effects of social plasticity, urbanization, and laboratory maintenance. Lu, Xueting Improving fuel economy during high load diesel engine system operation through valve train flexibility.

    Lyle, LaDawn Tiffany A molecular analysis of blood-tumor barrier permeability in three experimental models of brain metastasis from breast cancer. Lyu, Hao Lyu Fight deck human-automation mode confusion detection using a generalized fuzzy hidden Markov model. Macke, Gabriel A Evaluation of a cool-season grass-white clover mixture for low-nitrogen input lawns. Maesschalck, Cis Guy M. De Design, analysis, optimization and control of rotor tip flows.

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    Masters, Christine L Encounters beyond the interface: Data structures, material feminisms, and composition.