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e-book OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: Catalonia, Spain (ECONOMIE)

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AFD is a public development finance institution that has worked to fight poverty and support economic growth in developing countries and the French Overseas Communities for almost 70 years. In , AFD committed more than euros 6. The funds will help vaccinate 1. For OECD work on poverty reduction, see www. Preliminary estimates for Through the activity of the Investment Division, ICE promotes Italy as a location for foreign investments, highlighting opportunities; fostering partnerships between Italian and foreign companies, and providing prospect investors with information and advise.

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Repository operation is scheduled to start in It analyses alternatives to geological disposal, including their environmental impact. Avenue des Arts 14 - Brussels - Belgium - Tel. His paper was rejected. The rest is history. The life-sized head was designed to show basic emotions. Sail of the century: Innovation is also about redeploying old technologies in improved ways. Ron Gass retired from the organisation in , and currently consults for various organisations. Take this opportunity together with stakeholders from all parts of society to work with us and sharpen our contribution to a resilient and balanced world economy.

More information on our Website: www. Australia is one of only two OECD countries that levy no social security contributions at all on employees. The Australian economy, fuelled by the mining boom, should grow robustly in and at a rate of between 3. Strong growth, driven by gains in terms of trade and dynamic investment, will reduce unemployment. There has been remarkable progress in reducing tobacco consumption, cutting by half the percentage of adults who smoke daily from Next major election: By 30 November Parliament website: www.

This book shows that Australia has built strong governance foundations for the development of good regulatory management and competition policies, which are likely to be conducive to economic growth. It aims to reinvigorate a wide agenda of national reforms and to embed past reform achievements in new working arrangements between the Commonwealth and the states.

Maintaining the momentum for reform is a critical challenge, which requires a strategic vision as well as strenuous efforts to promote change and to establish a culture of continuous regulatory improvement. After several years of declining numbers, asylum seeking increased in , and this trend accelerated in Graduation rates from medical education programmes have consistently been above the OECD average , resulting in high and rising numbers of doctors.

At Capacity utilisation rose towards its long-term average level and investment picked up. Employment growth spread to the manufacturing sector, but most newly created jobs are still in lower-productivity services. In , Austria had 4. But it had 7. Austria makes extensive use of solar water heaters, relative to other countries.

Better Regulation in Europe: Austria This report maps and analyses the core issues which together make up effective regulatory management for Austria, laying down a framework of what should be driving regulatory policy and reform in the future. Issues examined include: strategy and policies for improving regulatory management; institutional capacities for effective regulation and the broader policymaking context; transparency and processes for effective public consultation and communication; processes for the development of new regulations, including impact assessment, and for the management of the regulatory stock, including administrative burdens; compliance rates, enforcement policy and appeal processes; and the multilevel dimension: interface between different levels of government and interface between national processes and those of the EU.

This book is part of a project examining better regulation, being carried out in partnership with the European Commission. Belgium was one of the countries with the highest regional inequality in youth unemployment. Also, Belgium is the OECD country that levies the highest taxes on the labour income of single taxpayers with low, average or high earnings. Also the tax burden faced by married couples is among the highest in the OECD.

OECD Economic Surveys: Belgium After four years of strong growth, the Belgian economy entered a deep recession during the second half of under the impact of the international crisis. The Brazilian economy has slowed markedly from the strong growth rates seen earlier in It is expected to rebound, however, as income gains and resilient credit expansion sustain private consumption. Massive infrastructure projects should help lift growth rates anew in the coming years. Oil and gas revenue is currently shared among the federal government, the states and the municipalities on a derivation basis i.

The assessments and the recommendations are based on the lessons learned from the experience of OECD member countries. The economic recovery has slowed sharply as a result of waning expansion of external demand and a retrenchment in household spending growth. Activity is nevertheless projected to progress at a moderate pace through as employment prospects and external demand gradually pick up again. Business investment is expected to remain robust.

Sustained strength in the exchange rate continues to pose challenges for the manufacturing sector. With the construction and public sectors accounting for over half of the jobs created since the trough, employment gains are expected to ease. Canada spends 6. Biodiesel use is projected to reach million litres by Domestic biodiesel production continues to be mainly based on other feedstocks such as tallow and other animal fat.

It is projected to grow continuously over the projection period. LaRocque Delegation website: www. Land occupancy is more homogenous than in the rest of Canada, due to the presence of denser networks of small and medium-sized communities. However, mirroring the situation at the national level, the province displays large regional disparities. The sustainability of some rural communities, especially if remote and resource-based, is challenged by demographic and economic decline. The economy has embarked on a strong recovery. Supported by high copper prices and strong domestic demand, the pace of growth is projected to remain high in and However, efforts have been made to improve income support to formal-sector job losers.

The increase in exports went hand in hand with falling prices on world markets and deteriorating sanitary conditions on the salmon farms. It stood at 7 deaths per 1 live births in , above the OECD average of 4. In Chile, the obesity rate among adults, based on actual measures of height and weight, was This is lower than for the US Participation in post-compulsory education is now rising, as is investment in pre-schooling.

Energy supply per capita in Chile 1. Delegation website: www. Policy evolution continues, with a range of initiatives underway to meet the current challenges. This renewed buoyancy is projected to continue in , as faster domestic demand offsets a renewed slowdown in exports, stabilising the current account surplus at around 5. Although the current account surplus is not projected to increase, further external adjustment will not be aided by the weakening of the effective exchange rate that has occurred despite a modest appreciation of the renminbi against the dollar in recent months.

Between and China will have added new capacity equivalent to the current installed capacity of the United States. Exports continue to drive the recovery in real GDP, which is set to grow by 2. By the economy is likely to be growing by 3. Net migration over reached 0. The Czech Republic was the only country experiencing a strong increase in labour productivity growth in compared to the period On average across OECD countries, graduation rates from university-level education have increased by 21 percentage points over the past 13 years. The recovery is expected to gain strength gradually as world trade expands, and to become broad-based as private domestic demand improves.

Employment has been growing since the start of , driven by public-sector and, more recently, privatesector demand.

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Enrolment rates for year-olds indicate the number of people attending tertiary education. Hallegatte, S.

Catalonia Referendum: Spanish courts and regional banks pile pressure on Catalan separatists

As these are not unique to Denmark, but are commonly shared by a number of OECD countries, the study provides useful tools to support e-government policy making in all OECD countries. Rebalancing of the economy continues in , with consumption still weak while exports grow strongly. GDP growth is projected at 3. Health spending per capita in Estonia grew, in real terms, by an average of 8. In , new cases per million population were reported.

Smaller higher education institutions, including most professional higher education institutions, vocational education schools and private institutions, contribute only to a very minor extent to carrying out research. Brixiova, Zuzana et al. Labour market performance steadily improved during the mids and beyond, until the advent of the global economic crisis in Estonia was not well prepared for the slowdown and its economy has been hit especially hard.

The downturn has required painful policy adjustments. The economy has rebounded strongly on the back of sharply recovering exports, and unemployment has started to recede. In , the numbers dropped noticeably as a result of the recession. Cancer mortality rates for the total population were the lowest in Finland, Switzerland and Sweden compared with other European countries, at under deaths per population.

This report is the second in a series of OECD country reviews that look at governance and public management issues from a comprehensive perspective. These reviews help countries to identify how reforms can better reinforce each other in support of overall government objectives. They also examine reform strategies that have worked in other countries and provide advice as to which reforms can be appropriately adapted to a given country. Although the increase in long-term unemployment is worrying, policymakers have avoided past mistakes during this recession by resisting the promotion of early-retirement schemes and, more generally, have sought to maintain the attachment of displaced workers to the labour market.

Women with poor education in France are almost three times more likely to be overweight than more educated women. The share of public expenditure on health to GDP is high, at 8. En France les plus grands risques naturels connus concernent les inondations. The economy is recovering strongly on the back of the improvement in world trade. Private consumption, investment and government spending on infrastructure have also been strong.

Although annual growth is expected to slow somewhat over the projection horizon, the pre-crisis real GDP level will be reached in the course of In particular, the take-up of German citizenship among immigrants from Turkey and their children has continuously declined in recent years. Germany was ranked 9th overall in the PISA survey, up three places from Germany is the largest exporter and importer of information and communications technology goods in Europe. In terms of innovation outcomes, triadic patents were an aboveaverage 73 per million population in , and at The birthrate has been declining and there is negative net growth in the population.

The economy is expected to return to positive growth by as the impact of structural reforms takes hold and external demand strengthens. There are more physicians per capita in Greece than in any other OECD country, with six practising physicians per 1 population in , well above the OECD average of 3. On the other hand, there were only 3. Greece makes extensive use of solar water heaters, relative to other countries. Jobs for Youth: Greece Improving the performance of youth on the labour market is a crucial challenge in OECD countries facing persistent youth unemployment.

This report on Greece contains a survey of the main barriers to employment for young people, an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of existing measures to improve the transition from school to work, and a set of policy recommendations for further action by the public authorities and social partners. Economic growth resumed in and was mainly fuelled by robust external demand, while private consumption and investment continued to fall. Growth is projected to gain momentum as domestic demand gradually recovers. Further tax cuts will take place from In , spending on pharmaceuticals accounted for The average among OECD countries was 9.

At the primary level, the ratio of students to teaching staff is fewer than 11 in Hungary, compared with an OECD average of 16 students per teacher. After the deep recession of the past two years, Iceland is making progress and laying the foundations for durable economic growth.

The recovery is projected to get under way in the second half of , led by planned privately-driven investment in large energy projects and strengthening private consumption expenditure. The authorities are implementing tight adjustment policies in line with the programme supported by the IMF Stand-By Arrangement.

The plight of the banking system was in part the consequence of the sudden shutdown of global capital markets. Faced with events having potentially dramatic economic and social consequences, the government sought the assistance of the international community in support of the medium-term adjustment programme to restore policy credibility and economic growth.

While progress has been made in implementing the programme, much remains to be done. The Indian economy expanded very strongly in early The agricultural sector enjoyed a sharp rebound, following a return of normal rainfall patterns, while the recovery in the non-agricultural sector continued to strengthen. More recently, activity has eased from its unusually strong pace and there are now signs that the economy is shifting from the recovery phase to one of sustained high growth. It focuses on policies towards investment, trade, competition and other elements of the business environment.

Finally, it outlines some of the challenges of implementing national-level reforms at state level. Robust domestic consumption and investment continue to drive the economy forward. External surpluses are narrowing as a result of weak foreign demand and buoyant import growth. Activity is projected to maintain momentum in , buttressed by resilient private consumption and resurgent investment, and ease marginally in The draft state budget envisages cuts in energy subsidies, making it less vulnerable to swings in international energy prices and freeing resources for growthenhancing programmes.

For example, the price of one kilogram of rice in Paniai, a remote village in Papua, is more than double that in East Java. Educational attainment has increased markedly for primary school but remains low for secondary and higher levels of education. Poverty has declined since but remains high, with a poverty rate of In addition to the rural-urban divide, wide disparities also exist between women and men.

Indonesia experiences frequent electricity blackouts. In particular, it looks at achieving sustainable and inclusive growth, phasing out energy subsidies, tackling the infrastructure challenge, and enhancing the effectiveness of social policies. As with all OECD Economic Surveys, it makes a series of recommendations and is rich in statistical data and policy information. Other highlights The economy is undergoing massive adjustment in banking, the housing market, the government budget and the labour market, leaving a large impact on public debt and unemployment.

A mild recovery is projected to be driven by exports, while domestic demand is likely to remain sluggish.


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In , there were 3 applicants for asylum were recognised , the lowest number since The growth of energy consumption in the transport, residential and tertiary sectors has resulted in CO2 emissions per capita well above the OECD average. Waste generation per capita is among the highest in the OECD. Environmental policies have been improved, and a series of actions have been taken to support the development of an innovation-based, green, low-carbon economy.

As a result, Ireland generally has good air and water quality. Recovery from the relatively mild downturn has already tightened the labour market and growth may be running somewhat above potential by the end of Combined with interest payments on public debt, this implies that primary civilian spending is low compared with OECD countries. Many low-skilled Jewish and Arab workers, Palestinian crossborder workers and workers from overseas are employed at wages close to or even below the minimum wage, and the presence of cheap foreign labour exerts downward pressure on wages at the bottom end of the distribution.

Israel was ranked 30th overall in the PISA survey. As a result, the median age of graduation from a.

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Kemp, A. On one side, there is the general Jewish population with poverty and employment rates similar to those of OECD countries. On the other, there are Arabs and ultra-Orthodox Jews, or Haredim, who have large families, poor educational outcomes and low employment rates. As a result, just over half of Arab and Haredi families live in poverty. Almost half of all children entering primary school in Israel come from one of these two groups, so profound policy changes are needed to prevent future generations of Arabs and Haredim from being scarred by the disadvantages these population groups face today.

Progress has been made in many of these areas. New legislation and initiatives have been introduced. The challenge is how to make reform work in practice. The consequences of not doing so would be devastating. Investment and exports will lead the upturn in demand. Unemployment may be near its peak, but as use of the Cassa Integrazione wage support schemes unwinds it may not fall very fast. Household income growth will remain sluggish and depend on a recovery in self-employment income, which dropped severely during the downturn.

The gap between female and male employment has been falling faster in Italy than in most other countries, but remains relatively high by OECD standards. The average for the 21 OECD countries with self-reported data was Between and , Italy had a stable A new understanding of the provinces of Padua, Treviso and Venice as an interconnected city-region of 2. Venice ranks as among the most dynamic and productive city-regions in the OECD, with high employment levels and growth rates.

Demographics are also changing, due to ageing inhabitants, immigrant settlement and the rapid depopulation of the historic city of Venice. In Japan, one-third or more of top performers in science come from less advantaged social backgrounds, compared with a quarter for many other OECD countries. At the same time, several more complex, long-term challenges have come to the fore: climate change, sound waste, materials management, and biodiversity conservation. The decline in unemployment to less than 3. Suicide rates in Korea have increased rapidly.

Male rates almost tripled from 12 deaths per in to 32 in , almost twice the OECD average of The rate for females 13 per is the highest among OECD countries. In lower secondary education, Korea has 35 students per class, compared with an average class size of 24 students for the OECD area. Some KRW 50 trillion have been invested to create jobs from to in, for example, environmentally-friendly transportation networks, water management and river rehabilitation, clean energy, green IT, and waste-to-energy.

Yoo, B. It also has a highly educated labour force— as signalled by its impressive PISA performance and exceptionally high rates of tertiary level graduation—with a strong interest in science and technology. However, a number of bottlenecks persist. These include a relatively weak SME sector and weak performance in services, as well as lagging capacities to conduct leading-edge research in many areas. Furthermore, Korea faces numerous threats in the mediumterm, notably increased levels of competition from China and other newly-industrialising economies, the lowest fertility rate in the OECD, an ageing society and a continuing high dependency on imports of natural resources, particularly hydrocarbons.

A recovery is under way, led by private domestic demand. Out of all OECD countries, Luxembourg has the highest percentage of foreigners in relation to its total population, and this percentage is rising steadily. This is partly due to the large number of cross-border workers nearly , who accounted for In comparison to other European countries, children in Luxembourg are among the least likely to exercise regularly. The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and include recommendations for further environmental and sustainable development progress.

The Mexican economy has embarked on a vigorous recovery, which started in on the back of strong export growth. The report evaluates the progress made by countries, seeking to evaluate the key challenges in institutional, policy, administrative and regulatory mechanisms, used to manage critical risks. Access to Justice. Behavioural Insights. Budgetary Governance - Principles.

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