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The construction of race becomes the basis upon which thoughts of sexuality are formed. This becomes problematic because Black racial identity is prefigured, thus rendering sexual identity as also being prefigured. Reid-Pharr, Robert F. Reid-Pharr argues that homosexuality must be constructed inBlack boundarylessness, which by definition rejects the notion of "normal" Blackness.

African American History: Bibliography

Through literary pieces and works of film, he attempts to analyze the ways in which contemporary artist are succeeding at this, though his argument centers on racial construction, rather than on sexuality. Barnes, Deborah H. David L. New York: Garland, Joe and Violet Trace, the protagonists of Toni Morrison's Jazz, are exemplars of the African American migrants who experience culture shock after moving from the South to the North. Barnes emphasizes the recuperative aspects of harking back to a Southern past via the "mutable native culturalisms" which give meaning and context to a new and unfamiliar environment.

Also important to her analysis is the fact that migration from South to North quite frequently produces narratives of descent i. Griffin, Farah Jasmine. New York: Oxford University Press, Acknowledging the diversity of African American experiences in the North, Griffin suggests that multiple readings of the Southern past exist in the corpus of migration narratives. She draws examples from texts by Jean Toomer, Nella Larsen, Richard Wright, and Amiri Baraka, among others, to highlight the variance among black responses to the city.

Jeffries, John.

Black people

Gina Dent. Seattle: Bay Press, If the modern American city is the product of Enlightenment notions of race and capital, as Jeffries suggests, then black urban culture can undermine its symbolic potential. This project is of the utmost importance since the politicization of geographic space, while informed by capitalist economic activity, is subject to critique by those who occupy that space. As marginalized subjects, African Americans position themselves to incorporate the city into Stuart Hall's notion of a cultural "repertoire" the other elements being style, music, and the body , thus turning it into a site of social change.

Jones, Evora. Jones adapts Robert Stepto's notions of ascension and immersion to her own reading of Zora Neale Hurston's novel. Assuming the text's cyclical nature, she considers Janie's relationships with Logan, Joe, and Tea Cake representative of the symbolic North, the "oppressive system" of the North, and the "least oppressive social structure," respectively. But this reading tends to be more linear than anything else, which is probably why Jones presents the narrative as a synthesis of competing desires.

The essay's major point relies on this contradiction: Janie returns to her selfhood, to the South, only via the trajectory of her relationships; that is, her ascent to freedom depends on the extent to which she is immersed in men.

The Online Reference Guide to African American History

Stepto, Robert B. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, Stepto fleshes out the idea of a narrative of ascent through his analysis of Richard Wright's autobiography, Black Boy.


  • The 2017 Ford-Turpin Symposium?
  • Samson (Hors série) (French Edition).
  • Post-Racial America?.
  • Matharis Kinder II (German Edition);
  • Stay (I Missed You).
  • African American History: Bibliography • BlackPast.
  • The Requiem of a City Church.

Especially in terms of the graduation scene at Jim Hill School, the text exhibits the protagonist's yearning to leave the rural South Memphis for the urban North, where his skills as a writer will be allowed to flourish. This desire takes its cue from a telos that recognizes freedom and literacy to be the endpoints of ascending narratives.

Farah Jasmine Griffin

And because ascension is significant in both sociogeographic and spiritual contexts, Wright's persona ultimately achieves authorial control over the text by displacing an immobile and illiterate Southern past. Nearly all of my resources are from books, but were printed in order to save paper and money. If you have any questions as to the authenticity of them, just ask and I will bring in the printed version for you to examine. Database: Contemporary Authors. As a skilled, black, female science fiction writer, Butler's writing tackles topics such as "the impact of race and sex upon future society".

Racial differences and the keys to inclusion and exclusion are prevalent in many of her writings as well. Her work marks a great use of history to write a story about the future. The coming together of different religions and races is a crucial point found within much of Butler's writing. The vague and ambiguous endings to her novels leave critics with much to talk and argue about. Jablon, Madelyn "Metafiction as Genre".

The Parable of the Sower fits "the pattern of a tale of initiation". The ideas of ego and id are also prevalent I the novel's romance. The idea of a hero fighting to get in rather than out of "the company" is also fresh in Butler's novel.

Zaki, Hoda "Future Tense". Zaki is the first critic to observe that although Parable is a futuristic story, it deals with a future not so far away and not so unimaginable. The terrible society that exists in the story is, in Zaki's opinion, a real possibility. Miller, Jim "The Technology Fix".

Miller presents Butler as a great science fiction writer and even better political mind. He is convinced that her writing forces us to examine our own lives, and even change the way we go about living. The greatness of Butler's writing, to Miller, is in its ability to make us think about our society and ourselves. Gladney, Marvin J.

Special Issues on The Music Summer, Three issues, the frustration and emotional response of African Americans to their history and legacy in the United States, the need of Black artists to have independent economic and creative control over art and its production and finally the need for Hip Hop art to establish its own aesthetic, particularly outside of a commercial frame of reference are the concepts on which Gladney focuses to establish a connection between these two arts movements.

The Hip Hop movement is definitely placed on a continuum with the Black Aesthetic and located within Black culture as the voice of "Black youth" Ellis, Trey. Winter, There is a new movement and sensibility among young intellectuals and artists of African descent in the United States, primarily rooted in the middle class. In defining itself, it walks a thin line between hybridity and Black nationalist allegiance.

Henderson, Errol A. Journal of Black Studies. January, Henderson gives a detailed account of the origins and development of Rap and Hip Hop. These new musical genres are the next step after jazz. Henderson points out that a hybridized and commercialized "hip hop nation", as opposed to Black nation, undermined the potential for political influence and action. Salaam, Mtume ya. Salaam focuses on the historical structure of rap, claiming it to be a true art form and one rooted in the Black tradition of music.

Originality and inventiveness, especially deft manipulation and construction of language are characteristics of good rap. Commercialism has shaped the course of the genres as much as the creative endeavors of the artists involved. Hip hop more aptly describes a culture that included dance and dress, as well as music. The article predicts that by the end of the 90's rap will have become "just another" genre of American music, going the way of earlier music types to originate from Black culture.

September, Conventions of Black speech, including signifying, slang, toasting and narrativizing indicate a level on which African Americans can meet and explore their experiences, even college educated rappers who make up a noticeable part of the population of rappers and Hip Hop artists.

This music's imperative is to define community and call out the neglect of America. Imani L. Fryar examines how Black women have found a voice throughout the development of Black literature and how some of the lesser heard early voices Fauset, Houston are receiving more recent hearings. Community building, domestic issues and spirituality seem to be the primary themes dominating and controlling the perspective of Black Women writers. Language, and its full use, to describe and recreate self is very important to this aesthetic as it serves to empower women in a way formerly unavailable.

Ellerby, Janet Mason. Summer ,Vol. She asserts that McMillan writes the man out of his traditional role in the "patriarchal center" although she affirms African American patterns of kinship in women's relationships separate from men. McMillian's books, when taken together, can not be dismissed as conforming to ideas of male dominion. Rather, McMillan challenges gender norms and should be placed within the African American literary canon.

Harris, Tina M. Fall , Vol. Gender roles are learned through media though they often come into conflict with life experience because images presented are skewed by the presenter's frame of reference i. Harris and Hill contrast gender role expectations for Western women and Black women and explore the cinematic paradigm for the portrayal of Black women. They posit that a shift in that cinematic paradigm is happening, and Black feminist thought provides "an appropriate framework for exploring the gender role socialization of African American professional women in the 's.

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"Who Set You Flowin'?": The African-American Migration Narrative by Farah Jasmine Griffin

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The Great Migration

Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — "Who Set You Flowin'? Twentieth-century America has witnessed the most widespread and sustained movement of African-Americans from the South to urban centers in the North. Who Set You Flowin'? Griffin takes an interdisciplinary approa Twentieth-century America has witnessed the most widespread and sustained movement of African-Americans from the South to urban centers in the North.

Griffin takes an interdisciplinary approach with readings of several literary texts, migrant correspondence, painting, photography, rap music, blues, and rhythm and blues. From these various sources Griffin isolates the tropes of Ancestor , Stranger , and Safe Space , which, though common to all Migration Narratives, vary in their portrayal. She argues that the emergence of a dominant portrayal of these tropes is the product of the historical and political moment, often challenged by alternative portrayals in other texts or artistic forms, as well as intra-textually.

Richard Wright's bleak, yet cosmopolitan portraits were countered by Dorothy West's longing for Black Southern communities. Ralph Ellison, while continuing Wright's vision, reexamined the significance of Black Southern culture. Griffin concludes with Toni Morrison embracing the South "as a site of African-American history and culture," "a place to be redeemed. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Race and American Culture.

African American History

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