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Disobey a court order. Desobedecer a uma ordem imposta pelo Tribunal. Dispute, a claim. Dispute, beyond. Disputes liability and amount claimed. Contesta a responsabilidade e o montante. Disqualified from driving. Desqualificado de Conduzir. Esbulho, Desapossamento. District Council. District Court. Tribunal de Comarca Tribunal Distrital. District Mayor. Presidente da Junta de Freguesia. District Rent Officer. Divorce Counselling Session or Therapy Session. Divorce proceedings. DNA desoxiribonucleic acid.

DNA Testing. Banco dos Acusados Br. Documentary Evidence. Document Exchange DX. Domestic, a. Domestic Violence. Doping Sports. Draft Evasion. Draft Law A Bill. Draft letter of intent. Driving not in accordance with his license. Drove off made their escape. Drug Addict. Drug Smuggling Trafficking.

Drunk and Incapable. Drunk Driving. DSS Fraud Dept. Duty of care. Duty Solicitor. Oficioso, Adv. Duty to Co-habit. Dever de co-habitar. Education social worker or Welfare officer. Either Way Offences Trial. Electronic tagging. Eligible Rent. No aterro, ao lado da estrada. Emergency Accommodation. Empanelled assembled the jury was empanelled. Empregado Trabalhador por conta de outrem. Employment Appeal Tribunal. Tribunal de Trabalho — Recursos. Employment Protection Consolidation Act Employment Training.

Enacted, by law.

Lendas e Factos da História de Portugal

Decretado nos termos da lei. Enactments of government. End of Contract. End of questioning. Endorsement 1 to add something to a document.

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Endorsement 2 to transfer to another a right. Enduring Power of Attorney. Enforcement Proceedings. Enter Appeal. Equal Opportunities Commission. Equal Pay Act Establish a service see setting up. Estate Agent. Estate Costs. Estate Manager. Gestor de Propriedade. Estate Officers. Caso Julgado. Estoppel by Judgement. Ethnic Minorities. Ethnic origin. European Court of Human Rights. Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos Humanos.

European Convention of Human Rights. Eviction Proceedings. Processo de Despejo. Prova, Meio de prova, Testemunho. Evidence 2 give evidence in court. Evidential Test. Enough evidence to convict or take to court. Prova comprovativa. Examination in chief. Exceptional Leave to Remain. Excise Stamp. Execution against goods. Exemption Certificate. Exempt person taxes see taxable person. Sujeito passivo, Isento. Ex-gratia payment. Pagamento Ex-gratia. Exhaust Emission Offences. Exhibit Prova. Exibir documentos comprovativos objecto ou documento apresentado em Tribunal. Ex parte now Without Notice.

Expert witness. Perito, Testemunha Pericial. Express declaration,. Extended Sentence. EU convention on laundering, search, seizure and confiscation of proceeds of crime. Family Court Welfare Report. Family Mediation Service. Recursos de procedimento acelerado. Mercadorias defeituosas ou Mercadorias imperfeitas. Financial Insufficiency Certificate. Fines and associated penalties. First Lord of the Admiralty. Fit for Human Habitation. Flying Squad of State Police.

Force Majeure contract. Forensic relating to courts. Forense referente ao foro judicial. Foreseen scheduled by. Forfeit surrender something as a penalty. Foster Family or Foster Parents. Propriedade alodial livre de encargos. Full Beams Headlights. Further Training depends on context.

Further Training Course. Further Vocational Training. Gangs — Bando de Marginais ex. Zulus, Raps, Black Boys. Garnishee Proceedings. Garnishee Order. Serious cuts, knife wounds, etc. General Provisions. Genuine belief. Acreditar sinceramente. Government Bill. Grand Jury US. Graphological tests. Green Form Scheme. Gross Indecency. Gross negligence.

10+ Incredible Facts About Portugal

Guarantee agreement on 1st demand. Guardian ad Litem now Litigation friend. Guilty Pleas. A prerogative writ directed to a person who detains another in custody, it commands him to produce that person before the court. Habitual residence test performed at the Benefits Agency. Hardship Provision or Payment. Hard Shoulder motorway. Harmful Publications. Hashish see cannabis.

Hazard Warning Lights. Head of Service. Head of State. Health and Safety at Work Act Health and Safety at Work Regulations Health Visitor. Enfermeira Especializada em Pediatria. Hearsay not allowed in court what someone else has been heard to say. Por ouvir dizer boato 2. Conjectura 3. Testemunho de ouvir dizer.

Held on Remand. HGV — Heavy goods vehicle. High Commissioner. High Court Tribunal. Highway Code. Highway ramp. HM Treasury. Home circumstances report. Home Leave. Homeless Sem abrigo. Homeless Unit. Centro de acolhimento para os sem abrigo. Home Office. Homologation period. Hooked on drugs. Viciado em droga Toxicodependente. Hospital Order on the grounds of mental disorder.

House of Commons Lower House. House of Lords Upper House. Housing Act. Housing Action Trust. Housing Association. Housing Benefit. Housing Corporation.


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Housing Estate. Housing Officer. Housing waiting list. Lista de espera para alojamento. Veredicto pendente. Identification Parade. IdentiKit and Photofit. Idle dispute or an idle lawsuit. Inutilidade da lide. Immediate Imprisonment. Immigration Rules. Immigration Appeal Tribunal. Impechment USA. Import Declaration. Imposition of Sanctions. Imprisonable offence. Delito sujeito a pena privativa de liberdade. In camera now In Private. Public not allowed in. Incident Report Police. Auto de Noticia Br. Incitement to incite someone else to commit a crime.

Income Support. Indecent Assault. Indecent Displays. Indecent Exposure. Indecent Photographs. Fotografias indecentes. Independent Contractors. Indictable Offences. Indicted for Murder. Indictment Doc. Industrial Dispute. Disputa Industrial. Industrial Estate. Parque Industrial ou Centro Empresarial. Industrial Training Act Industrial Tribunal now Employment Tribunal.

Tribunal do Trabalho. Inferred refusal. Information desks. Informed Consent. Inhuman or degrading treatment. Tratamento desumano ou degradante. Injunction refraining someone from doing something or going into a certain area. Injunction 2. Inland Revenue. Inland Revenue Department. Inmates in Hospital. In private. In Pursuance of. Nos termos de, por forca de.

Inquest an inquiry not a trial, but in the presence of a jury. Insolvency Practitioner. Insolvency Proceedings. Inspector Police Force. Institute Proceedings Appeals. Instrument of Conveyance. Integral part of…. Integral part therein, an. Do qual faz parte integrante. Intellectual Property. Propriedade intelectual. Intensive Training Course. Inter Alia Amongst other things. Entre outras coisas. Interim Care order. Interim disqualification from driving. Inter partes now On Notice. Interview Room at Police Station. In the public interest. Intimate Samples eg. Blood, urine, saliva, DNA.

Intimate search. In witness whereof, granting is requested. Nestes termos, pede deferimento. Issue or Institute Proceedings. It was lodged a deed of aggravation of the decision not granted at the beginning. Joinder of claims. Joint order. Ordem Conjunta ou co-ligada. Judgement by. Judgement Creditor. Judgement Debtor. Judgement for Plaintiff. Judgement of the Court of Justice. Judgement set aside, to.

Judicial Action. Judicial Appeal. Recurso contencioso. Judicial Opinion. Lando Um parecer ex. Judicial Proceeding. Judicial Record. Judicial Remedy. Recurso Jurisdicional. Judicial Review. Jurisdiction for execution. Jury Summoning Officer. Jury Summons. Jury was empanelled. A lista dos jurados foi feita. Juvenile Court Tribunal. Tutelar de Menores. Labour claim. Lack of proof. Land Ancillary to a building. Lands Tribunal. Tribunal da Propriedade Rural. Law Centre. Lawful excuse. Law Society. Ordem dos Advogados. Law of Tort. Direito de Natureza Civil. Lawsuit see Judicial Proceeding. Processo Judicial ou Lide.

Lay Magistrates. Leading Questions questions made in cross-examination. Perguntas Capciosas. Learning disability. Dificuldades de Aprendizagem Impedimento de Aprendizagem. Leasehold flats. Apartamentos em regime de propriedade horizontal. Leasehold ownership. Leasing Agency. Leasing contract. Leave to Appeal. Leave to enter. Leave to remain. Legal Advice. Legal Adviser. Legal Aid a form of. Legal Authorities. Autoridades Judiciais. Legal Charge. Despesas Judiciais ex. Despesas de Contencioso hipotecas. Legal Costs see court costs.

Custas Judiciais pagas depois do caso Custas Processuais preparos, pagas durante o processo. Legal Entity. Legal Executive. Representante Legal numa Empresa ou Gabinete de Advogados. Legal Instrument. Legal Guardian. Legal Person see artificial legal person. Legal Personality to have. Legal Personnel.

Legal Protection. Legal Provisions. Letter of Attorney or Power of Attorney. Letter of Claim sent by Claimant to Defendant. Letter of Request. Level of Alcohol in the blood. Lewd Behaviour. Comportamento indecente, lascivo. Liability in Tort. Responsabilidade civil extracontratual. Liable to Duty. Libel By means of writing, print or broadcasting. Licence, to hold a.

Licence Endorsed. Licensing Act Life Licence. Life Sentence or Life Imprisonment. Liquidated contracts. Contratos liquidados. Litigation Parties before court are answerable for case conduct. Litigation Friend see Guardian ad litem and Next Friend. Local Authority. Autarquia Local Junta de Freguesia. Local Reference Rent. Lodge a Complaint. Lodge an appeal or case. Interpor um Recurso ou uma 2a. London Police the square mile police see Metropolitan Police. Comando Metropolitano do centro de Londres Policia Municipal. Lord Chancellor add footnote: this is the highest judicial authority in England.

Lord Mayor. Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. Loss of amenities. Perda de comodidades. Sistema de alta voz Altifalante para chamar as partes intervenientes no caso. Lower Courts. Tribunais Inferiores. Juiz Social Trib. Pequena casa geminada em dois andares. Casa dividida em apartamentos. Veredicto pronunciado por uma maioria. Manslaughter aggravated see murder. Manslaughter involuntary. Manslaughter involuntary aggravated. Manslaughter negligence. Manslaughter voluntary. Manslaughter voluntary aggravated.

Matrimonial Property Law. May lead to a conviction. Meal Voucher see Vouchers. Ticket Restaurante. Memorandum of Association. Mens Rea Offence with intent, guilty state of mind see Actus Reus. Comando Metropolitano de Londres Em P. Milord or your lordship. Minister without Portfolio. Minister for Transport Industries. Ministry of Postal Services and Telecommunications.

Misleading Advertisement Act. Lei contra a Publicidade Enganosa.


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Misuse of Drugs Act Lei de Abuso de Estupefacientes de Mitigation speech made by defence after verdict or guilty plea. Mitigating circumstances. Mode of Trial Decision to try case either by magistrates or jury. Money judgment or award of costs. Danos Patrimoniais morais ex. Mortgage Application Form. Mortgagee Lender eg. Bank, etc. Motorway Control Policeman. Multi track claims UK. Murder see attempted murder. Mutandis Mudando o que deve ser mudado. Mute by visitation of God. Mute of malice to stand. Recusar depor, responder ou defender-se.

My learned friend how Defence and Prosecutor refer to each other in court sometimes. National Insurance Contributions. NI Contributions deduction. NI Exemption Certificate. National Insurance Number. National Police Training. Pessoas Naturais. The National Assoc. Neighbourhood Watch Schemes.

Next Friend now Litigation Friend. Representante de menores em Tribunal. Non-Custodial Sentences eg. Notary Public, a In the UK is a civil lawyer who verifies signatures and authenticates documents. Notice to Detained Person. Obiter Dictum A saying by the way, by a judge giving his decision. Occasional Owners or holders. Occupation of a Country. Offences triable on Indictment. Criminoso, infractor, transgressor, delinquente, autor do delito.

Onus Probandi burden of proof. Operative part of judgement. Portaria Ministerial Despacho Ministerial. Order to retake the driving test. Outworkers Social Services. Parental responsibility agreement. Acordo de responsabilidade dos ascendentes diretos Acordo de Responsabilidade Parental. Parenting classes order. Parole now Released on Licence. Liberdade Condicional Br. Livramento Condicional. Particulars of an insurance policy. Passivo-Agressivo comportamento da parte que ofende. Peers eg. Judgement by Peers. Penal Affairs Consortium. By itself taken alone Em si mesmo.

Periodic penalty payments. Perjury False swearing, false statement under oath. Personal Injury Litigation. Petition see Demand, Countercharge, and Reply. Petition for Bankruptcy. Physical Person see legal person. Carteirista Br. Plain-clothes Constable. Plaintiff The one who starts a claim.

Pleading a Defence Argument against a claim. Points of Initial Claim. Police Headquarters or Police Station. Cadetes exp. Police Protection Children Act. PPW abbreviation of Paperwork. Porto de Entrada onde pessoas que pedem asilo entram. Possession for own use. Posse de Estupefacientes para passar ou vender droga. Possession of property. Poverty Affidavit to receive legal aid. Power of retrieval same as Right of Evocation. Practice Directions Rules of practice not laws issued by High Court judges.

Pre-action conduct of litigation. Precautionary measure or protective measure. Precedent A case used as authority for its legal principles. Prejudicial prevent eg. Conflicts with the provisions. Preliminary Demand not granted. Preliminary Hearing 1st stage of Court case. Apresentar uma queixa-crime Denuncia escrita de crime particular. Presumption near to proof of fact Inference as to the truth of a fact admitted to be true. Prevailing legislation Legislation in force. Prima Facie Case At first appearance case with evidence in support.

Contacto Supervisionado em Regime de Prova. Ordem de Liberdade Supervisionada.

Probation Emergency Support. Proceeds income, revenue. Ganhos, receitas, resultados, fundos. Fundos provenientes de actividades criminosas. Professional Indemnity Insurance. Prohibition Order, a under Children Act. Properly interested person. Protection of Social and Welfare Rights. Protective Authorization. Provision of… contracts. Provisional Warrant or protective order see precautionary measure. Public Administration Brackets. Quid Pro Quo Something for something.

Race Relations Act Racial Aggravation. Racial Equality Council. Conselho para a Igualdade Racial. Racial Harassment. Racial Hatred. Random Checks. Rape see statutory rape. Reason for decision or principle upon cause decision. Real defence. Rear end collision see collision. Furthermore, the introductory pages about Portuguese colonial history are largely based upon outdated publications. This leads to a number of mistakes or, at the very least, rather questionable statements.

For instance, and to start in a period of some relevance for these late colonial counter-insurgencies, van der Waals follows the old and now largely discredited official line that the MPLA was founded in p. Van der Waals also makes reference to Portugal becoming a member of NATO as a positive factor in the course of the campaigns, but, if this is not a mistranslation, then it is a mistake.

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Portugal

Portugal was a founding member of NATO back in , well before Van der Waals does, in fact, then point out that only France really provided vital equipment to Portugal without any caveats, not least helicopters, which are vital in a counterinsurgency campaign. But this is not because, as van der Waals p. But perhaps this misperception by van der Waals should be seen primarily as revealing of the extent to which apartheid South African elites felt isolated internationally, even relative to Portugal.

Regarding the official Portuguese counter-insurgency guidelines, van der Waals rightly points to the strong influence of French counter-insurgency doctrine. But this was not, as van der Waals claims pp. The key point is that this was not simply a way for the many to carry out scattered in loco observations, but a deliberate doctrinal emulation and development on the part of a few, very influential, Portuguese officers. But again the relatively multi-racial nature of the Portuguese troops, even of its officers, was something that definitely caused an impression in Apartheid era South African, and is a point to which these authors make frequent reference.

But the lack of rigid or legalized racism in the Portuguese colonies, in contrast to South Africa, does not mean that it did not exist. After all, even South Africa eventually used black troops recruited in Angola. And this is not just simply a matter of his captivating journalistic style. For instance, Al Venter pp. Last but not least, these sources that they quote also claimed that the coup of the 25 April had been in the making since What is the problem with these views? No credible sources show the existence of a network of disgruntled young officers before late And, while the involvement of Costa Gomes in the failed pronunciamento led by the Defense Minister General Botelho Moniz in April, , is not open to question, this had nothing to do with a Communist conspiracy.

Instead, it involved almost all the top Portuguese military leaders that had been loyal to the regime for decades. And this thesis begs the question why would Costa Gomes go on to basically win the war in Angola insofar as you can win against an insurgency with cross-border support , a point about which these often skeptical South Africans have no doubts. Still, it is impossible to disagree that General Costa Gomes was an enigmatic figure. And even if these views about the remote Communist origins and long-term planning of the April military coup are probably wrong, and in any event almost impossible to prove, they are still highly revealing of the kind of tensions, linked with the conduct and the end-game of these late colonial wars in Africa, which were emerging within senior Portuguese military and political elites, years before the coup brought them spectacularly into the open.

In fact, this growing division at the very top of the Portuguese civil and military elite is a powerful explanation of the April military coup that brought an abrupt end to almost half a century of the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo and more than a decade of counter-insurgency campaigns designed to stop the decolonization of Portuguese Africa. Venter pp. But this kind of comparison seems to ignores the significant subsidies that Portuguese officers posted overseas and operating in war zones received. More importantly, it ignores the very low average Portuguese wage, as well as the difference in the cost of living between a country like Britain or France and Portugal.

The first official Portuguese minimum wage came with the revolutionary labor legislation enacted after the military coup of April , and no one disputes that it represented a significant increase relative to the average wage until then. This new minimum wage was 3, escudos. In , a captain was earning 10, escudos.

Portuguese officers were not poorly paid, given the country they were living in, and certainly not in comparison with the majority of the population earring close to the minimum wage. This recurrent complaint clear reflects a very real and significant undercurrent of dissatisfaction. The key problem with making this the main trigger of the military coup of April is that this seems to have been a recurrent complaint of professional and conscripted officers for a long time.

Not only was it not something new, but military officers had been given a pay raise by Caetano in in a desperate attempt to address the inflation resulting from the post oil crisis and to try to calm corporate complaints that he feared correctly as it turned out might become politicized.

But this pay raise gave the junior and middle-ranking officers more deeply involved in the conspiracy to overthrow the regime an additional argument to convince waverers, by pointing to this belated increase in their salary as a dishonorable attempt to bribe them. The key trigger of the coup seems to have been much more what many professionals perceived as a challenge to their esprit de corps and their career prospects in the form of an understandable, if inept, attempt by the Caetano government to turn conscript officers into professionals in order to address the growing shortage of professional junior officers need to carry on the war and lead they large numbers of conscripts without a loss in military effectiveness.

As noted by the authors, less than half of the places in the Military Academy were being filled by A recurrent, indeed key theme in both books is the erosion of the professional cadre of officers who found themselves on repeated tours of duty in these campaigns year after year, and the very real problems created in terms of training and leadership that this shortage of sufficient professional officers created for the effective conduct of a counter-insurgency campaign that is always greatly dependent upon the quality of junior and mid-level officers.

Namely Venter pp. A fascinating cameo painted by Venter pp. Bacar was one of the many Fula Muslims recruited by the Portuguese military, but he clearly stood out. Bacar was awarded the highest Portuguese decoration for outstanding leadership and bravery in combat, and literally became the stuff of legend. And whether or not all his exploits were true, this episode is revealing of the perceptions that existed in the field, and does makes a great read. The most important conclusion that we can draw from both these books is that these South African observers, while not ideologically prejudiced against the Portuguese wars in Africa in fact, quite the opposite , were, however, often very critical of what they saw in the field.

But Mozambique was, of course, the closest and potentially most threatening campaign to the territorial heartland of South Africa and Rhodesia , and consequently the one most closely watched by the South Africans. And increasingly these South African did not like what they saw from the late s onwards, in contrast with the case of Angola, where they tended to make a positive evaluation of General Costa Gomes and his deputy in the new frontline in the East of the country, General Bettencourt Rodrigues.

He believed that Portuguese troops in Mozambique were incapable of maintaining the tactical discipline needed for effective ambushes or long-range raids.