Get e-book The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover))

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover)) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover)) book. Happy reading The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover)) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover)) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees (Library of Legislative Studies (Hardcover)) Pocket Guide.

When required , the attribute name gives a name to the element. The hcontainer element is a generic element for a hierarchical container. It can be placed in a hierarchy instead of any of the other hierarchical containers. The attribute name is required and gives a name to the element.

The container element is a generic element for a container. It includes elements belonging to the block pattern. The subFlow element is a generic element for a sub-flow. The block element is a generic element for a container.

Tobacco Control in Africa

It can be placed in a container instead of any of the other blocks. T he element blockContainer is used as a container of many individual block elements in a block context. The tblock element titled block is used to specify a container for blocks introduced by heading elements, similarly to a hierarchical structure. The inline element is a generic element for an inline.

It can be placed inside a block instead of any of the other inlines. The marker element is a generic element for a marker. It can be placed in a block instead of any of the other markers. Even though they are similar tags and have similar meaning, they are not HTML elements. For this reason, they are reused inside of Akoma Ntoso avoiding inventing new vocabulary. Sometimes the semantic are identical e. Instead of being used as a generic block, Akoma Ntoso uses div as a generic container as in common practice. The div is used any time you need to define a container not included in the regular vocabulary.

Sometime the act is named with an abbreviation. It is used as pointer for declaring the position where to embed an image in the XML manifestation. The date element permits marking up any date in the text and associating a particular meaning using the refersTo attribute. The time element is an inline element to identify a time expressed in the text and to propose a normalized representation in the time attribute. The organization element is an inline element to identify an organization expressed in the text and connect it to the ontological class.

The concept element is an inline element to identify a concept expressed in the text and connect it to the ontological class. The object element is an inline element to identify an object expressed in the text and to connect it to the ontological class. The event element is an inline element to identify an event e. Thanksgiving Day, Royal Assent expressed in the text and to connect it to the ontological class. The location element is an inline element to identify a location e. Montevideo, Senate Palace expressed in the text and connect it to the ontological class.

The process element is an inline element to identify a process e. The role element is an inline element to identify a role e. The term element is an inline element to identify a term e. The quantity element quantity is an inline element to identify a quantity e. The def element is an inline element to identify a definition e. The entity element is an inline element to identify an entity expressed in the text and to connect it to the ontological class. Sometimes it is necessary to represent the text as it is presented in the official publication.

The following example shows a bill from South Africa where each line is numbered to indicate the number of lines. The corresponding XML is shown below. Therefore, they are placed nearest to the end of the page and line according to the reference copy in printed form. The first attribute, breakAt , specifies the number of characters within the next word that the page or line actually breaks at. This allows in-word breaks to happen even if the word is not actually broken in the XML.

Advisory and Supervisory Organs

The second parameter, number , allows specifying a page number or line number for the element, especially if we did not start at zero which may happen if the document belongs to a container, e. The third attribute, breakWith , is for storing the character used for the syllabication interruption e. Race Management'' means the entity established to provide for. America's Cup sailing competitions. Akoma Ntoso includes a sophisticated mechanism to keep track of the life cycle and evolution of a legal document.

This is particularly useful for acts that are amended and modified in time, while maintaining their fundamental nature. If two different documents affect the same act on the same date, then these must be counted as two different and separate events on the amended act. Each reference is provided with a required identifier, which is used by the event list to specify which document is responsible for which events.

These elements must appear in all documents that have undergone two or more events e. Documents in Akoma Ntoso are organized in three main categories, as specified in the contains attribute of the document type element:. Individual additions and deletions are not marked in the content.

Thus, in a multipleVersions act there could be two or more copies of section 2, each associated to the date it started enactment and ended enactment. In case a multipleVersions document is being generated, each element and text fragment may be associated with an enactment specification through the means of the five attributes: start , end for validity , startEfficacy , endEfficacy for efficacy and status. The start and end attributes and similarly the startEfficacy and endEfficacy attributes contain a reference to the ID of the event that has marked the beginning or the end of the enactment or of the efficacy of the fragment.

A start attribute with no end attribute marks a fragment that has appeared in an amendment and still exists in the latest recorded version of the document. An end attribute with no start attribute mark a fragment that was part of the original document but has been repealed before or at the latest recorded version of the document. The status attribute records the type of amendment of the fragment. Examples include annotations and translated sentences. For instance:. Sometime the quoted text portion is not clearly understandable because the quoted character is missing or simply this character is repeated in each paragraph.

It is the case of the US Amending acts. For this purpose, we use the attribute inlineQuote. Documents make references to external entities that need to be identified with clarity and no ambiguity. The current release of Akoma Ntoso includes a section where references to external concepts, people and places are specified. These include references to other Akoma Ntoso documents, to other non-Akoma Ntoso documents that are accessible through the net, or to individual instances of classes specified in a local ontology.

All references to external concepts share the same structure, in that they are empty elements in the references section provided with exactly four attributes:. This can be a whole document for instance, the act containing amendments to the current document , or a fragment of a document for instance, the identifier of the unique record identifying precisely the person being referred to in the document.

New / Trial Databases

All internal references will thus use this eId. For instance, every event in the document lifecycle has a source attribute containing a reference to the IRI of the document affecting or being affected by the document. For instance, this attribute contains the name of the speaker as it must be displayed. For instance, in some reports it is necessary to provide the full name of a person at the first utterance, and only the name in any further utterance from the same person.

Akoma Ntoso provides a series of mechanisms for referring to precise concepts in the documents being marked up. Regardless of whether the textual content of the document is sufficiently explicit and unambiguous, the marker of the document may and should provide additional disambiguating information about individual pieces of fragment denoting precise concepts through the aid of the appropriate attributes.

This disambiguation happens systematically as a two-step process: first of all, a mention to the ontological concept is added to the references section and provided with an id , and then one or more attributes in the document elements are used to refer to it. For instance, every individual in a debate is associated via the id to an element TLCPerson in the references section: the by attribute of the speech element indicates the speaker this must be a TLCPerson , the as attribute specifies the role of the speaker and it must be a TLCRole and the to attribute indicates the addressee this can either be a person or a role.

It is used to notify the reader in a generic way to what specific concept is the element referring to. Furthermore, it signals the application that the reference must be considered navigable, i. Thus, any fragment in the text content of the document referring to Events, Concepts, or other instances of the Top Level Classes need to use the refersTo attribute to point to the id of the corresponding element in the references section.

Any instance of any class can be referred to via an instance element. These elements may use the refersTo attribute, but will most frequently directly use the href attribute to specify a navigable reference to the document they refer to. The element ref specifies a single reference, the element mref a group of references a list of individual ref elements must be placed inside the mref element, one for each reference and the rref element specifies a range of references delimited by the from and upTo attributes.

The mod element contains one ref element identifying the destination of the modification, and may contain as many quotedStructure and quotedText elements as needed providing the textual modification if any in terms of either whole structures or individual words. The element mod specifies a single modification, the element mmod a group of modifications a list of individual mod elements must be placed inside the mmod element, one for each modification and the rmod element specifies a range of modifications delimited by the from and upTo attributes.

Another important situation where we use a combination of metadata and semantic annotation in the content is the relationship of a normative citation to a legal source using multiple naming convention both functionally equivalent and non-equivalent. If implementers want to use multiple citation schemes in parallel, they can use the following markup method, here exemplified with the Akoma Ntoso naming convention. By definition, all metadata is editorial in nature, it is not content, but statements about the content, and as such it is, in its entirety, the responsibility of the editor who marks up the document to provide them.

Metadata are a way to provide an interpretation of a set of information embedded into the document objective interpretation - e. Even if, as a user, you will never see any of the tags or the actual metadata section, it is important to understand its articulation and what scope it serves so that its role can better be appreciated. At the metadata level Akoma Ntoso provides the necessary mechanisms for annotating the text with enriched data collected in;.

The Akoma Ntoso metadata section provides a separate place for enriching a document with metadata, a place that is clearly identified as such and is dated and authored differently than the content of the text itself. This block also includes translation information when the document is derived by other languages and properties such as the prescriptiveness of the document and the authoritativeness. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. Items are, by definition, outside of the scope of this standard, and are only briefly described.

The final part of the section provides a URI-based naming mechanism for non-document entities as well as for document entities when they are handled in a similar way to non-document entities. All documents at all levels can be composed of sub-elements, that when combined form the whole document. These are called components and abstractly represent the notion that several independent subdocuments form the whole document as it appears to the reader i.

WorkComponents e. ExpressionComponent e. ManifestationComponent e. The full list of such concepts is provided in section 4. The scope of the naming convention is to identify in a unique way all Akoma Ntoso concepts and resources on the network and in general all collections thereof. Some principles and characteristics should be respected in the naming convention:. We describe here a few particularly frequent situations:. Legislative references will most probably refer to WORKs: acts referring to other acts do so regardless of the actual version, and references must be to something independent of all possible expressions, e.

Multimedia fragments within an XML manifestation e. Even if the same multimedia content appears in different parts of the content of a Manifestation, each instance of that content must correspond to a different ManifestationComponent, and must be considered independently of the other. It is an Item-level decision, once ascertained that the content is exactly identical, to provide space-saving policies by storing only one copy of the multimedia content.

This Item-level decision has no impact on references and names, which are still individually different from each other. Non-document concepts are referred to within the metadata and content of Akoma Ntoso documents. The FRBR model offers an excellent framework to deal with legal texts. FRBR identifies four different abstractions about documents that are carefully and clearly differentiated and that relate to each other:. Bibliographical context. Legal Context. Qualifying characteristics: identity. Regardless of versions, variants, revisions, data formats and location.

For examples, the abstract concept of the legal resource;. Qualifying characteristics: content. All different editions of the same version of the document, all the different data format in which the content of a document can be expressed, all are unified by the fact that they express the same actual content.

It is a specific form that the document assumes once it takes a concrete representation. Qualifying characteristics: data format. Hamlet original version book — hardback version. For physical documents, it could be a specific edition as published in a specific choice of paper, binding, typographical characteristics, etc.

For electronic documents, it is the choice of a specific data format, process method, and so on. PDF version of act 3 of as in the version following the amendments entered into force on July 3rd, Qualifying characteristics: location. Hamlet original version book — hardback version of the Shakespeare Library, London. It could be an individual volume in a bookshelf, or a specific file in a specific directory of a specific computer.

Qualifying Characteristic: positions or address. For examples, the physical copy of any manifestation in the form of a file stored somewhere in some computer on the net or disconnected;. Akoma Ntoso makes careful use of the FRBR hierarchy of document definitions: a legal document such as an act , which may assume different content after being revised and amended throughout its useful life, is nonetheless a single work - which gets multiple expressions whenever some specific content is generated for instance, through an amendment.

Each of these expressions has the chance of then being expressed in some electronic form as a PDF document, or an HTML document, or, in our case, as a specific XML document using vocabulary and grammar from the Akoma Ntoso markup language thereby generating at least one manifestation. Each physical file where the manifestation is located is therefore an item.

In fact, all documents at all levels of the FRBR classification be composed of sub-elements, that when combined form the whole document. These are called components, they abstractly represent the notion that several independent subdocuments form the whole document as it appears to the reader i. The physical organization can follow different criteria connected to the application purposes or technical choices.

Act n. It is created on the same date by the parliament author. The Work is composed by two parts: main document and one annex. ComponentInfo details the composition of the package. Version in force at 19 December The date is the date of the expression. The author is the parliament. This means version officially approved. The date of creation is when the editor marks up the document: The expression also includes metadata for capturing the linguistic aspects.

L- 146- स्थायी समितियाँ - Standing Committees - Permanent Committees - Parliamentary Committees

The following example shows that the current document is a translation made by the Paliament by from Swahili fromLanguage , to English FRBRlanguage , passing through French pivot. It is possible in some particular situations e. The element preservation is the FRBR metadata property containing an arbitrary list of elements detailing the preservation actions taken for the document is the respective level of the FRBR hierarchy.

It is fundamental for permitting to understand at each level work, expression, manifestation. The publication is a part of the meta block and captures the metadata concerning the official publication process. The name of the source Official Journal , the date in normal format , the label for the presentation showAs , the number of the source of publication number.

The publication is mandatory for the act type but not for the bill type of document. The classification section is dedicated to assigning keywords to the document or fragment of the document, on the base of the topic treated in the legal content. The content of the keyword is stored in the attribute value, the dictionary attribute stores the name of the vocabulary used.

It is possible to use a different vocabulary and to use href for connecting the keyword to the external ontology. The kewords are connected with the text using refersTo value e. The lifecycle lists all the events that are involved within the chain of modifications of the document.

Organizations, Institutions and Leaders

These events modify the expression. The workflow blocks list the events that are involved with the legislative or judiciary or parliament process. A workflow step does not necessarily change the expression. However, when a new expression occurs, we record all the workflow steps connected to it. The following example lists three workflow steps: firstReading, secondReading, thirdReading. In this case, the firstReading did not modify the expression.

The block Analysis includes all the juridical metadata coming from a specific interpretation of the legal source. The Analysis block describes information concerning modifications, restrictions of the normative effects e. Block of metadata for managing the modifications made by the current document to another document. Block of metadata for managing the modifications arrived to the current document. Block of metadata for managing the limitation of the normative effect, in particular this block permits defining the jurisdiction restrictions.

Block of metadata for managing the judiciary metadata such as the qualification of the case-law references and the result of the decision. Block of metadata for managing the parliamentary metadata such as the quorum information, the voting results, and the recall data.


Block of metadata for managing the changes of ids when a renumbering occurs and also whenever this expression is not the master expression of the document e. Any other proprietary metadata. In all of the document type s it is possible to model the modificatory provisions. Especially in the amendment official document for proposing modifications to a bill , bill, act, debate e. In the legal text we model the textual elements e. The following table provides some examples of textual modifications: repeal, substitution, insertion, split, join, renumbering.

The attribute incomplete permits specify ing the incompleteness of the information for applying in an automatic manner the modification action e. The attribute exclusion values true or false is a boolean data that indicates that exists exception avoiding an automatic consolidation. The previous XML fragment means: in the bill n. The previous XML fragment means: take the paragraph 1 and the paragraph 2 of the art. The previous XML fragment means: take the paragraph 1 of the art.

The previous XML fragment means: renumber the art. The passiveModifications block records the modifications received from other legal documents or the changes applied to the current version of the document. The passiveModifications provides relevant information to permit the reverse engineering of the changes applied. In this passive modification the Uruguay Parliament added a proprietary element uy:text for storing the old text that is repealed in the current version of the document.

Insertion of the paragraph 3 in the new versioned document. This fragment models the join effect on the current document. The destination is the current point in the text where the join was applied. The two old elements provide two original elements that are joined. The new indicates the point where was deleted the disjunction between the two elements. This fragment models the result of a split modification. The old represents the partition involved by the subdivision.

This markup shows the effect of the renumbering on the destination document. The source says where the renumbering come from; destination says the partition affected by the renumbering in the current document; previous describes the previous partition expression ID. Each restriction element associates a TLCConcept identified by a refersTo attribute to a fragment of the document identified by an href attribute. In the following example we have href attribute hosting multiple references: art.

At the moment only one type of restriction is possible, namely jurisdiction. Other types of restrictions may be specified in future by adding values to the new type restrictionType. This can be used to specify jurisdiction restrictions frequent, e. The result element expresses the final outcome of the case-law, using the attribute type in our case approve.

The complete list of result is:. The list of the qualifications for classifying the citations are:. In an analysis it is possible to track the metadata connected to the parliamentary events recorded in the debate such as the call of quorum, recount of quorum, voting recount, voting. The following fragment presents a simple example where it is possible to connect the analysis annotation with the text using href attribute and the semantic meaning of the annotation with refersTo attribute. Because we have different graduation of quorum, refersTo expresses the type of quorum defined in the TLConcept e.

After the voting a recount occurred and the positive votes are The mappings block records the history of the modifications of the original wId over time. The attribute original stores the first wId, that never evolves, current stores the eId of the expression valid in a given temporal period. The attributes start and end link the temporal data.

Sometime there is the need to annotate implicit references that connect one part of the text with other legal sources, including other fragments of text within the same document. For example, a semantic implicit reference is used between the recital and the body of a European Directive. Sometimes there is the need to express another legal analysis not yet included in Akoma Ntoso. Each institution can use this container for defining this additional legal metadata. The following examples, coming from the Library of Congress of Chile, show the metadata used for classifying specific RDF classes.

The temporalData describes all the events grouped together in order to model intervals. The refersTo attribute connects the temporal parameters with the TLConcept defined in the references block. The note is a block where we record non-authorial notes. The authorial notes are provided by the author of the document and it is placed in the text. An example of authorial note is the side note approved by the Assembly or any note of the Parliament. The attribute placement specifies where to place the note bottom, inline, left, right, side.

The attribute marker specifies the simple for marking the note. The attribute placementBase provides a mechanism to specify exactly the placement of the note with regards to other elements of the document using a local href i. Non authorial note. The active references are the normative modifications from the current document to external documents, while the passive references are the external documents that point out the current document because they modify the current document.

The proprietary block allows for the addition of any other local tags which are useful for managing legacy systems. Akoma Ntoso makes no restriction as to the vocabulary or containment constraints of the content within the proprietary block. The only requirement as shown by the compliant fragment is that all elements belong to namespaces different than that of Akoma Ntoso. This guarantees the immediate identification of the new elements. Proprietary elements can still use existing core Akoma Ntoso attributes and, whenever possible, should.

The presentation block allows for tags and specifications that facilitate the visual rendering of the document e. For advanced specifications see also 5. Example from UK. Example from Federal Chancellor of Switzerland:. One of the main problems in the rendering of an XML file is preserving the format over time by providing enough information to process the document in the future in a similar manner.

Cognizance and trial of offences. Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try any offence punishable. In particular, this fragment of CSS wraps the text between two square brackets. A table can be included in any type of document. A table element uses the same element children of the HTML table model. It includes also the attribute: border, width, cellpadding, cellspacing, title.

This permits modelling particular tables, like the following example, where the amendments are included directly in the table. Another use for the table is the application form, where some parts are dedicated to filling parts of the form. Sometime these application forms are schedules of law, regulations, or bills, like the following example. It is possible with Akoma Ntoso to capture the blank part that permits an easy transformation of the template in an online web application form.

It is also possible to model very complex tables that includes images or irregular cells. We use colspan attribute with the same meaning of HTML. Protected zone or fire-fighting shaft. Classification of lower surface. Finally if you need to use structured caption the following XML fragment provides a correct solution for including it in table element:. Each item of the list is a hierarchical container for example, point or indent.

Union, transport, and exportation from the Union of new. Commission conducted an impact assessment of policy.

The impact. For that purpose it sets up a mechanism for. Akoma Ntoso does not provide markup for situations that are very specific and for which better suited vocabularies already exist. For instance, mathematical formulas and drawings have well-known standard XML vocabularies that should be used rather than inventing new ones. This means that it is presumed that its content appears in a vertically isolated block. In general, you cannot use elements from a foreign namespace for elements for which a correspondence in Akoma Ntoso exists.

Akoma Ntoso manages seven main document types, grouped for function, organization, or role in the legal domain:. A particular attention is devoted to the table, attachments, components that could be included in any type of document. Composite documents are containers of other documents that have their own identity, lifecycle, workflow, and other metadata. An example is the Official Journal or Official Gazette volume where many bills, acts, minutes, reports are collected.

Each document is autonomous with its FRBR identification package, metadata, modifications, and temporal information. Nevertheless, the volume of the Journal is an independent work that is composed of other works. A collection structure is any folder such as one that contains a bill that is usually composed of several documents cover, motivations, commission report, amendments, first draft of a bill, amended bill, etc.

In this way, it is possible to represent a document composed of different autonomous parts work or expressions. The following example shows a documentCollection, with the bill proyecto de ley and the explanatory part motivos. We have several document s that belongs to the collection structure. Certain types of documents, such as amendmentLists and officialGazettes, are usually made of several distinct and autonomous documents. The type documentCollection is a generic document type for representing any kind of collection container.

Complex structure composed by different works or by different expressions e. A document collection can also be used, for example, to represent an EP committee's report on a bill, containing a Resolution possibly with an amendments list annexed , a Explanatory Memorandum Opinions of other committees. Complex structure including amendments and parts of the text by which an amendment is introduced.

Official publishing source of law composed of an assortment of legal documents laws, decrees, orders, legal notices, etc. The different documents included in the documentCollection can be represented in three different ways:. It is also possible to have a component in the same position as the attachment, at the end of the main document. This permits recursive definition inside of the documentCollection. FRBR block information. Preface of the documentCollection. Preamble of the documentCollection. There are use-cases where an autonomous work, emitted by an authority with its FRBR block, incudes another document that is not autonomous e.

The XML substructure does not have independent identity outside of the hosting document, and may be extracted because of length or size considerations, or to better organize the delivery of the requested structures. Being manifestation-level, such structures do not have autonomous legal identity or existence, and should be considered for all purposes as parts directly contained inside the host document. For hierarchical structure we mean a structure organized with higher levels that group basic units, basic units article, section, etc.

The Akoma Ntoso standard is neutral with respect to the legal drafting techniques of the different legal traditions, providing most of the hierarchical elements for modelling the body structure: book, tome, part, subpart, title, subtitle, chapter, subchapter, section, subsection, clause, subclause, paragraph, subparagraph, division, point, indent, alinea, list, sublist.

Anglophone tradition. Portuguese tradition. EU tradition here,only English, French, Spanish. Higher Division. Partie codes. Parte codes. Livre codes. Livro codes. Article US. Section codes. Subsection code. Basic Unit. Clause in US Constitution. Latin number. The list of the hierarchical partitions included in Akoma Ntoso are the following, listed in alphabetic order:. Each hierarchical element has some relevant optional children that characterize the hierarchy pattern:. The debate structure is dedicated to parliamentary documents such as report of committees, transcript record of the parliament or assembly, Hansard, debates, voting report, roll calling, etc.

In particular, to these documents is the unstructured format and the fact that they describe a narrative, similar to a script or a screenplay. For these reasons the debateStructure includes particular structures that permits this modelling. Debate record is similar to a screenplay and so it is mostly composed by sections according with the main topics or actions admitted in the rules of procedure in the assembly:. The amendment structure is dedicated to modelling particular official documents that provide instructions or proposals for modifications to a bill.

Example: amendment of the European Parliament on a proposal from the Commission can be marked as following. From this poin of view, there should be furtherconsultations to find the optimal solution in order for the facility to deliver to its aims. The Judgment structure is dedicated to case-law, precedents, and judiciary decisions. The structure of those documents varies greatly without a common template, especially the metadata are complex and with a great diversity in each legal tradition and judicial system. A document is text devoid of any specific structure.

Examples include annexes, tables, schedules, informative material, letters, and memorandums. A document is any valid text for which there is no specific structure or document type. Texts having an open structure. The main body of the text is the main content. An example of usage of the general document is presented below.

It is an annex that has no particular structure. Appendix 1. The report is based on both the budget hearings held on 22 March as well as the committee deliberations held on 23 March The report is based on both the budget hearings held on 22 March as well as the committee deliberations on 23 March The Portion Structure is a particular template which permits modelling a portion of the normative part of a document, at the level of the manifestation.

It is a pure technical split. This is useful for fragmenting a very long document and for facilitating legal drafting and document management. A typical example could be the US Code composed by different titles that are autonomous works. For the code, we could define this:. Each title is composed by several long chapters. In this case, the chapter 3 content is outside the document containing the title 9. Authors: Henry G. Schermers and Niels M. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview.

  • Recent Australian Government Publications September - Alphabetic | Libraries Australia.
  • Green Banking. Il marketing bancario al di là del mercato: Il marketing bancario al di là del mercato (Economia e management) (Italian Edition).
  • Stoner?
  • The Presidentialization of Political Parties?

Table of Contents. Related Content. This sixth, revised edition of International Institutional Law covers the most recent developments in the field. Rather than being a handbook for specific organizations, the book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of international organizations. It includes chapters on the rules and practices concerning membership, institutional structure, decision-making, financing, legal order, supervision and sanctions, legal status and external relations. Author: Rephael Harel Ben-Ari.

The discourse regarding the legal status of international non-governmental organizations INGOs is not new; in fact, it has already progressed throughout the last years. However, most of the proposals to grant official status to INGOs, or to otherwise regulate their cross-border activity, are relatively unknown to international lawyers. A perusal of these initiatives against their unique historical background will prove highly significant in dissecting the complexities involved in formulating a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of INGOs.