He emerged from his refuge an ascetic charismatic master of learning and miracles.
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The Midrash credits him with having "revived the Torah at that time. In the 16th century, mystics from the kabbalist colony of Safed initiated the custom of the annual Lag b'Omer hilula meaning pilgrimage but literally wedding feast to the nearby tomb of Shimon bar Yochai. In recent years, upwards of , people have come on this early summer holiday, pitching tents, making bonfires, grilling meat, reciting Psalms and giving three-year-old boys their first haircut in an unique expression of faith and folk belief.
Implicit in the pilgrimage is the kabbalist principle that the death of a sage is the reunion of his soul with God - a kind of spiritual marriage. Joy rather than grief marks the anniversary of his passing, in direct proportion to the rabbi's reputation as a saint and miracle worker. The grave, in anticipation of the messianic rebirth of the dead, becomes the site of veneration and feasting. While Meron is the main shrine visited by masses of pilgrims on Lag b'Omer, which this year fell on Thursday, May 23, an alternative and smaller hilula takes place at the Tomb of Shimon haTzadik Simon the Just in east Jerusalem.
According to apocryphal traditions, Simon was the High Priest who greeted Alexander the Great in Jerusalem, and averted a national calamity. The Mishna Avot calls him "one of the last survivors of the Great Assembly. The site consists of a catacomb of three interconnecting stepped chambers, called a trough tomb, and a fenced-in courtyard.
Visitors are separated by gender. It was…. Articoli seguenti. Crea un sito o un blog gratuitamente presso WordPress. Pubblica su Annulla. Privacy e cookie: Questo sito utilizza cookie. Per ulteriori informazioni, anche sul controllo dei cookie, leggi qui: Informativa sui cookie. Multivariate relations of antecedent psychosocial va variables with early alcohol initiation. Notes: Parental measures are the average of mother and father reports to prevent loss of adolescents with no father data. Twenty-five percent of the children reported having had a drink of alcohol not just a sip or taste of someone else's drink by age 14 or younger.
Across a wide array of personality, perceived environment, and behavior system variables drawn from Problem Behavior Theory Jessor and Jessor, , children whose scores reflected greater proneness for problem behavior were more likely to initiate drinking early. These children had less conventional scores on measures of their attitudes, beliefs, and expectations related to religion and school; they had greater approval of drinking; they perceived their friends to be more supportive of alcohol and drug use and their parents as being less disapproving of children their age drinking; and they reported more frequent involvement in delinquent-type behaviors.
Their parents also reported drinking more frequently and being less involved in religious activities. The present findings extend the explanatory reach of Problem Behavior Theory beyond its previous developmental scope. Earlier studies had established the utility of this theoretical framework for the explanation of variation in a diverse array of problem and health-related behaviors in both adolescence and young adulthood Donovan, ; Donovan et al. The linkage found here between psychosocial risk for problem behavior assessed at age 10 and early initiation of alcohol use demonstrates the utility of the framework at a younger life stage than previously examined.
Not only do the data demonstrate a consistent relationship between greater psychosocial proneness to deviance at age 10 and the likelihood of initiating drinking at a young age, but taken together, these variables explained almost a quarter of the variance.
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This is approximately twice as much variance as accounted for when Problem Behavior Theory was used to predict time to onset of drinking in a sample of adolescents aged 13—15 years old at baseline Jessor and Jessor, The present relationship might have been even stronger had the psychosocial predictor measures been assessed closer to the actual ages at early initiation of drinking which varied from age 11 to age The relationship may have also been attenuated somewhat by there being relatively less variance on these measures of proneness to deviance at 10 years of age than there would be at older ages.
Of particular interest in the findings were the negative relations of child and parental religiosity and church attendance to early initiation of drinking: more religious children and those more involved in religious observances and youth groups were less likely to initiate drinking early, as were children whose parents were more religious. These findings expand previous research that has been largely cross-sectional in nature and limited to adolescent self-reports Brown et al.
Although the present analyses were not designed to assess whether these variables qualified as protective factors moderating risk for early onset, it would be important in future research to determine the extent to which parental religiosity and observance reinforce the effects of the child's own religiosity in delaying onset.
Family contexts in which children were exposed to parental drinking and perceived approval for their own use of alcohol increased the likelihood that the children would start drinking at age 14 or younger, consistent with our earlier research on child sipping or tasting of alcohol Donovan and Molina, Not only did more frequent parental drinking relate to early initiation, but parents' own early initiation of drinking related as well—suggesting not only environmental influence but also genetic influence.
The significant role of sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10 in the prediction of early-onset drinking raises several issues. First, it should be emphasized that sipping or tasting alcohol and having a first drink are distinct alcohol use behaviors whose relation is not artifactual. In our computer-assisted interview at each wave, we asked about sipping before we asked about ever having a drink of alcohol "not just a sip or a taste of someone else's drink". It was thus clear to the children that we considered sipping and drinking to be distinct behaviors.
The longitudinal patterning of the children's responses to these questions validates their understanding of these behaviors. This suggests that the relation of childhood sipping to early-onset drinking may be because of a more problem-behavior-prone subset of sippers or those who sip in nonfamily contexts Ward et al. Further person-centered research should be pursued to test this speculation.
We will continue to follow this sample to determine if there is longitudinal support for a linkage between early sipping and later problems. A number of the predictor variables examined here failed to show significant relations to early-onset drinking, including sensation seeking, impulsivity, and alcohol expectancies. It may be that these variables are more predictive of progression into higher intensity alcohol involvement than they are of early initiation of use.
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Surprisingly, children's externalizing behavior problems failed to predict early-onset drinking despite the significant relation of self-reported deviant behavior that was found. It is possible that there simply was insufficient variation in these mother reports of potentially more severe behaviors at age Lastly, our measure of the family density of alcohol problems may not have shown a significant relation to early-onset drinking because it assessed only maternal reports of biological relatives' problem drinking rather than familial diagnoses of alcohol dependence as examined by King and Chassin and Wong et al.
Being raised in a household headed by a single mother increased the risk of starting to drink by age 14, whereas having a father in the household decreased this risk see also Dooley et al. Single parenthood may reflect greater sociodemographic disadvantage Molina et al. Identification of the factors mediating this relationship would be important for the design of prevention programs targeted to children being raised by single mothers.
The present findings have several other implications for prevention. First, the relation between psychosocial proneness to problem behavior at age 10 and early-onset drinking suggests the need for prevention programming at younger ages than currently targeted. Second, the findings illustrate that a wide array of psychosocial variables affect risk for early-onset drinking, which is itself an important risk factor for later problematic drinking see the Introduction.
Third, the importance of family factors both as perceived by the child and as reported by the parents in predicting early-onset drinking supports the inclusion of family components in prevention efforts Spoth et al. Several considerations should be kept in mind when evaluating these findings. First, the sample was recruited from a single county in the northeastern United States. The sample does, however, include families from both urban and suburban areas, White and African American families, and families headed by single mothers as well as two-parent families.
Second, the participation rate among eligible families was somewhat low, similar to other studies requiring a commitment for multiple waves of participation by multiple family members. Participating families, however, did not differ from refusing or ineligible families on the screening variables examined. Third, the measure of early initiation drinking was based solely on child self-reports. Care was taken, however, to examine the patterning of child reports over 14 waves of data to establish their age at initiation.
In addition, self-reported alcohol use has been shown to be valid in both adolescent Brener et al. Last, although the research assessed both mother's and father's educational attainment as background factors, family income and parental occupational status were lacking, resulting in less complete measurement of family socioeconomic position. The present findings demonstrate the relation of an array of modifiable psychosocial risk factors assessed in middle childhood to early-onset drinking.
This array included child attitudes, perceptions of support in their peer and family environments, and their involvement in delinquent-type behavior, as well as parental reports of alcohol intake and religious involvement. Continued follow-up of these children as they move through adolescence should permit us to determine whether this same array of variables also figure as antecedent risk factors for transitions into heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems. The authors thank the families who participated in this research for their cooperation and for their continued interest in the research.
We also thank Sandy O'Donnell, R. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. John E. Donovan , Ph. Molina , Ph. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Donovan at the above address or via email at: ude. Received Oct 27; Accepted Apr 7. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. Method: A sample of children girls ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures.
Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. Prevalence of child and adolescent alcohol use Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of alcohol use among children ages 12 and younger are rare.
Definition of early-onset drinking The definition of early-onset drinking is still evolving. Antecedents of early alcohol use initiation A number of prospective studies have focused on the childhood predictors of the initiation of drinking by age 14 see review by Zucker et al. Focus of the present article In this article, we examine the antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use in a community sample of 8- and year-old children who have been followed up thus far through average ages 16 and 18, respectively.
Method Data were collected during the first 14 waves of an ongoing longitudinal study of the risk factors for the early onset of alcohol use and transitions into problematic drinking the Tween to Teen Project; Donovan and Molina, ; Donovan et al. Procedures Families were selected for participation using targeted-age directory and random digit dialing sampling of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania population 1. Participants At baseline, 8-year-old children and year-old children completed interviews. Attrition over time By the end of Wave 14, 7. Establishing age at initiation of alcohol use Age at initiation of alcohol use was established using prospective data rather than retrospective recall, which has high levels of unreliability in adolescents and which exhibits substantial "forward telescoping" Bailey et al.
Table 1 Distribution on prospectively determined age at initiation of alcoho1 use among ever drinkers. Age in years Freq. Open in a separate window. Measurement of the psychosocial predictors of early initiation The predictor set included variables reflecting Problem Behavior Theory Jessor and Jessor, and several variables from other sources that have been found to predict alcohol involvement among adolescents.
Personality system measures. Perceived environment system measures.
Behavior system measures. Measures of parental variables The following variables were assessed for both parents at child age Intolerance of Child Deviance, a item scale reflecting how wrong it is for someone their child's age to lie, steal, hit others, etc. Results Demographic correlates of early drinking Age cohort differences. Gender differences. Racial differences. Socioeconomic differences. Family composition. Psychosocial predictors of early-onset drinking Table 2 presents the univariate relations with early drinker status of the psychosocial variables collected at age 10 via children's self-reports.
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Table 2 Univariate relations of antecedent psychosocial variables from target self-report with early alcohol initiation. Table 3 Univariate relations of antecedent psychosocial variables from parental self-reports with child early alcohol initiation. Table 4 Multivariate relations of antecedent psychosocial va variables with early alcohol initiation. Discussion Twenty-five percent of the children reported having had a drink of alcohol not just a sip or taste of someone else's drink by age 14 or younger.
Acknowledgments The authors thank the families who participated in this research for their cooperation and for their continued interest in the research. References Achenbach TM. Child behavior checklist for ages 4— Elementary school age children's future intentions and use of substances. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.
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