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e-book A New Subspecies of Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus Spilosoma) From Tamaulipas, Mexico

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  • Face have dark brown cheeks and whitish tone of chins and mouth; the total body length of typical adult ranges from Adult prairie dogs weigh about 0. In , Durant noted that Utah prairie dogs have larger in every aspect of skull than that of Gunnison's prairie dog. Utah prairie dogs prefer swale land area with abundant herbaceous plants, they build burrows on soils with adequate drain ability, depth to protect themselves from predators and other environmental factors such as temperature.

    Utah prairie dogs are only found in the southern part of Utah.

    Wild Science: Uinta Ground Squirrel

    Utah prairie dogs are herbivores , but they sometimes choose small insects such as cicadas. Utah prairie dogs choose only few species of grasses only. Utah prairie dog shows polyandry behavior, lays only one litter per year, which consists of 1 to 8 litter size; the breeding occurs from mid-March through early April. In , studies estimated a population of 3, Utah prairie dogs in 37 colonies. Studies by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources in spring reported 4, Utah prairie dogs, a number believed to reflect half of the total current population; the Utah prairie dog can do significant damage to farms by digging holes and eating crops, drawing the ire of Utah farmers, who have used poison liberally to destroy the animal.

    This is a major reason for the population decline, though there are other factors, such as "land development, deteriorating rangeland health, the encroachment of woody vegetation, sylvatic plague , drought. Mammal Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia , characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex , fur or hair, three middle ear bones.

    These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic , — million years ago. There are around 5, species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla , the Carnivora. In cladistics , which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes , they are the only living Synapsida.

    The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs , a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.

    The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era , after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped , most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion.

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    Mammals range in size from the 30—40 mm bumblebee bat to the meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes , which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness , tool use.

    Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound , scent-marking , alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial.

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    Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science.

    Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class. No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century.

    Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia : mice, porcupines , beavers and other gnawing mammals.

    The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World , 5, species were identified in These were grouped into families and 29 orders. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in , the number of recognized mammal species is 6, species included 96 extinct ; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in , derived from the Latin mamma.

    In an influential paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m. Arizona Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union , achieving statehood on February 14, , coinciding with Valentine's Day.

    Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain , it became part of independent Mexico in After being defeated in the Mexican—American War , Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in ; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters.

    Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir , spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park , there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments. About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation , the largest in the state and the United States, with more than , citizens.

    Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in , Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes.

    Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan , in Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona.

    Father Kino was the next European in the region. Spain founded presidios at Tubac in and Tucson in Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican—American War, the U. In , the U. What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.

    This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, , when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment.

    Formed in , Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Antelope squirrels Temporal range: Late Miocene - Recent. Mammals of North America. Laudenslayer, Jr. Mayer, and M. White, eds. California Wildlife. Living species of tribe Marmotini ground squirrels. Harris's antelope squirrel A. Golden-mantled ground squirrel C.

    Gunnison's prairie dog C. Siberian chipmunk E. Mexican ground squirrel I. Subgenus Marmota : Gray marmot M. Alpine chipmunk N. Tropical ground squirrel N. Baja California rock squirrel O. Franklin's ground squirrel P. Alashan ground squirrel S. Eastern chipmunk T.

    Uinta ground squirrel U. Mohave ground squirrel X. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with 'species' microformats Commons category link is on Wikidata. United States. Related Images.

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    YouTube Videos. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1. Sexual reproduction is nearly universal in animals, such as these dragonflies.

    Predator s, such as this ultramarine flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris , feed on other organisms. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. A skeleton of the blue whale , the world's largest animal, outside the Long Marine Laboratory at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A peregrine falcon , the world's fastest animal. Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

    A bonobo fishing for termite s with a stick. Red kangaroo s "boxing" for dominance. Upper Paleolithic cave painting of a variety of large mammals, Lascaux , c. Rodents are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. Clockwise from top left: capybara , springhare , golden-mantled ground squirrel , house mouse and North American beaver representing the suborders Hystricomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, and Castorimorpha, respectively. Brown rat in a flowerbox: Some rodents thrive in human habitats.

    Some rodents, like this North American beaver with its dam of gnawed tree trunks and the lake it has created, are considered ecosystem engineer s. Eastern chipmunk carrying food in cheek pouches. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Various members of the family Sciuridae.


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    • Reaching out for food on a garden bird feeder, this squirrel can rotate its hind feet, allowing it to descend a tree head-first. Skull of an Oriental giant squirrel genus Ratufa —note the classic sciuromorphous shape of the anterior zygomatic region. The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. California ground squirrel Otospermophilus beecheyi in the man-made rocky shoreline of the Berkeley Marina : The numerous crevices offer safety and shelter.

      In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. All adult Eurasian blue tit s share the same coloration, unmistakably identifying the morphospecies. A cougar, mountain lion, panther, or puma, among other common names: its scientific name is Puma concolor. The type specimen holotype of Lacerta plica , described by Linnaeus in Ernst Mayr proposed the widely used Biological Species Concept of reproductive isolation in Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull.

      Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. Cave art painting occurred about 7, years old in Baja California Peninsula. Culturally and geographically very distinct from Mesoamerica, indigenous peoples inhabited the region since the end of the Pleistocene. Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. The North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Geronimo far right and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers. Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Chaco Canyon.

      Carlsbad Caverns. White Sands National Monument. Gomphothere s reconstructed were hunted in Sonora by ancient Clovis hunters. California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With The state capital is Sacramento. Established in , it was the first of the California Missions. The original of Todd's Bear Flag , photographed in Miners during the California Gold Rush. Steinhagen Reservoir.

      Franklin Mountains State Park. Big Bend National Park.

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      Definitions of the region's boundaries vary a great deal and have never been standardized, though many boundaries have been proposed. Panoramic view of the southwestern United States. The Chihuahuan desert terrain mainly consists of basins broken by numerous small mountain range s. Four Corners Monument.

      It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. Satellite image of the Baja California Peninsula. Port of Cabo San Lucas. Side view, Bryce Canyon , Utah. Prairie dogs are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five species are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's, Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. Prairie dogs raise their heads from their burrows in response to disturbances. Unlike some other prairie dogs, these animals do not truly hibernate. At Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Two black-tailed prairie dogs grooming themselves.

      The dragon blood tree is considered a remnant of the Mio-Pliocene Laurasian subtropical forests that are now almost extinct in North Africa. Miocene fauna of North America, as restored by paleoartist Jay Matternes.