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These processes create replicas of the original specimen that are similar down to the microscopic level. One of the processes involved in petrifaction is permineralization.

Petrifaction

The fossils created through this process tend to contain a large amount of the original material of the specimen. This process occurs when groundwater containing dissolved minerals most commonly quartz , calcite , pyrite , siderite iron carbonate , and apatite calcium phosphate , [2] fills pore spaces and cavities of specimens, particularly bone, shell or wood. Two common types of permineralization are silicification and pyritization. Silicification is the process in which organic matter becomes saturated with silica.

A common source of silica is volcanic material. Studies have shown that in this process, most of the original organic matter is destroyed. Water must be present for silicification to occur because it reduces the amount of oxygen present and therefore reduces the deterioration of the organism by fungi, maintains organism shape, and allows for the transportation and deposition of silica. The process begins when a specimen is permeated with an aqueous silica solution. The cell walls of the specimen are progressively dissolved and silica is deposited into the empty spaces.

In wood samples, as the process proceeds, cellulose and lignin, two components of wood, are degraded and replaced with silica.

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The specimen is transformed to stone a process called lithification as water is lost. For silicification to occur, the geothermic conditions must include a neutral to slightly acidic pH [6] and a temperature and pressure similar to shallow-depth sedimentary environments. Under ideal natural conditions, silicification can occur at rates approaching those seen in artificial petrification. Pyritization is a process similar to silicification, but instead involves the deposition of iron and sulfur in the pores and cavities of an organism.

Pyritization can result in both solid fossils as well as preserved soft tissues.

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In marine environments, pyritization occurs when organisms are buried in sediments containing a high concentration of iron sulfides. Organisms release sulfide, which reacts with dissolved iron in the surrounding water, when they decay. This reaction between iron and sulfides forms pyrite FeS 2. Carbonate shell material of the organism is then replaced with pyrite due to a higher concentration of pyrite and a lower concentration of carbonate in the surrounding water. Pyritization occurs to a lesser extent in plants in clay environments. Replacement, the second process involved in petrifaction, occurs when water containing dissolved minerals dissolves the original solid material of an organism, which is then replaced by minerals.

Petrified (Official Video) - Fort Minor

This can take place extremely slowly, replicating the microscopic structure of the organism. The slower the rate of the process, the better defined the microscopic structure will be. The minerals commonly involved in replacement are calcite, silica, pyrite, and hematite. Not only are the fossils produced through the process of petrifaction used for paleontological study, but they have also been used as both decorative and informative pieces.

Petrified wood is used in several ways. Slabs of petrified wood can be crafted into tabletops, or the slabs themselves are sometimes displayed in a decorative fashion. Also, larger pieces of the wood have been carved into sinks and basins. Other large pieces can also be crafted into chairs and stools. Petrified wood and other petrified organisms have also been used in jewelry, sculpture, clock-making, ashtrays and fruit bowls, and landscape and garden decorations.

What is Petrified Wood? How Does it Form?

Petrified wood has also been used in construction. The Petrified Wood Gas Station, [9] located on Main St Lamar, Colorado , was built in and consists of walls and floors constructed from pieces of petrified wood. The structure, built by W. Brown, has since been converted to office space and a used car dealership.

Petrified Synonyms, Petrified Antonyms | vobylusesuje.tk

Beginning in the s, the farmers of Somervell County, Texas began uncovering petrified trees. Local craftsmen and masons then built over 65 structures from this petrified wood, 45 of which were still standing as of June These structures include gas stations, flowerbeds, cottages, restaurants, fountains and gateposts. Built by ancestral Pueblo people about years ago, this eight-room building was constructed almost entirely out of petrified wood and is believed to have served as either a family home or ceremonial center.

Future uses would see these artificially petrified wood-ceramic materials eventually replace metal-based superalloys which are coated with ultrahard ceramics in the tool industry. Other vegetal matter could be treated in a similar process and yield abrasive powders.


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  4. vobylusesuje.tk dictionary :: petrified :: English-German translation.
  5. "petrified" in American English.
  6. Petrified Wood - Petrified Forest National Park (U.S. National Park Service).
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    Definition and synonyms of petrified from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education. Show more. Show less. Using the thesaurus. Close What are red words? Close Thesaurus.


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