That same year, he married the novelist Elsa Morante , whom he had met in They lived in Capri , where he wrote Agostino. In May , after the liberation of Rome, Alberto Moravia returned. He began collaborating with Corrado Alvaro, writing for important newspapers such as Il Mondo and Il Corriere della Sera , the latter publishing his writing until his death. From , he also reviewed and criticised cinema for the weekly magazines L'Europeo and L'Espresso.
His criticism is collected in the volume Al Cinema At the Cinema , In , Moravia published La Noia Boredom or The Empty Canvas , the story of the troubled sexual relationship between a young, rich painter striving to find sense in his life and an easygoing girl in Rome. Becoming known as one of his most famous novels, it won the Viareggio Prize. An adaptation was filmed by Damiano Damiani in In , Moravia and Elsa Morante parted; he went to live with the young writer Dacia Maraini and concentrated on theatre. In Moravia visited China, Japan and Korea. In he published the novel Io e lui I and He or The Two of Us about a screenwriter, his independent penis and the situations to which he thrusts them and the essay Poesia e romanzo Poetry and Novel.
His trip to Japan, including a visit to Hiroshima , inspired a series of articles for L'Espresso magazine about the atomic bomb. The short story collection, La Cosa e altri racconti The Thing and Other Stories , was dedicated to Carmen Llera, his new companion forty-five years his junior , whom he married in In he won the title of European Personality.
Moravia was a perennial contender to the Nobel Prize in Literature , having been nominated 13 times between and Moral aridity, the hypocrisy of contemporary life and the inability of people to find happiness in traditional ways such as love and marriage are the regnant themes in the works of Alberto Moravia. Usually, these conditions are pathologically typical of middle-class life; marriage is the target of works such as Disobedience and L'amore coniugale Conjugal Love, Political themes are often present: an example is La Romana The Woman of Rome , , the story of a prostitute entangled with the Fascist regime and with a network of conspirators.
The extreme sexual realism in La noia The Empty Canvas , introduced the psychologically experimental works of the s. Moravia's writing style was highly regarded for being extremely stark and unadorned, characterised by elementary, common words in an elaborate syntax. This learned book is valuable for a number of important features, including its close reading of a whole range of Albertian texts rather than engaging in the usual near-exclusive concentration on the Della famiglia, which has plagued Anglophone scholarship on Alberti.
It employs a considerable bibliography, including secondary sources in Italian and English to a lesser extent, also in French and German , and must be commended for offering transcriptions of the original sources both Latin and Italian , all of which are rendered into English. Alberti privileges literature and poetry vs. But the relationship of these disciplines is not altogether straightforward. His practice of irony provided the focus on the ethical primacy of living over reading [ Italian Bookshelf particularly given that Kircher e.
The answer appears to be that most humanists were enamored of booklearning, scholarship, erudition and Latinity, and saw these along with the cultivation of rhetoric as the foundation of ethics. And, if one is referring to contemporary philosophical assumptions, would it not be appropriate to discuss the stance of the scholastics, who are strangely absent from the book? How is happiness attained? What is [the] importance of wealth, health, or political power?
A slightly different question is one of methodology. Genipatro in Theogenius. Would their complexity not have been clearer by allowing the multiplicity of voices and possibilities to stand? Smaller points could be raised: translations and transcriptions are not always the most accurate; the argument is overwrought and could have been made more clearly and concisely; one might have expected a greater use of the critical literature available on Renaissance moral philosophy including Luca Bianchi, Jill Kraye, and Amedeo Quondam.
It is a poignant reminder of the close interconnection between literature and morals, and of the value of examining the two in tandem. This is a useful challenge to academic disciplines that tend to focus on one or the other language, without giving proper attention to their interrelationships. Italian Bookshelf but was of significant interest also to scholastics, literary men, political leaders, courtiers, and many others. David A. New Worlds and the Italian Renaissance. Contributions to the History of European Intellectual Culture.
Brill Studies in Intellectual History. Leiden: Brill, This volume brings together expanded versions of papers originally delivered at a Yale graduate conference in Twelve contributions by, for the most part, rising young scholars explore paradigmatic shifts in the intellectual climate of the Age of Discovery. Mazzotta traces the shift towards the kind of subjective individualism which has traditionally been associated with the emergence of secular modernity in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries back to the years leading up to and immediately following the discovery of the Americas.
Italian Bookshelf critics, Komorowski advances an inclusive view of civic humanism which looks beyond the narrow confines of Florentine republicanism. More than just political grandstanding, he argues, humanist panegyrics served as diplomatic missives, advertising, and petitioning for collaboration between neighboring city-states. Adroitly jumping from film criticism to literary history, from Olmi to Aretino, Leisawitz draws provocative analogies between two cultures at the crossroads of technological innovation. The section concludes with a study by Jason Taylor that closely compares how Machiavelli and Livy each weighed the political utility of religion.
Like many of the contributors in this volume, Stark perceives shifts within Quattrocento humanism that anticipate the emergence of modernity a century later. The two concluding essays of the volume are literary in focus. Italian Bookshelf body of the text in their original language, pushing their translations down to the footnotes. The sheer volume of Latin passages is overwhelming, and interrupts the flow of his otherwise fluid prose. As the editors make clear in their introduction, the papers contained within New Worlds and the Italian Renaissance offer suggestive, though not definitive approaches to study the early modern Italy.
A number of strong contributions from emerging scholars will make this an attractive volume for specialists from a variety of disciplines, and bodes well for the future of Renaissance scholarship in general. Sara E. Conquista, cittadinanza e conflitto nei Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. Roma: Bulzoni Editore Italian Bookshelf ascolto, il successo gli sarebbe stato tributato dalle opere dei repubblicani inglesi, pubblicate dopo la vittoria di Cromwell, e dal filone del pensiero illuministico francese che giunge sino a Colbert, attento a valutare la forza degli stati in base al numero dei cittadini Quali sono le tesi machiavelliane che si discostano dalla trattatistica politica umanistica?
I letterati si affidavano alla citazione rassicurante, tratta dal Bellum Iugurthinum di Sallustio, secondo cui nella concordia i piccoli stati crescono, mentre per effetto della discordia persino i grandi decadono Invece di proseguire la tradizione teorica di Aristotele, Platone, Senofonte, Cicerone, Seneca, rompendo con il repubblicanesimo classico e gli umanisti, Machiavelli estrae il sapere pratico riposto nelle storie antiche Central Milton Keynes: AuthorHouse, Italian Bookshelf per la cogenza con cui ricostruisce una ricorrenza tematica e strutturale nel poema.
Italian Bookshelf questa intuizione circa la struttura del Paradiso, Priest intuisce che tutto il resto del poema procede con lo stesso ordine. Questi canti riflettono il Padre in quanto essi offrono la fondazione del regno infernale, e riflettono anche il Figlio in quanto presentano peccati corporali. Se passiamo ai canti vediamo che ira ed eresia riflettono lo Spirito. Quindi tutta la cantica riflette la matrice trinitaria anticipata dalle tre bestie, alla base del viaggio, possiamo dire, e poi verificata alla fine del viaggio, da dove il tutto ha principio.
Questo sistema si ripete per le tre cantiche, rispettando in un modo ineccepibile la natura trinitaria del poema. Per il momento posso dire che questa prima lettura mi dispone in modo positivo a valutare le prove offerte da Priest. Dobbiamo essere grati a Paul Priest per questo nobile sforzo.
Elissa B. James Wyatt Cook. Toronto: Iter Inc. Il libro curato da Elissa Weaver combina questi due filoni di ricerca, queste due correnti degli studi sul teatro dal Medioevo al Settecento fornendo in versione bilingue i lavori teatrali di Antonia Pulci, la prima donna autrice di sacre rappresentazioni. Attraverso una precisa ricostruzione documentaria, la studiosa prova che la famiglia originaria della scrittrice fu quella dei Tanini.
Importante anche il bel lavoro di traduzione di James Wyatt Cook che ha dovuto affrontare, aiutato dai suggerimenti della curatrice, il non facile compito di rendere in inglese la ritmatissima, a volte quasi cantilenante, ottava fiorentina. I quattro testi in questa edizione sono quelli riconosciuti come di Antonia Pulci. In questo finale giustamente Weaver nota i debiti con una sacra rappresentazione del marito di Antonia, Bernardo Pulci, e la sua Rapprersentazione di Barlaam e Josafat. Sempre molto acutamente, Weaver fa notare come queste storie appartengano a una cultura romanza tipica delle sacre rappresentazioni.
A cura di Sonia Maffei. Testo stabilito da Paolo Procaccioli. Italian Bookshelf situation. Moreover, considering that the great success of the Iconologia came to a sudden halt at the end of the eighteenth century but had a second and rich life beginning in , it is understandable why its originality, value, role and function have undergone many different interpretation.
Thus the close look at the authorial intentions and achievements which this edition provides should be most appreciated. The Iconologia was first published in and issued again in The second edition appeared in and has illustrations and several additions to the prose text. They were all produced or supervised by the author, yet the edition included some illustrations and texts attributable to other authors. There were 18 new posthumous editions in the seventeenth century and 15 in the eighteenth century, the last one appearing in Amsterdam in It was translated into the major European languages.
Faced with this unstable situation, the decision of using the first edition as the basis for the new one seems to be the correct and the wise choice. Thus the best option remains the one taken by Maffei and Procaccioli. Italian Bookshelf foresee was that this openness would invite interpolation and cuts on the part of the editors and publishers in the course of time. Ultimately, as Maffei maintains, the responsibility for this outcome rests not so much on the nature of the language Ripa wanted to create, but rather on the way in which he formulated it.
Maffei shows us that Ripa stands at the peak of two Renaissance trends of using symbolism and allegory, that is, a synthetic and an analytic way of representing reality, a combination perfectly achieved by his icons. The symbolic aspect is an abstract idea that can attain universal understanding through pictorial means; thus, for example, to most people a man in chains means prison or serfdom, whereas the allegorical meaning is not intuitive but can be understood through historical knowledge.
Indeed a chain can be an attribute of matrimonial obligations, of friendship, and other liaisons, but only the combination with other elements or attributes establishes its meaning. Iconologia combines several rich Renaissance trends. Italian Bookshelf botany. Another is the combination of image and words found in robust genres such as emblems, stemmas, coins, medals, and hieroglyphics, all genres that Maffei surveys with magisterial competence. In these genres words and image complement each other, whereas in Ripa they integrate each other: words describe what eyes see or are guided to see, and images embody exactly what words mean.
Ripa, as Maffei proves, was not an expert in classical literature or art, but he drew most of his classical quotations from repertories of commonplaces. The abstract quality of the icons with their aura of antiquity was the key to the enormous success of the Iconologia, but ultimately it caused it to fall into disrepute.
That moment came when Winkelmann in an essay of wanted to demonstrate that Ripa did not merit such a high regard as an expert of ancient art; in fact he was a mediocre dilettante. Sonia Maffei — who has already written an impressive volume on Ripa Le radici antiche dei simboli. The commentary reconstructs piece by piece the way in which Ripa found and used his learning; also, it identifies the painters and the authors who made use of his suggestions. To track down sources — especially if quoted indirectly or, even worse, wrongly — is always a difficult and laborious task, and it is an area where only great erudition can make strides.
Italian Bookshelf and emblematic literature both combine images and words , not to mention her detailed knowledge of ancient and modern art. So much erudition does not distract from her intelligent insights into problems of poetics and questions of mythology or history, which continuously surface in her commentary.
Thanks to an exemplary combination of erudition and critical intelligence, Sonia Maffei brings to light the real Iconologia, its experimentation with a new language, erudition, and unique ability to appeal to a vast public for centuries to come. The learned world can today be thankful to her for being able to read this unique work as the author intended.
Much gratitude goes also to Paolo Procaccioli, an excellent philologist, who guaranties the accuracy of the text using philological judgment in making some well justified emendations and slightly updating its orthography. Procaccioli provides a list and bibliographic description of all the editions published before , adding in each case indication of the world libraries where they can be consulted. Sonia Maffei creates the indexes which facilitate the consultation of this edition.
We must thank the two experts who have made this miraculous revival possible. The authors state in the Preface that they wanted to offer these two fundamental texts in new dual-language translations for anyone who is interested in the history of theatre, opera, entertainment, or pastoral poetry. Poliziano Angelo Ambrogini 94 was the author of the first non-religious dramatic piece in Italian theatrical literature? This work was not translated into English until by Elizabeth Bassett Welles, who used unrhymed iambic pentameter. Although Tasso claimed it was hastily written, Aminta quickly established itself as one of the masterpieces of Italian theatre of the Renaissance.
As Brand points out, pastoral drama could easily be performed with music, song and dance, and it did not need elaborate stage settings. The suspense was maintained by reports about the lovers, and the audience was further entertained by references to contemporary figures of the court. According to Andrews, both works heralded the foundation of spoken-language theatre in Europe and drama expressed through music. Aminta set the model for pastoral drama with five acts and the use of a chorus.
The group which called itself the Florentine Camerata began to speculate on musical delivery during the performance of Greek drama, and hence spurred the innovations that led to opera. Passages from five-act plays were often set to music. Italian Bookshelf music and sung as arias. Andrews traces the trajectory of opera through Dafne, first performed privately in and revised in , with music written by Jacopo Peri and Jacopo Corsi, to future documented operas which addressed the story of Orpheus, who would forever be linked to opera for his musical prowess.
Useful footnotes explain who the speakers are and identify the mythological characters, making this translation accessible to even beginning students. Especially successful is the rollicking and visceral translation of the Bacchantes chorus in Orfeo. The book succeeds in bringing these two important Italian works to new light, using faithful and readable facing-page translations.
This dual-language edition would be useful to students of Italian and to students of translation as well as to anyone interested in the development of opera and drama. Through the informative essays and the rhyming translations that try to reproduce the lyricism of the originals, it shows how the pastoral provided a framework for the way drama could be presented on the stage, and how humanistic interest in mythology led to profane rather than religious works that could thus be considered, as the title states, overtures to the opera.
Armour and Masculinity in the Italian Renaissance. Toronto: Toronto University Press, Italian Bookshelf culture. Rhymes of Love. Maria Pastore Passaro. Ottawa: Legas, Nel testo della Pastore Passaro sono raccolte esattamente poesie suddivise in tre parti. La prima parte 73 poesie, considerando la doppia variante della numero XXVIII contiene le rime dedicate a Lucrezia Bendidio, che Tasso conobbe nel a Padova quando lui aveva diciannove anni e Lucrezia quindici.
Thorofare NJ : Xlibris, Robert M. Every year one or more translations of the original Italian poem appears in English — without counting the numerous translations in other languages. Torrance joins the competitive race with his Italian and English parallel text edition of a new translation in terza rima. In his preface Torrance observes rightly that he views terza rima as an essential aspect of the poem, and that no poetic translation can possibly aim to be literal.
As to aids for his own translation, he cites three English versions among those he had access to, namely, those of John D. Sinclair, Charles S. Singleton, and Carlyle-Okey- Wicksteed. As stated in his short introductory sections, Torrance makes indeed a diligent attempt at preserving the metric and rhythmic patterns of the poem by rigorously laying down ten syllables per line in an overall iambic pentameter pattern. One of the chief differences between Italian and English is that the former lends itself to the bel canto and dolce stile thanks to its rich and short syllabic patterns, while the latter in this regard offers a parsimonious and long- patterned inventory of the same.
As a result, the most conspicuous and re- sounding effect derived from these two language systems is the different way in which the morphemes and, most importantly, the phonemes in the two idioms are created and function. In the case in question, the effectiveness of terza rima appears to wear out very soon, and the reader is made to overhear the percussions, in the back of the orchestra, as it were, creep heavily into the symphonic beat generating dissonance rather than boosting it — to make use of a musical metaphor.
There are even fewer cases in the history of the English language, which fact reinforces the different language model one ought to deal with. The partial off-rhymes at the end of Canto 21, however, yield a more felicitous result. These two elements, however — the subject matter and its depiction — do not quite coalesce in the English language, and the reader is left with a rather absolute and in many respects inflexible paradigm. Italian Bookshelf Inferno, the prosodic pattern, may be better endured within a less rigid mold that does away with the teasing rhyme and frees the meter.
Weinberg and E. Ann Matter, eds. Written in fifteenth century Italy, the Ogdoas is a minor work by a lesser-known author who nevertheless shows interest in themes treated by the major humanists in their well-known works during this time: the role of morality in the political sphere; the place of virtue in civic life and activity; the state of contemporary peninsular politics; and local history. Very little is known about the author himself, but our editors provide some information about biography and context. According to Carla P.
Ann Matter, Alberto Alfieri fl. In his prologue, however, Alfieri indicates that he was born in the district of Vercelli and, thus, that he was also a Milanese citizen. Gabriele Maria has recently been executed by the French governor Boucicaut; it is his arrival in the afterlife that gives way to successive dialogues with souls from the Visconti family. The topic of their discussions centers on the virtuous and just leader and how this conduct leads to eternal salvation.
These encounters are preceded by a prologue in which Alfieri dedicates his work to Jacopo Adorno, the Consul of Caffa. The treatment of themes such as education, morality, justice, and salvation is indeed quite superficial and is generally comprised of insufficient verbal exchanges between the Visconti family members. Alfieri clearly wrote with the expectation that the family would bestow favors upon him.
Without such translations, scholarship in this field risks becoming limited and biased, and so the inclusion of minor works in this corpus is welcome. Italian Bookshelf period. Moreover, it sheds light on the differences with which humanists approached humanistic ideals and on the biases humanists had towards certain powerful families of the Renaissance. The Ogdoas is, in fact, more effective and convincing as a historical account of fifteenth-century colonialism than it is as a philosophical or moral discussion on education and civic virtue.
Processi compositivi e formazione di topoi, Napoli, Liguori, Aspetti e fenomeni naturali nella percezione di Leopardi Lecce, Milella, Percorsi e forme Napoli, Liguori, Soave del di Hugh Blair, A Philosophical Enquiry di Edmund Burke nella traduzione del di un canonico maceratese , il trattato Del Sublime di Longino nella traduzione del di Anton Francesco Gori , e ancora il Werther goethiano nella ben nota traduzione italiana di Michiel Salom Venezia, Lo scrittoio di Leopardi.
Napoli: Liguori, Italian Bookshelf Naples by Liguori in In addition to Moschus, another author important to Leopardi in his early years is Goethe, whose Die Leiden des jungen Werthers the poet read in the Italian translation by Michel Salom. In his discussion of the importance of the sublime for Leopardi, Camerino is at pains to remind us that for the Italian poet the sublime can never be dissociated from moral greatness.
When we think of Leopardi, it is difficult not to imagine him as utterly alone, friendless except for family members, at least in his day-to-day existence for most of his life, certainly without the female company he so longed for, and thus fated to spend most of the hours of his life by himself.
Italian Bookshelf Tommaso Campanella. Selected Philosophical Poems of Tommaso Campanella. A Bilingual Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, The group of 43 superbly translated poems presents a wide-ranging series of readings that connect with many of the abstract ideas and expressive topoi circulating in several disciplines in the seventeenth century. In the introduction Roush includes a biography of this complex author that helps to situate, or rather to identify the difficulties of situating, his poetic work both in the Italian literary tradition and among the work of his contemporaries.
Her review of existing scholarship highlights the major moments of the critical tradition and gives scholars new to Campanella studies a substantial guide for exploring related secondary materials. This is most notable in the first six pieces that evoke Dantean vocabulary, hierarchies, structures, verse form, and ideologies. Italian Bookshelf subject-verb disagreements. These notes offer insight about the translation, background on names or images mentioned in the poems and glosses, as well as bibliographical indications for further reading.
Campanella exhorts poets to write about modern heroes such as Columbus and Vespucci, figures that he sees as better models than those provided by any mythological character. Beyond obvious connections to Bruno and Galileo the latter had been supported enthusiastically by Campanella , the poems express many ideas circulating in the period, including a religious devotion that operates expressly and passionately in tandem with unorthodox philosophical beliefs and intellectual practices.
Points of contact include the topos of the book of the world , the nature of the infinite and the indivisible , and Epicureanism If there is one shortcoming in the volume, it is related to the lack of translation of the Latin phrases and quotations that Campanella frequently inserts in both his poetry and self-commentary. Roush admits that not translating the Latin was done to maintain the linguistic distinctions that Campanella created, admittedly an important feature.
This one editorial decision does not lessen the overall value of this excellent volume, but the lack of translation for the Latin text makes these portions of the Scelta inaccessible to readers who have thus far benefited from the facing-page bilingual presentation in this edition. Di Biase. The Diary of Elio Schmitz. Scenes from the World of Italo Svevo. Leics: Troubador Publishing Ltd, Esse sono sicuramente importantissime dal punto di vista biografico: descrivono i primi anni, gli anni della formazione, di uno dei grandi autori della letteratura italiana.
Si tratta, ovviamente, di materiale autentico, appartenente al diario, ma lo studioso non solo lo ha tradotto, lo ha anche riorganizzato. Italian Bookshelf Carlo Goldoni. Memorie italiane. A cura di Epifanio Ajello. Bisogna quindi asserire in partenza che il volume oggetto della presente recensione presenta dei meriti indubbi che ne fanno un contributo importante nel panorama delle pubblicazioni goldoniane.
In che cosa consistono le Memorie italiane? Italian Bookshelf della vita e delle diatribe di Goldoni. Edizione critica del ms. Varia 30 della Biblioteca Reale di Torino. The fundamental novelty of this edition is that it is based on the autograph version of the text sent by Manzoni to Minister of Education Emilio Broglio. This version was recently rediscovered in the collections of the Turin Royal Library Varia 30 , and had not been available to the curators of the previous critical editions of the text Angelo Stella and Maurizio Vitale, Scritti linguistici inediti, Milano, Centro Nazionale di Studi Manzoniani, ; Michele Barbi and Fausto Ghisalberti, Opere varie, Firenze, Sansoni, In the introduction to the volume the editors Claudio Marazzini and Ludovica Maconi present the reader with a detailed reconstruction of the historical circumstances that led to the drafting of the report.
Italian Bookshelf sending it to Broglio. The second apparatus allows the reader to compare the manuscript with the first printed edition in Nuova antologia, March The third published as an appendix schematically summarizes the main changes undergone by the text from the manuscript version to the first printing, including the innovations that occurred in the first and second sets of proofs.
For instance, in the report Manzoni argues that the best way to give Italy a national language is to replace the numerous Italian dialects with contemporary spoken Florentine. In his opinion, Latin is proof for the effectiveness of this strategy, since Latin was the language originally spoken only in Rome, and then imposed on the whole empire. But then — as the first apparatus clearly shows — he immediately changed his mind and removed from the manuscript this reference to literary texts.
He most likely realized that this argument could have been easily manipulated by the supporters of Italian purismo, and used against his claim for the adoption of spoken Florentine. Finally, the second and third apparatuses allow the reader to view the evolution of the text in the process leading up to its publication: in particular, they show how Manzoni systematically restored the original spelling and Florentine phonology that had been modified by the typographer in the first set of proofs.
For each discrepancy between the two, the editors indicate which version has been adopted in the previous critical editions, thus establishing a clear and understandable connection to the work of Stella-Vitale and Barbi-Ghisalberti. The repetition of data that are already available elsewhere is essential as it offers the reader the information that is needed in order to follow all the fundamental stages of the story of the text — from the manuscript version to the proofs, to its publication in a journal and as a separate volume, and finally to the recent attempts at critical reconstruction.
The fourth apparatus is thus a valuable addition to the first three. This additional information would have helped the reader to better understand the multi-layered nature of the genetic process. Nevertheless, thanks to this fourfold apparatus, Manzoni scholars can now find all the essential philological data relating to this report in one thin and elegant edition, characterized by a rare combination of scientific rigor and usability. The importance of this volume is not limited to its philological component.
The first section of the edition also provides a description of the manuscript Varia 30 as an artistic and historical object. Laura Benedetti. Toronto: Iter Inc, This presentation of the final work by Lucrezia Marinella is a welcome addition to an excellent series in gender studies, The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe. Laura Benedetti begins this translation of Esortazioni alle donne e agli altri se a loro saranno a grado, written in , with a thorough introduction.
Such currents, as Benedetti notes, did not always lead to female solidarity. Italian Bookshelf contrasting herself with such other female contemporaries as Arcangela Tarabotti. In her introduction, Benedetti outlines the text, glossing each of the nine exhortations in turn. She includes in her glosses the occasional key passage to illuminate this dense text for readers, as the exhortations vary in length as well as in scope.
She also reflects on the Exhortations: she writes that they are uneven in style and substance, which my reading confirmed. Her familiarity with the classics and with such revered Italian writers as Tasso, Petrarch, Dante, Ariosto, and Boccaccio is unmistakable. Moreover, Benedetti is careful to add that we cannot read too much of our modern sensibilities into Marinella. Simply because Marinella retreats from the boldness of her treatise some four decades later does not necessarily mean that she is insincere in her admonitions to both women and men.
I want you to know that you must set the example for her life. The ninth exhortation, which focuses on feminine beauty, can be seen as a culmination of these conflicts within the text. The Esortazioni mixes scholarship and the domestic in a fascinating way; simplifying its contradictions would be a disservice to Marinella and her peers that Benedetti has fortunately avoided.
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Within her text, Marinella occupies an uneasy role: she acts as the upholder of patriarchal notions of femininity which she herself and the fabric of her text, generously peppered with Latin quotations and philosophical references, do not embody. Yet her exhortations do esteem women and the domestic — the mere application of Aristotelian ideas to women by a woman seems to me to be a significant gesture.
Gabrielle E. Chicago: Chicago University Press, She begins with a chapter which examines eighteenth-century Bologna and the relative importance of the old and prestigious university of anatomy and wax figures. Next, she describes the Museum of Human Anatomy or Internal and External Anthropometry created by the then archbishop Prospero Lambertini, later Pope Benedict, and focuses on the role of anatomy in early modern Italian society and the rituals that were associated with anatomical dissections.
Important for advancing the image and reputation of Bologna, this museum is still in existence today and also displays the waxworks done by Anna Morandi Manzolini and her husband, Giovanni. Italian Bookshelf Subsequent chapters show that the political tensions surrounding the creation of the anatomy museum are linked directly to the fate of Anna and her husband and their practice of wax sculpture and anatomy.
Then, once alone, Anna went from being merely a part of the studio dealing with public relations and doing public demonstrations to being an anatomist and the primary creative force.
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Messbarger is quick to point out that Bologna had a unique way of running official human dissections, which since the Renaissance were performed during Carnival exclusively by male anatomists. Anna, as a woman, reversed gender roles by performing dissections upon both sexes. The second part of The Lady Anatomist examines the wax sculptures Anna made and the accompanying notebooks she authored, both still in existence today. She is unique not only because of her practice and contributions to anatomy, Messbarger contends, but also because Bologna had to fight with other cities that would gladly have whisked her away.
Morandi was, after all, a unique intellectual woman who did her work extraordinarily well. Though Messbarger tends to interrupt the flow of the narrative by offering constant sub-headings that dissect each chapter, she still creates a thoroughly engaging, well documented, fully illustrated, and quite readable study of one learned woman of the past who has now, thankfully, been rescued from obscurity. Divas in the Convent. Research on and a much heightened awareness of this topic necessitate a new edition, one that is more focused on one convent in Bologna xiv and that is enriched with illustrations xviii , without the extensive apparatus of notes and documentation present in the original xiv.
The eleven chapters that follow start by concentrating on one nun and composer, Lucrezia Orsina Vizzana, who entered the convent of Santa Cristina della Fondazza in Bologna as a child and took part in the first of a string of confrontations with the local bishop and the Catholic hierarchy, in the early s. Chapters 5 and 6 outline the dissensions within the monastery, how music played into them, and how the Church hierarchy investigated them. At the very end of the century, in , the nuns of Santa Cristina enjoyed their first success, prevailing on the local bishop to carry out the rite of the consecration of the virgins according to the letter of the Pontificale Romanum, which included a ritual showing of the nuns wearing crowns and rings as sponsae Christi.
Chapters 9 to 11 recount this legal fight and describe the resulting ceremony, with the help of additional archival sources relative to consecrations of and Attracting attention to events and people from long ago has positive and concrete consequences, as Monson underscores xiv , although Bologna is currently more enlightened than most Italian cities Second, as female networks have emerged as sites of power or resistance and as creators or sponsors of texts and visual culture, convents become a crucial piece of the puzzle, if we are to gain a full picture of the times.
Nuns make for a quintessentially non-traditional research topic; they were female, isolated in cloisters, even deprived of their birth names. Nor were these walls effective in severing all contacts with the lay world.
Family ties remained paramount, especially in convents like Santa Cristina that catered to noble and well established clans, and through existing familial and new monastic connections nuns were able to plead their cases and make their influence known in town and all the way to the Roman curia. Musicologists, art historians, and cultural historians have led scholars to convents, and researchers of performance have followed, including to places further afield from Florence and Tuscany.
Letters Familiar and Formal. Meredith K. Ray and Lynn Lara Westwater. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Arcangela Tarabotti lived in seventeenth-century Venice as a cloistered Benedictine nun. Born in , she entered the convent in and shortly thereafter began writing literary works, of which seven are extant. Italian Bookshelf she denounces the common though officially prohibited practice of coerced monachization, namely, the forced cloistered enclosure of women with no religious vocation the dowry required of a convent being much lower than that needed for marriage, and Tarabotti was one of six sisters.
Ray and Lynn Lara Westwater interpret as a bodily metaphor of physical and psychological constriction and that is reminiscent of later accounts of hysterical patients. Tarabotti insistently uses her letters as a carefully considered and edited vehicle of self-defense and self-promotion. Writing was indeed the primary means of communication with the outside world for this woman often attacked for her literary aspirations and controversial ideas, and yet enclosed within a convent and thus unable to respond in person. Some of these letters were explicitly composed with publication in mind and the rest were certainly revised before publication.
The Letters only appeared in a modern edition in , their first reprint since the original publication. The introduction is very helpful, although I am disappointed that a serious press such as that of the University of Toronto did not subject the manuscript to a more thorough copy-editing in order to eliminate redundancies and stylistic infelicities. The footnotes to both the introduction and the translation are extensive and extremely thorough, making the text very accessible to the public — including undergraduate readers.
Marsala: La Medusa Editrice, Giraffes in the Garden of Italian Literature. In works such as Sul modernismo italiano, a collection of essays recently edited by Romano Luperini and Massimiliano Tortora, Pirandello, Svevo, Tozzi and Gadda, have emerged as the central figures in a possible modernist canon. For Amberson, Svevo, Tozzi and Gadda place at the centre of their narrative the embodied character of experience as a means of criticizing the materialist and capitalist ideology of nineteenth-century modernity.
Invettive e licenze , L'avversario , Morte segreta , Ordalia della croce.