Arnim was one of the Uradel , his paternal ancestors having been resident in the Mark Brandenburg since the Middle Ages, part of a substantial Junker clan containing many lines and sidelines. The Boitzenburg branch of the family, a sideline, differed from most Junkers in having rather more land in its possession. Having inherited a very substantial estate from his father, Arnim increased its value almost thirteen-fold.
At his death, his assets amounted to 1. Arnim's maternal family, although equally blue-blooded, had a quite different background. Thus through his mother Arnim was related to both the British and the Prussian royal families. As Nitzschke notes, Arnim's childhood was difficult. His parents divorced when he was two years old and his father died six years later.
Although he is usually portrayed as a cranky reactionary in the Restoration era, Stein appears here in a more progressive light, insisting that his charge go to school with young commoners, forego noble inclinations toward "Diplomatisiern, Exerzieren und Landjunkerisieren" p. Arnim entered Prussian state administration in , and enjoyed a stellar career, rising from Landrat in Templin, to deputy district governor in Stralsund, to district governor in Aachen, all in the span of seven years.
After a three-year hiatus, during which he retired to his estates, he was named provincial governor in Posen--a difficult and tricky post, in view of growing Polish nationalism and conflicts between the Prussian state and the Catholic Church. Arnim earned the reputation of an excellent state bureaucrat, a conscientious, efficient administrator who also strove to stay on good terms with local elites and so to reconcile state and society in Prussia.
In , he was appointed to the key government position of Minister of the Interior, at the age of thirty-nine the youngest government minister in the history of the Prussian monarchy. Arnim's differences with Friedrich Wilhelm IV, which would lead to his dismissal from office, only increased his difficulties.
Both during and after his term as interior minister, Arnim was close to the monarch's brother and heir presumptive, the Prince of Prussia; contemporaries often thought that when the latter expressed his disapproval of Friedrich Wilhelm's actions, Arnim was whispering in his ear. As the political situation spiraled out of control in , Arnim waited for his chance to return to the government. It arrived, although under less than propitious circumstances. He was appointed Prussia's first minister president on March 19, , immediately following the revolutionary barricade fighting in the Berlin.
His term of office lasted all of ten days, as he was caught between the growing demands of the revolutionary movement and the unwillingness of his royal master to let his prime minister be a prime minister and administer the affairs of state. Returning to his estates, Arnim played a modest, secondary role in the developing conservative political movement during the rest of the revolution. He was elected to the Prussian parliament in February , and spent the next nine years there as leader of one of the many conservative caucuses.
Although widespread rumors often had him named to high office, Arnim was never again appointed a government minister. During the Conflict Era, he was a loyal supporter of Bismarck's ministry against the Progressive-dominated House of Deputies, but his efforts to use the House of Lords on behalf of the government do not seem to have been coordinated with Bismarck and were not entirely successful. All this information, taken from Nitschke's biographical account, justifies Arnim's claim to status as a significant political figure in mid-nineteenth century Prussia, but when we consider what the author does with this significance, problems in his account emerge.
One aspect of these difficulties is created by a simple organizational issue--Nitzschke treats every phrase of Arnim's post career doubly, first giving an account of Arnim's own activities in a given period and then considering the broader position of Prussian conservatism. The upshot is a lot of unnecessary repetition without the addition of significant new information. A deeper problem, though, is the author's structuring concept of two opposed tendencies within Prussian conservatism: "old conservatism," whose adherents, mostly pietists, supported an older, corporate form of government and society, and "state conservatism," whose supporters--and Arnim is taken as a prime example of them--had a more rationalist approach to the world and endorsed the creation of constitutional institutions designed to guarantee the monarch and his state officials the dominant voice in government.
Where does Bismarck fit? While Arnim's ideas and actions generally correspond to the profile of a state conservative, it sometimes seems that before the revolution of his response to the call for corporate political institutions was not to endorse a constitution but a continuation of authoritarian bureaucratic rule.
Nitschke's detailed biographical account reveals three issues about Arnim's career that it cannot resolve and which point to larger political issues that remain unclear. A second point concerns the author's portrayal of the revolution. Nitschke presents a detailed account of decision-making at the highest levels of the Prussian monarchy during March His portrait of Friedrich Wilhelm IV--unsure, vacillating, unable to rule but unwilling to let anyone else do so--is convincing and illuminates both the circumstances of Arnim's appointment as minister president and the reasons for his failure in office.
Even so, Nitschke's discussion of the revolution in Berlin falls back well behind the consensus of modern scholarship, taking seriously rumors spread by Prussian officers and officials of French- and Polish-speaking subversives, with plans to build identical barricades, making the revolution against the will of the vast majority of Berlin's loyal subjects. This matter is significant because appears as a turning point in Arnim's career. After his disastrous term as minister president, he was never again a government minister--even in , when his patron and advisee, the Prince of Prussia, became regent and eventually King Wilhelm I.
One does have to wonder why Wilhelm never offered Arnim a portfolio. Such actions do not fit the author's portrait of Arnim as a "state conservative," nor do they explain why Wilhelm did not turn to Arnim before this proposal or later on during the Conflict Era, when political alignments were different. Although this is, as the author states, a political biography, some interesting developments in Arnim's personal and private life are relevant to his political activities.
One is Arnim's administration of his extensive estates, evidently in very successful fashion, in view of his considerable expansion of his patrimony. Nitschke asserts that Arnim was a not a capitalist. He claims that Arnim's estate management refutes notions of the transformation of the Junkers into a class of capitalist agricultural entrepreneurs, because Arnim invested his assets in his estates, rather than in stocks, bonds, or sponsorship of industrial enterprises. This seems like a dubious criterion upon to make such an assertion. One would like to know more about Arnim's management practices--crop rotations, crop yields, marketing practices, accounting procedures--to see just how profit- and market-oriented his running of his estates was.
Finally, Arnim's private life deserves a mention. His mother, Countess Charlotte von Gimborn-Neustadt, was a figure straight out of a Theodor Fontane novel--twice divorced for adultery the second time by Arnim's father , she ended up in Paris, married a dubious French adventurer, and sent her grown son desperate letters begging for money, which he refused to answer. One can only wonder about how the early separation from his mother and the death a few years later of his father affected Arnim's personality, and whether it led to a lack of some of the qualities needed in a successful courtier and politician.
Arnim's adult private life is left in the dark, as well. Nitschke asserts that Arnim's own marriage to a Thuringian noblewoman was one of political convenience, but the marriage lasted all of Arnim's life and produced numerous offspring. What these observations suggest is that the author has not made as much of the material as he could have. He has successfully revived the life and career of a largely forgotten Prussian conservative, but has not entirely succeeded in elucidating either the contours of that life or its importance for the politics and the government of the Prussian monarchy at a crucial period of its development in the nineteenth century.
Dietz, Citation: Jonathan Sperber. Norbert Frei. This substantial volume originated--editor Norbert Frei explains in his afterword--in his desire for knowledge about the postwar treatment across Europe of Germans who had committed war and other crimes under Nazi rule. The book thus represents a European counterpart to Frei's influential study of Vergangenheitspolitik , as he designated the politics of amnesty and integration of former Nazis in s West Germany. They were to discuss the preconditions of postwar states' approaches to German crimes, such as the nature of German occupation and local collaboration and the presence of lynch justice at liberation; the retributive policies pursued and the legal norms and mechanisms with which they were implemented; the relationship of trials to the development of national cultures of memory; and the reactions of national publics and governments to German responses to the trials and to West German lobbying over the issue.
Each of the fourteen chapters is a detailed, informative, and engaging study written by an undoubted expert. The book's major strength lies in its systematic presentation of the central features of a wide range of postwar states' investigations, prosecutions, punishment and subsequent release of German criminals. Each chapter presents a fascinating story, addressing the surrounding legal and public debates and generally contextualizing developments well against specific national experiences of the war and the postwar settlement.
In short, the authors really deliver, even if--as Frei acknowledges--they are not all in a position to answer or pose all of the above questions. Of most obvious interest to historians of Germany will be the chapters on trials that took place on German territory. Annette Weinke who expertly translates several chapters examines domestic prosecutions as opposed to those conducted by the occupying powers in the FRG, GDR, and Austria.
She credits Austria with making more substantial efforts than the popular myth that Austria was Adolf Hitler's first victim would suggest. For the Federal Republic, Weinke stresses the importance of "soft" factors, such as the preconceptions and motivation of the judiciary, rather than hard legal hindrances to far-reaching efforts at prosecution.
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Weinke does an excellent job of synthesizing the literature on this reasonably familiar territory and setting analytical and interpretative accents. Particularly useful here is the holistic approach of addressing each state's involvement and priorities at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg alongside the trials they conducted in their individual occupation zones and with the exception of the United States at home. Treating these various contexts as a whole constitutes a considerable advance on previous accounts. Again, the authors provide excellent syntheses of the extensive research they and others have conducted, and the inclusion of issues concerning the release of convicted criminals is a welcome addition to accounts that frequently end with sentencing.
They display a range of intriguing differences that are nonetheless outweighed by commonalities: numbers of Germans brought to trial were low and those convicted benefited in the early s from substantial reductions in sentences and widespread releases. Indeed, this picture applies to Europe in general, with some exceptions. While most authors remark on the relative treatment of national collaborators and German occupiers, they understandably address the latter more concertedly than the former. Generally speaking, punishment of national traitors began earlier and proceeded with fewer legal obstacles, whereas prosecution of Germans began later and was limited and prolonged by concerns for legality not least by the widely felt need to await the Nuremberg verdict.
As a result, German criminals benefited from the passage of time and the development of new Cold War constellations, which the Federal Republic exploited to full advantage. It would be interesting to consider systematically whether convicted national collaborators enjoyed similar social tendencies towards clemency as their German counterparts.
The situation in Poland W? Here, matters were complicated particularly by nationality politics. To many ethnic Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks, collaborators and criminals were almost by definition Volksdeutsche , Sudetendeutsche , and Hungarians, respectively. Indeed, Ko? Whereas elsewhere the prosecution of Germans began later than--and often only after--the reckoning with national collaborators, in Poland and Czechoslovakia the proportion of local nationals among those prosecuted increased over time, while that of "Germans" decreased as so few remained.
In these cases, too, considerable readiness was shown to criminalize membership in various Nazi organizations and the release of German convicts in the early s was not as complete as in western Europe. Borodziej stresses that it is not clear how much politics were involved in decisions to release or retain prisoners. Hagen Fleischer and Filippo Focardi offer the most disturbing cases of justice denied in their chapters on Greece and Italy. Whereas other authors hint at the efforts of the West German government on behalf of suspected and convicted German criminals, Fleischer traces the results and the tone of concerted West German efforts to apply economic pressure and offer diplomatic enticement to successive Greek governments, which effectively suspended investigations, handed over responsibility for prosecutions to West Germany, and agreed--at least in the s--to look the other way when little resulted.
Focardi highlights early Allied--especially British--concerns about Italian capacity to try German criminals; yet the British themselves were more severe on Italians who had committed crimes against British and American POWs than on Germans who had committed crimes in Italy. Very few of the Italians' own investigations of German crimes resulted in trials, and officials were increasingly concerned that pushing strongly for the extradition of suspects would leave Italy vulnerable to other countries' claims on its own nationals.
Here, as everywhere, the German states' integration into their Cold War blocs contributed to this trend. Not until the s were investigations laid to rest before resurrected. The volume thus presents a welcome pan-European compendium on judicial reckoning with German criminals. What is more, although Birn argues convincingly that in the Canadian context the nationality of the perpetrators was of secondary importance, most of the immigrants investigated were non-German eastern Europeans.
The Canadian case thus differs considerably from the rest. According to Frei, other countries such as Israel were excluded for similar reasons. If Birn's contribution strains the volume's subtitle, questions can also be raised about the two key concepts of the book's title. In his introduction, Frei highlights the transnational nature of wartime and immediate postwar discussions amongst the Allies about the treatment of German criminals.
Yet transnational cooperation, he argues, reached its zenith with the establishment of the International Military Tribunal. Indeed, the questions pursued by the contributors are primarily national and, to a lesser extent, international in focus. The specifically transnational remains rather elusive.
Ultimately, the volume presents a collection of national studies, on the basis of which Frei's introduction provides a useful--if necessarily tentative--taking stock of the numbers of Nazi criminals prosecuted across Europe. The specific contribution of the term Vergangenheitspolitik in this context is also a little unclear. In contrast to Frei's study of s West Germany, the present volume focuses more on prosecution than on the amnesty and release of German criminals. In fact, a striking, if minor feature of several chapters is the return of West German activism after the s, now with the aim of promoting rather than hindering prosecution.
Although Vergangenheitspolitik originally referred to amnesty and integration as the specific priorities and strategies of the early Federal Republic, here it designates any set of state policies--whether punitive or lenient--towards perpetrators of Nazi crimes. Unfortunately, the term is not expounded upon, nor is it used by all of the contributors. Such terminological quibbles notwithstanding, the volume makes a highly valuable contribution by systematically presenting the complex, contested efforts to prosecute German criminals across Europe.
It highlights the many different contexts in which those efforts were made and provides a firm foundation for their comparative analysis. Scholars and students would undoubtedly welcome an English translation. Beck, Citation: Andrew Beattie. Ian Patterson. Guernica and Total War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Reviewed by Mark B.
While Pablo Picasso's famous painting has cemented the destruction of Guernica in historical memory, Ian Patterson reminds us in the book under review that it is only one of many cultural artifacts that explored the newfound fear of death from above. Indeed, a key question for the author is why Guernica came to represent the horrible realities of modern warfare in the twentieth century, especially when so many other Spanish cities, like Barcelona, Durango, Guerricaiz, or Madrid, experienced similar or worse carnage. Although many scholars might look for the answer in the ideological clash between the Republican Popular Front and Francisco Franco's Nationalists and the ensuing civil war, Patterson attributes Guernica's symbolic stature to the proliferation of books, plays, poems, and films that increasingly brought the notion of death from the air, and its imminence, into the public sphere.
Tracing the evolution and manifestations of this newfound fear in Britain, what he calls the "modern version of the sky falling on one's head" makes up the main thrust of this slender volume published on the seventieth anniversary of the tragedy p. The book is comprised of three chapters framed by an introduction and an epilogue. In the first chapter, "Guernika's Thermite Rain," Patterson relies on well-known secondary literature to provide a general account of the Spanish Civil War, the bombing of Guernica, and the reasons for German involvement.
On that fateful day in April , over thirty tons of high-explosive bombs and thermite incendiaries flattened the town and left it ablaze. While it is likely that the exact death tolls will never be known, initial casualty figures suggested as many as 1, were killed and nearly injured. Recent research places the death toll at roughly This judgment is curious both because Patterson provides no new evidence to support the claim and because of the well-known sensationalist abuses from the press on both sides of the conflict.
Patterson then moves on to explain why Guernica, at least initially, gained international attention. His argument, echoing the somewhat dated work of Herbert Rutledge Southworth, is that the contradictory claims of responsibility and denial between Francoist rebels, the "Reds," and the Catholic Church played a decisive role in garnering such widespread notoriety.
Moreover, the press, especially British reporter George L. Steer, was in large part responsible not only for disseminating news of Guernica around the globe, but also for establishing an accurate narrative of events. The fact that a tapestry reproduction of the painting in the United Nations headquarters in New York was covered in February , as U. In chapter 2, "Civilization and Its Discontents," Patterson turns away from Guernica and sets his sights on the deluge of apocalyptic literature that appeared with increasing frequency after the turn of the century.
Here Patterson is at his best. Often ad hoc mixtures of fact and fancy, these works explored such themes as advances in science and technology, air-mindedness, and concomitant fears of death from the skies. According to the author, this literature became "almost as popular as the crossword puzzle and the detective story" p. Wells, and a host of others seemed to many to bear out Stanley Baldwin's premonition that "the bomber will always get through" p. Although much of this literature was speculative and exploratory, the use of bombing by the British, French, and Japanese to "pacify" colonial insurrections as well as the targeting of civilians during World War I meant that contemporary writers had a solid foundation from which their imaginations could run wild.
Patterson's keen literary eye focuses on recurring tropes, such as "frightfulness," which became a sort of catchall term denoting any and all of the terrifying consequences of total war. The concept of the "frontier," or more accurately, the erasure of the frontier, made readers appear all the more vulnerable as the airplane negated boundaries once held for insurmountable.
It was as if not only physical borders, like the English Channel, but the sky and time itself had been eclipsed. Moreover, the looming war threatened to dissolve social and cultural boundaries as well.
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Chapter 3, "War begins at Home," examines literature from the s and s to gauge public fears as Europe teetered on the brink of a seemingly apocalyptic war as well as to plumb the changes in this reaction as new realities became apparent. For many, argues Patterson, the bombing of Guernica confirmed fears that civilians could be targeted and there was little that could be done about it.
But once the war broke out and the bombs began to fall, as during the London Blitz, people realized that the initial shock was not followed by Armageddon and that surviving, even as strategic bombing campaigns proliferated, was possible. Though many in Britain sought refuge from the bombings in the countryside, air raid shelters, and the Tube, most stuck it out at home.
Not surprisingly in such an atmosphere, images of home and private life became common themes for writers. For other writers, focus moved from aircrafts and bombs to perhaps the most enduring symbol of the Blitz: fire. Patterson is an excellent and at times prophetic writer.
His passion for the subject is apparent and his not-so-subtle disdain for area bombing, which he notes is still used, give the book a welcome, contemporary ring. Still, the book will leave many readers dissatisfied. Those attracted by its title will find neither an extended treatment of the bombing of Guernica nor a grappling with the extremely nebulous concept of "total war. He defines "total war" as "the belief that the most effective way of winning wars was by obliterating, or the threat of obliteration, of the civilian population of the enemy's towns and cities by means of an annihilating attack from the air" p.
For this reason, Guernica was the "first, and still in some ways the most striking, demonstration that this could be done" p. In fact, strategic bombing of cities is but one aspect of total war, and even this focus only addresses one of numerous ways in which supposedly unambiguous lines of division between civilian and soldier became blurred. Patterson is certainly not the first scholar to mishandle the slippery concept of "total war" as it has been a "hegemonic narrative" in the study of war for at least a half century.
As one historian has eloquently written, the narrative "has inspired enough bombast, confusion, misinterpretation, and historical myopia to invite the question whether it ought to be rethought and its central element, the concept of total war, be jettisoned. One might only mention the British blockade of Germany during WWI, as a consequence of which roughly three-quarters of a million civilians died of starvation and related causes, or the persecution and murder of millions of "enemies" of the Third Reich during the Holocaust as cases in point.
Indeed, the First World War, for many scholars the first true "total war," caused such unfathomable destruction, deprivation, and death that few contemporaries would have needed to imagine a hell on earth. They had already experienced it; subsequent generations lived under its long, dark shadow. Despite this problem, the book will be useful for scholars and lay readers with a variety of interests as it is a fascinating study of the formation and history of fear in the first half of the twentieth century.
Not only does Patterson add a much-needed cultural aspect to the history of war, but his focus on how fears are constructed also allows the book to serve as both an interesting departure from and addition to the scholarship on memory. Guernica itself, however, unfortunately remains an important, if elusive, backdrop. See the museum's website at www.
Herbert Rutledge Southworth, Guernica! Manfred F. A book review does not permit an extensive discussion of the definition, origins, or place of the problematic concept of "total war" in scholarly literature. For a useful overview, see also the other edited collections that came out of conferences on total war held by the German Historical Institute in Washington, D. Citation: Mark B. Carl von Clausewitz. On War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Reviewed by Eliah M. All reading, we are still sometimes told, is misreading. Whatever the truth of this assertion, little doubt remains that some works are more prone to confusions and tendentious distortions than others.
Among these is the assemblage of notes, fragments, and chapters, most in various stages of incompletion, which a relatively obscure Prussian general bequeathed to his wife in , and which subsequent generations have known simply as On War. This past year marked the th anniversary of its initial publication. Given the wide influence and enduring appeal that Carl von Clausewitz's masterpiece has enjoyed in the interim, an abridged and annotated paperback edition, one aimed at making On War accessible to students and the general public alike, has long been overdue.
The overall quality of this volume is very high, and Beatrice Heuser, a Clausewitz scholar and professor of international history and strategic studies in Munich, has assembled a mostly balanced and illuminating introduction to Clausewitz's life and thought. Explanatory notes and a chronology of major events both military and biographical are provided, as is a brief bibliography of works in English, French, and German.
Heuser has wisely opted for the translation by Michael Howard and Peter Paret, which transformed the occasional inscrutability of earlier translations into manageable difficulty. The selections are likewise judicious. Books 1 and in which appear such central Clausewitzian themes as "friction," the primacy of politics, the importance of "moral forces," military genius, "violent resolution" as the "supreme law" of war, the fluidity of dialectical interaction, the gulf between "actual war" and "war in theory," and above all the "paradoxical trinity" of enmity, chance, and reason--are included in their entirety.
Books 7 and 8 are provided in large part, and Heuser, in her introduction, stresses the turn in these later books away from a conception of war as massive geopolitical struggle clearly drawn from Clausewitz's experience in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars toward an interest in wars of "limited aim.
In general, the principle of selection, as Heuser frankly states, has been to include those portions of the work that have proved of most lasting significance, leaving behind the textbook-like instructions on billeting, the defense of swamps, and other matters which were no doubt of greater interest to the officer corps of Clausewitz's day than they are to the majority of his readers in our own.
One can hardly quarrel with such a choice. If the task of an edition of this sort is to introduce a complex work to the uninitiated, and in doing so to anticipate and head off the most likely misunderstandings without imposing an exegetical straightjacket on the reader, then I suspect Heuser has largely succeeded.
Her introduction to the volume has three general aims, all of which rely on the claim by no means new that Clausewitz represents a "Copernican leap in our thinking about war" p. First, Heuser emphasizes the radical originality of On War. In contrast to the tradition of philosophical and legal discussions of war on the one hand, and, on the other, the eminently practical handbooks of tactical maneuver and battlefield "rules," Clausewitz set out to investigate war as a political, social, and psychological phenomenon and to uncover the principles governing the complex and reciprocal interactions among its various dimensions.
Heuser's discussion of Clausewitz's military education and the limitations of earlier treatments of war should be useful to all but the most expert of military historians. Second, she examines the role that Clausewitz's own experience as a soldier played in the genesis of his thought, stressing his desire to remain true to the reality and thus unpredictability of war while at the same time rendering war subject to rigorous "scientific" investigation.
Finally, Heuser asks about the applicability of these ideas as an analytical framework in our own day. Clausewitz, of course, is still very much a live figure. His work continues to be assigned in military academies worldwide, and the past thirty years have witnessed something of a renaissance in Clausewitz studies in the United States and Europe, in part as a consequence of what were seen as the strategic blunders of U. At the same time, movements are perpetually afoot to hand Clausewitz over to the historians, challenging the relevance of his thinking in an age of genocide, asymmetrical warfare, and nuclear deterrence.
Such debates have become particularly heated of late, for obvious reasons. She rightly notes the contradictions and ambiguities that plague the work, as well its inevitable shortcomings as the product of a particular time and place. I wonder, however, whether Heuser might have gone further toward preventing the misunderstandings to which On War has so often succumbed, and which she is clearly eager to avoid.
Much as several generations of scholars have worked to rescue Johann Gottfried Herder, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and others from trajectories culminating in Adolf Hitler or Prussian militarism, so have Clausewitz scholars labored with success to reverse earlier efforts to tar his work. Two of the most common charges have been that Clausewitz valorizes violence and that he elevates will, determination, and boldness to ends in themselves. Neither of these claims is supported by a careful reading of the text, but a haphazard reader, especially one under the sway of any of a host of prior or current misrepresentations, will find ample opportunity for selective quotation.
Passages abound which assert that "war consists of single, great, decisive actions" p. Even as sensitive a historian as B. Liddell Hart could manage to misread Clausewitz as proclaiming "the sovereign virtues of the will to conquer, the unique value of the offensive carried out with unlimited violence by a nation in arms and the power of military action to override everything else.
To the extent that she does address past misinterpretations, her dispute is with Clausewitz's Cold War critics. That Heuser largely neglects to discuss Clausewitz's place in twentieth-century German history is connected to a more basic slant in her presentation of his thought. As a scholar of international relations and strategic studies, she situates Clausewitz almost exclusively within the history of these two fields.
Her treatment of Clausewitz's intellectual influences, to the extent that it goes beyond his military education, mentions the mathematician Leonard Euler, but fails to point out that Clausewitz came of age in, and was deeply influenced by, one of the most vibrant and creative intellectual milieus in European history. Nor is Clausewitz's place in intellectual history restricted to his own day and age. Twentieth-century thinkers as formidable--and antipathetic--as Vladimir Lenin, Raymond Aron, and Carl Schmitt have found much to contemplate in his work.
But these are quibbles, and no introduction can accomplish all things. Overall, Heuser has put together an admirably clear, judiciously edited, and reasonably balanced introduction to Clausewitz's thought. Writing in a review of the translation of On War , T. Blanning remarked that it "ought to represent a turning-point in Clausewitz studies, a point after which This and other introductory essays published with the translation, including a lengthy reading guide by Bernard Brodie, still provide excellent introductions to the text and fill out some of the gaps in Heuser's introduction.
The book has recently been reissued in paperback by Princeton University Press. Heuser does list Aron's work in the bibliography. Citation: Eliah M. Review of von Clausewitz, Carl, On War. Oliver von Wrochem. Erich von Manstein: Vernichtungskrieg und Geschichtspolitik. On May 7, , the Swabian village of Allmendingen prepared for a festival. The mayor had roused the village inhabitants early in the morning, school was cancelled, the town was festively decorated and, according to a member of the media who was present, nearly every child wore a bouquet of flowers.
A brass band provided musical accompaniment. The few villagers initially unaware of the reason for the unusual events were quickly informed: Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, the most celebrated of Hitler's military commanders and most controversial of the postwar military internees, had been released from captivity and was coming to the village. When Manstein addressed the crowd, he thanked them for their support and exclaimed, "We no longer want to think about the difficulties of the past, but only of the future" p.
Following his brief remarks, children approached Manstein and his wife, presented them with lilacs, and burst into song. The illustrated paper, Das Neue Blatt , described the scene to its readers in an issue adorned with two photos: one of Manstein as a decorated soldier and the other of him shaking the hands of children presenting him with flowers.
The message was clear: Hitler's "most brilliant strategist" was ready to enter West German society. Manstein's release symbolized the rehabilitation of the men who had served in Hitler's Wehrmacht, though this rehabilitation was primarily due to the efforts of high-ranking officers to produce their own version of the war, a process in which the former Field Marshal was intimately involved. Wrochem also details the complicity of western governments, particularly the British, in covering up the unsavory aspects of Nazi Germany's war against the Soviet Union to ensure West German support for remilitarization.
The truism that the exigencies of the Cold War superseded the quest for postwar justice is starkly illustrated in his account. Finally, Wrochem examines the evolution of German public opinion both East and West regarding the fate of Manstein and other Wehrmacht commanders in Allied and West German trials and the influence of veteran organizations in guiding popular memories and understanding of the war.
The author divides his study into four sections. The first deals with Manstein's life through the end of the Second World War, with special emphasis on his participation in the Vernichtungskrieg against the Soviet Union. One of Wrochem's primary themes is Manstein's relationship with Hitler and the Nazi regime. In a manner similar to that of many of his peers reared during the Kaiserreich , Manstein welcomed the new regime and its commitment to mobilizing German society in support of restoring a greater German Reich.
Wrochem analyzes the occupation policies of Manstein's Eleventh Army, which operated in the Crimea from late through mid Those seeking for a comprehensive examination of Eleventh Army's occupation practices will want to look elsewhere; the author is more concerned with examining several wartime events in detail and then following them throughout the series of postwar trials.
This approach allows for a much more precise reconstruction of these events and Wrochem makes good use of it. He examines the responsibility and actions of various levels of Eleventh Army, focusing on the lower levels of occupation: the Secret Field Police, the Field Gendarmerie sections, the Ortskommandanten , and the commandants of the rear Army areas.
In agreement with the prevailing historical consensus, Wrochem concludes that the Army worked very closely with the SS Einsatzgruppen in liquidating "enemies" both real and perceived. Here, the division of labor initially identified by Dieter Pohl certainly functioned smoothly. And, as Wrochem notes, "no level of authority stood against the murder, but in contrast frequently drove it forward" p.
While the lower levels frequently carried out the shootings, the Eleventh Army leadership also acted as the driving force behind at least one episode of mass execution. The strained supply system that plagued the entire Eastern Army also affected troops in the Crimea. In order to avoid starvation-driven revolts, Eleventh Army began directing the machinery of murder towards population groups whose annihilation was already foreseen.
The 13, Jews in Simferopol constituted the first pool of victims. Contacted by Eleventh Army's quartermaster to initiate the killing, Einsatzgruppe D had to decline due to lack of manpower and capacity. The quartermaster then offered troops to cordon off the area and guard the Jews during transport, trucks for the transport itself, and munitions to the SS unit. By the time the first phase of the action ended in late December, some 9, Jews had been murdered.
Wrochem states that no order signed by Manstein authorizing the action exists; he also makes clear that it is nearly inconceivable that such an action could have been initiated by the army staff without his approval. The remaining three sections of the study focus on how Manstein and other high-ranking members of the Wehrmacht defended themselves against war crimes charges while simultaneously sanitizing their version of the war in the East and thereby generating an acceptable narrative of the war for West Germans. Three separate strands formed the basis of this re-writing of the war.
First, many former high-ranking officers, including Manstein, formed an advisory committee to "coordinate witness statements" regarding the initial charges against the German General Staff p. Coordination included destroying the credibility of officers whose statements diverged from the accepted story. This initial grouping of officers expanded into much larger networks of former soldiers and their supporters who worked tirelessly to provide German defendants with resources for a proper defense.
By the time Manstein himself was put on trial in August , this network had also made large inroads into the media, providing him with a pool of public support. This reservoir of public support, both in West Germany and Great Britain, was steadily increasing due to the growing tensions of the Cold War. Manstein and other former officers exploited fear of communism in two ways.
First, Manstein struck up a correspondence with the British military commentator, B. Liddell Hart. Liddell Hart had long opposed proceedings against members of the Wehrmacht and became the most powerful advocate for Manstein and his peers in Great Britain. He portrayed Hitler's generals as cool professionals who fought as clean a war as possible against the Soviet Union and omitted the Wehrmacht's enormous crimes from his presentation of the Second World War. The pro-German propaganda espoused by Liddell Hart and others of his political persuasion was complemented by the ways in which Manstein explained the war in the East.
Here, the vocabulary utilized by the Nazis though shorn of its overt racism was employed to legitimate the German-Soviet war. Manstein spoke of the "European mission" behind the war, a reference to the rescue of western Christendom from "Asiatic" Bolsheviks p. Such notions carried special weight during the early days of the Cold War.
The offensive launched by Manstein and his peers and their supporters effectively minimized the Army's crimes in the East, as it appeared self-evident that if any of the combatants had committed atrocities during the war, it was the "barbaric" East, not the "civilized" West. By referring to the war as essentially defensive, Manstein pointed to the absurdity of prosecuting him for a war that the West was preparing to fight all over again. While these two strategies played well in the court of public opinion, within the actual court of law, Manstein and his peers developed a different strategy to absolve themselves of responsibility for their conduct.
They tried to separate the war against the Soviet Union into two different campaigns: a military one, in which they exercised authority, and an ideological effort, which they had no power to influence. This dual strategy most concretely manifested itself in the Army's attempts to disassociate itself from the Einsatzgruppen.
While preparing for the General Staff's defense during the initial Nuremberg Trial, Manstein wrote, "the thought that military leaders were connected with the measures of the S. This question became one of the central issues of Manstein's own trial, and as Wrochem persuasively argues, the names Manstein and Otto Ohlendorf the former commander of Einsatzgruppe D assumed powerful symbolic weight both within and outside of the courtroom, with the former standing for the "clean" Wehrmacht and the latter for the criminal SS.
As Wrochem makes clear, the strategies employed by Manstein and his peers found a wide-ranging resonance in West German public opinion and during the s and s, support for the interned Wehrmacht elite remained strong. Adenauer himself recognized the groundswell of support reserved particularly for Manstein and was able to link his discharge to the inclusion of a re-militarized West Germany in the Western Alliance. Wrochem tirelessly reconstructs the negotiations between Bonn and London concerning Manstein's release as an aspect of the re-admittance of West Germany to western society.
He also convincingly argues that Manstein's release in the Federal Republic carried hefty symbolic weight, as it signaled the welcome of all former Wehrmacht soldiers into the new state. The past was now forgotten or sanitized and re-worked to such an extent that it bore little relation to the reality of the war of annihilation. Wrochem has provided an extremely important and detailed study of how the German Vernichtungskrieg in the East was waged and then how a neutered version of this conflict was transmitted to West German society.
He has effectively tied together several very important issues into one generally readable work. At times, his detail becomes a bit overpowering and Manstein himself periodically disappears from the book, but these minor caveats fail to detract seriously from a major contribution to field. Citation: Jeff Rutherford. Mehr Angst vor dem Offizier als vor dem Feind? Reviewed by Brian G. The first of these maintains that the Prussians entered the war with a seriously deficient tactical doctrine that privileged linear assaults at bayonet point over firepower.
This doctrine, it is argued, led to such catastrophic losses in the early engagements of the conflict that it had to be modified substantially during the course of the war. The second proposition is that these tactics could only have been implemented because they were executed by troops who--through brutal discipline and fear of their commanders--had been transformed into virtual robots, obeying orders in a state of numb acquiescence.
The first view comes with the imprimatur of a highly placed and unexpected source--the history of the Prussian involvement in the Seven Years War produced by the historical section of the Prussian General Staff in the years around He claims that the doctrine developed by Frederick II before the outbreak of war was more flexible than generally recognized and that, in any case, Prussian units on the battlefield were thoroughly pragmatic in their tactical methods. The former proposition is somewhat unpersuasive; despite the author's best efforts to find nuance in Frederick's statements, it remains clear that the Prussian king was strongly convinced of the overwhelming merits of a well-delivered bayonet charge, which was not an entirely new perspective in the s.
His approach was based partly on calculations that a unit advancing rapidly through the relatively narrow "killing zone" in front of the defending forces effective musket range was little more than one hundred yards would sustain fewer losses than if it had paused to engage in a firefight with its opponents. Primarily, however, Frederick's position was based on psychology and a belief that opposing forces would break and run rather than face the point of the bayonet--though expressed in somewhat more sophisticated terms, Frederick shared the view that Corporal Jones of the Walmington-on-Sea Home Guard articulated in the BBC series, "Dad's Army": cold steel was the ultimate weapon because "they don't like it up 'em.
He provides a detailed analysis of the Battle of Prague May 6, to illustrate this point a map would have been helpful in illustrating his narrative and suggests that the same flexibility in combat could be found throughout the war. Bayonet charges on the classic Frederician model were far from unknown, but neither were they an obsession. He points out that this is not surprising; for all Frederick's theorizing, the Prussian army continued to be trained in ways established by his father, who had focused on maximizing the rate of fire attained by the troops.
Bayonet tactics were not integrated into training even though the Prussian army had a standardized drill and training manual and rare experiments with bayonet tactics during exercises were somewhat impractical parade ground drills rather than serious training for the battlefield. It would be interesting to explore both why the Prussian army apparently failed to its training manual to meet clearly stated royal preferences and why the members of the Prussian General Staff of were happy to articulate a perspective implicitly critical of their otherwise revered "Alter Fritz.
Far from being a troop of brutalized automata, the members of the Prussian soldiery emerge from this examination as men with a genuine sense of professionalism and pride in their service. While perfectly capable of feeling fear in battle, they were sustained by sincere religious sentiment of a distinctly Protestant hue though the content of this religion was varied, ranging from the internalization of pietist principles to a somewhat un-Protestant folk religion of incantations and instrumental prayer. Units that were not directly involved in action were able to watch the unfolding battle with informed interest.
They were also sustained by patriotic sentiment albeit a patriotism strongly focused on the king rather than more abstract ideals. Carefully targeted material inducements also helped to sustain fighting spirit. For instance, he tends to discount the role of summary executions in keeping troops in line. Instead, he suggests the existence of a set of unwritten conventions shared by officers and men over what it was reasonable to expect soldiers to do in battle a proposition which deserves further examination.
Overall, he makes a persuasive case. One can certainly quibble at the margins. Accidents of documentary survival mean that the voices from the ranks come from limited geographical areas, all of which were "heartlands" of the Prussian kingdom. The bulk of the evidence examined here also relates to the first two years of the war. It is reasonable to wonder whether the balance between coercion and more positive sentiments would have been the same for units consisting of men formerly in the Saxon service who had been obliged to change sides after capture.
One also wonders about the mood of Mecklenburgers forced into the Prussian army, or of the increasingly makeshift units cobbled together as the war continued and casualties soared. Nevertheless, it is an important corrective to exaggerated claims about the brutality of the Prussian military still made in modern research. Indeed, this book would have benefited from being more extensive. The content of training and discipline in peacetime and away from the battlefield is important but gets less coverage than it deserves. Was there a specific ethos for noncommissioned officers overrepresented among the voices from the ranks, key figures in imposing discipline and probably in setting the tone of individual units?
Furthermore, what happened after peace returned? As he points out, however, it dates from the s, after the Peace of Hubertusberg and does not necessarily reflect Frederick's views in the s.
- The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, Vol. 4: Mormonism and Early Christianity;
- Project MUSE - Recently Published Works in Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
- List of books about Nazi Germany - Wikiwand.
- Ferocious Reality: Documentary according to Werner Herzog (Visible Evidence).
One hopes that he may explore these issues further in future writings. Citation: Brian G. Hildegard Stratmann. Hildegard Stratmann's book focuses on the socialization of young Germans while they prepared to become teachers in the elementary schools of the Kaiserreich. Her interest is not the formal coursework undertaken by prospective teachers, but rather their relationships with the people around them, including administrators and teachers at teacher training institutions, and their families, classmates, landlords, and other townspeople.
Auch dem aus Euskirchen stammenden Dr. Nachdem ihr Sohn Ende erfahren hatte, dass sein ehemaliger Nachbar Dr. Moritz Schweizer, der vor dem 2. Mai Vielleicht ist es gut so. Wie das war, davon kann sich die Welt keinen Begriff machen Es handelt sich um den Sohn des letzten Euskirchener Synagogenvorstehers, der hier am Er schilderte mir seine die Verfolgung und Flucht, aber endlich auch seine Rettung. Sein Schicksal spiegelt die damalige Kriegssituation Nach der Internierung in England bot man uns an, die Insel zu verlassen. Unser Ziel erfuhren wir allerdings erst nach einer Woche Quelle: Euskirchener Wochenspiegel vom Falk , die heute auch in ihrem Geburtsort Krefeld keinem ein Begriff ist.
Falk erinnert Hiervon gibt es sogar ein vergilbtes Foto Dabei wird sie von dem damals bekannten Musiker und Komponisten Wilhelm Rettich am Klavier begleitet. Der dann erfolgte Neubau ging am Des Synagogenbrandes vom Euskirchener Veranstaltung zum In einem Interview erfuhr ich, dass er im Mai den belichteten, aber noch nicht entwickelten Film in den Briefkaten der im Aufbau begriffenen Stadtverwaltung geworfen hatte.
Mai , Grundsteinlegung am November und Einweihung der Synagoge am August Ausreisen gewaltbereiter Salafisten in Kriegsgebiete nehmen weiter zu. Eine Fachtagung nimmt beide Szenen in den Blick. Im Mittelpunkt steht der Beginn eines Lebensweges in rechtsextremistische oder islamistische Gruppen und Gedankenwelten: der Einstiegsprozess. Was lockt? Was motiviert zum Handeln — auch zur Gewalt? English Version. It seems more fairly volatile and in my opinion it is not really informative By the way: Had Mr Shaw any contact with the Jewish communities of the places that he visited during the few hours?
Especially in the areas near Rhine and Moselle there are numerous of books, steles and commemorative plaques as well as memorials. Nearly every German town, city or village has now trying to reconstruct their recent history It's a pity if readers of this article get a false impression of the attitude of the population in the Rhine-Moselle region. But as a German I must really confess that nothing ought to be forgotten. Especially the youth must always be reminded of the German-Jewish past Juli sehr geehrt.
Ab war im Kloster — im Norden von Luxemburg bei Ufflingen frz. Oktober begannen die Deportationen: teils vom Hauptbahnhof in Luxemburg-Stadt, teils direkt von Kloster. Dies war ein bedeutendes Zeichen, denn seit dem 1. April geht es u. Kriegsende — Durch die Voreifel zum Rhein In meinen NEWS vom Diese bezahlten Priester und Weihwarte als beamtete Mittler zwischen uns und Gott lehnen wir ab.
Verdienstorden des Landes für Ehrenamtler aus Euskirchen
Er bedarf dazu keiner besonderen Weihwarte. Der Vater der Sippe muss naturnotwendig die Namensgebung vollziehen, die Totenrede kann und darf nur der Kamerad der Truppe halten. Auch in der 6. In einer Serie der Aachener Volkszeitung fasste ich diesen Sachverhalt kurz am Juni zusammen. Januar " waren unbedingt erforderlich. Jahrhunderts ", von Nietzsche oder Hitler waren vorgeschrieben. Dort fachte man dann damit das Herdfeuer an Wahrscheinlich freut sich jeder Autor, wenn seine Publikationen beachtet oder irgendwie zur Kenntnis genommen werden. Die Leser meiner seit laufenden Homepage www.
Geschichte des Judentums in der Eifel und Voreifel. Nationalsozialismus und 2. Weltkrieg in der Eifel und Voreifel. Comic: Seite 6. Comic Seite Sein Name ist Manfred Lammel. Insgesamt handelt es sich um eine heimatkundlich wichtige Arbeit. Erst das 9. Matthias Bertram, Vor dem Einmarsch der deutschen Besatzungstruppen Mai lebten rund Juden in Luxemburg. Kollaborationsfreudig: Diese war nach Kriegsausbruch und dem Exil der Regierung im Mai vom Parlament eingesetzt worden.
Notiert wird mit Genugtuung in dem Resolutionstext, dass es laut dem Artuso-Bericht keine offizielle Kollaboration der Exilregierung mit der Besatzungsmacht gab Das war der Anfang ihrer historischen und genealogischen Forschungsarbeit der in Kfar Saba bei Tel Aviv lebenden, pensionierten Kinderkrankenschwester. Wer rettete ihr das Leben?
Jemand muss die Sterns versteckt haben Das Leben der Tana Stern passt zwischen zwei Aktendeckel. Geburtsurkunde, ein Stapel alter Fotos, ein wenig Korrespondenz, das meiste davon nur in Kopien vorhanden. Ich suche dringend Angaben zu der Familie, bei der sie untertauchen konnte.
Schon die ersten Leseproben stellen das eigentliche Problem in den Vordergrund. Mayer mit ihrem in Euskirchen lebenden Vater Isidor Mayer beinhaltet. Die Thematik war insofern ansprechend, weil Martha Blum vom Sie starb am Ihre in Euskirchen lebenden Eltern kamen in Theresienstadt um. Die Synagogengemeinde Saar , K. Marcel Wainstock l. Jahrhundert weit verbreitet und galt auch noch nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland als anerkanntes Zentralfach des Gesamtunterrichts der Grundschule.
Es entsprach durchaus dem damaligen Zeitgeist. Heimatkunde ist immer an einen bestimmten Standort gebunden. Am Dienstag, dem Juni, referiert Dr. Ihr Engagement hat meinen ganzen Respekt. Jahrestag der Befreiung von Krieg und nationalsozialistischer Gewalt gedenken Ziel meiner heutigen Darstellung soll der Hinweis auf die kleine Kehillah von Split sein, deren Synagoge von Touristen nur selten besucht wird. Deutschsprachige Berichte sind selten. Dennoch sollte man auch die Selbstdarstellung der Community zur Kenntnis nehmen Gerne komme ich dem Wunsch der wenigen Kehillah-Mitglieder nach, meinen Besuch auf dieser regionalhistorischen Homepage darzustellen, und sicher wird dieser inhaltliche Exkurs zur bevorstehenden Urlaubszeit Interesse finden.
Die Kehillah von Split 2. Die Synagoge von Split 3. Sie waren wegen der Inquisition seit aus Spanien geflohen. Ende des Jahrhunderts erreichten die ersten spanisch-sephardischen Juden auf ihrer Flucht vor der Inquisition diesen Raum. Nur hier gibt es ein unscheinbares Holocaust Memorial. Er stammt aus dem Jahre Andere sind flach und entsprechen leicht geneigten Platten. Ziel meiner heutigen Darstellung soll der Hinweis auf die kleine Kehillah von Split sein, deren Synagoge - im Gegensatz zur bekannteren in Dubrovnik - von Touristen nur selten besucht wird.
Nach dem 2. Weltkrieg zu tun hat. Dies hatte mit einem Brief zu tun, den mir ein Sammler neulich zuschickte Der in Roggendorf Mechernich lebende Willi P. Es handelt sich um ein Relikt aus der Kriegszeit , das er neulich wieder auf seinem Dachboden gefunden hatte:. Mehr habe ich nie erfahren Dezember :. Dierdorf — Newyork-Zitti. Alte Synagoge von Dierdorf erbaut Simon, reiste ein Jahr nach dessen Tod nach New York.
Da ca. Viele Juden wanderten bereits Mitte des Jahrhunderts nach Amerika aus. Die erste Synagoge der heute etwa 6. Dennoch war ihnen alles fremd geworden. Es gab jedoch auch freundschaftliche Begegnungen. Dies gilt u. Zuvor befand er sich im benachbarten Waldgebiet der Stotzheimer Hardtburg.
Klaus H. Der letzte Grabstein wurde nach dem 2. Weltkrieg noch von dem Pfarrer aus Kreuzweingarten, Nikola Reinartz, sichergestellt. Sie erinnern an die Familien Kahn, Baer und Aaron. Dies bezieht sich auf die ersten 11 Juden im Jahre bis zum Holocaust. Der Friedhof steht seit dem 8. September unter Denkmalschutz. Der kleine Friedhof zeigte sich zur Zeit der Besichtigung als gepflegt. Folgende Grabsteine findet man vor:. Mai berichtete der Journalist Peter W. April Strafanzeige gegen Unbekannt. Weiterhin wurde der Sachverhalt an den Bonner Staatsschutz weitergeleitet.
Oh no, there's been an error
Juni gibt es das inzwischen Vieles muss historisch bezweifelt oder gar korrigiert werden. Und sollten von hier aus Impulse zum kritischen Nachdenken erfolgen? Juni hin:. Dirk Mulder l. Juli , Mai und In der Zeit vom Dabei wird sie von dem damals bekannten Musiker und Komponisten Wilhelm Rettich am Klavier begleitet YouTube: An extinguished voice heard once again. April Nicht nur im Rheinland ist diese Institution wegen der Vielseitigkeit der Vermittlung bekannt. Foto v. Mit einer kritischen Ausgabe ist in absehbarer Zeit zu rechnen Was ist heute anders?
Weil es keine zwei gleichen Kriege, keine zwei gleichen Frieden und keine zwei gleichen Gesellschaften gibt. Was er meint ist: Jede historische Situation ist neu und einzigartig. Man kann aus der Geschichte nicht lernen, weil sie sich eben nicht wiederholt. Zu sagen, Geschichte wiederholt sich, weil Krieg und Frieden aufeinander folgen, ist, als wenn man sagt, dass alle Tage gleich sind, weil unweigerlich auf die Dunkelheit der Nacht die Helligkeit des Tages folgt.
Der Artikel ist sicher nicht exemplarisch, aber in Bezug auf die eigentliche Fragestellung durchaus interessant:. Hier werden zum Beispiel im Rette uns durch Deine Gerechtigkeit.
Betrachte unser Leben, wir sind hilflos und armselig. Dein ist unsere Seele. Du hast uns geschaffen. Habe Mitleid mit unserer Qual. Oh Gott, rette uns in Deinem Namen Die Feierlichkeiten am So konnte u. Aber das war es auch! Dezember erkennbar. Der 1. Sederabend in Bergen-Belsen German Version. Meinen NEWS vom In der letzten Woche beantragte der Kath.
Zwei kleine Fernsehfilme fassen zudem den Sachverhalt zusammen. Wie ich bereits in meinen NEWS vom Hier fasste ich noch einmal die wesentlichen Forschungsergebnisse zusammen und konnte danach im kleineren Diskussionskreis neue Fakten sammeln. Martinus, Kirchheim. Martinus in Kirchheim, wo dann um Uhr eine Hl. Die 9th Armored Division 9. Dezember - dem Tag, als die Ardennenoffensive begann -, bis zum Derzeit findet die gut lesbare inhaltliche Wiedergabe reges Interesse.
Und, sagt sie, sie kenne den Josef, von dem im Vortrag ja auch die Rede gewesen sei. Erst jetzt werden die Schilderungen der Jahre publik Erster Eindruck der Historiker vgl. Als ich am Weltkrieg in Europa, nicht nur das Interesse der Leser, sondern auch westdeutscher Historiker wecken. Im gesamten Altkreis Euskirchen wurden durch unmittelbare und mittelbare Kriegsereignisse vor allem die Wohngebiete stark in Mitleidenschaft gezogen. Von den vor Kriegsbeginn vorhandenen Weltkrieges in der Eifelregion Aber auch regionalhistorische Publikationen sind interessant, weil die Fakten, Fotos und Dokumente heimatspezifisch und somit exemplarisch nachvollziehbar sind.
Die Herausgabe der ersten 3 Dokumentationen mit etwa Seiten sowie fast 1. Trotz vieler Auflagen sind sie zurzeit vergriffen und nur noch bei Amazon und Ebay antiquarisch zu erwerben. Noch bis zum 3. Architektonische und technische Zeichnungen rekonstruieren visuell das Stammlager Auschwitz, das Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau und das Nebenlager Auschwitz-Monowitz.
In der Zeit vom Februar bis zum Bis zum 4.