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Forelle, Garage, Kassette, Kusine. Verbs ending in -ieren, mostly derived from French, are also stressed on the second last syllable, e. Stress Some of these variations are considered standard, not dialect; only these variants are dealt with here. In the north of Germany many long vowels in closed syllables i.
Glas, Tag, Zug. In the north of Germany final g is pronounced like German ch both ich- and ach-Laut, depending on the preceding sound , e.
Tag, Teig, Weg, zog, Zug. Zeitung, Rechnung. Pfeffer, Pfund. If you are having trouble pronouncing pf in such words, simply say Feffer and Fund and no one will even notice you are not saying pf. In the south of Germany and in Austria k, p and t are commonly pronounced in a way that makes them barely distinguishable from g, b and d respectively, e.
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There are very few exceptions to this, and they are dealt with here. In a minority of words a, e and o are doubled to show they are long, e. Saal, Beet, Boot. Otherwise a single consonant following a, e and o usually indicates that those vowels are long, e. Tag, Gen, Kot, Vater, beten, boten. Conversely, a short vowel is usually followed by two or more consonants, which may be the same or different, e.
It appears in printed matter as two dots over the vowel, but in handwriting is best written as two short strokes, not dots. Umlauts are only possible on the vowels a, o, u and the diphthong au, which are all vowel sounds pronounced in the back of the Chapter 2 Spelling This is best illustrated by comparing the singular with the plural of certain nouns, e. In the examples given, the change in vowel also causes a change in pronunciation of the ch from the hard to the soft variant.
Bruder, Mutter, Sofa. Adjectives of nationality are not capitalized, but nouns are, e. There is no limit to how long such compounds can be in German, e. Gerichtsberichterstatter legal correspondent, lit. When a hyphen is used, as in an Sonn- und Feiertagen on Sundays and holidays and auf- und zumachen to open and shut , it is understood that The reform, called die Rechtschreibreform, has aroused a great deal of controversy.
Although all government agencies, schools and publishers adhere to the new recommendations, many individuals refuse to do so, and of course anything published prior to is in the old spelling. The differences are, however, minimal. The only other important spelling change relates to the use of capital letters where a certain inconsistency had evolved. It was decided that any word that can possibly be perceived as a noun should be capitalized, something which had previously been somewhat inconsistent, e.
The other changes are so trivial as not to warrant mention here, but if at times you see inconsistencies in spelling e. Just take note whether your dictionary, any other textbook you are consulting or book you are reading was printed pre or post This book does of course observe the new spelling. The new spelling This is more usual than kah, ah-Umlaut, em, peh, ef, teh, which is however also possible. Letters of the alphabet are neuter, e. It is only the comma which is used somewhat differently but a couple of other punctuation marks can differ slightly from English usage too.
Only those punctuation conventions that differ from English are described here. In German you must always insert a comma between an independent and a dependent clause, however short they are, e. Er wusste, dass ich es war. He knew that it was me. When joining two independent main clauses by means of a coordinating conjunction, a comma must be inserted between the two if the second clause has its own subject, e.
Chapter 3 Punctuation The post spelling rules have introduced two small changes here. Just with the coordinating conjunctions oder or and und and a comma has been made optional even if the subject is mentioned see Meine Festplatte funktioniert nicht mehr richtig , und ich muss sie reparieren lassen. My hard disk is no longer working properly and I have to get it repaired. The other small change since is that a comma is now also optional before an infinitive clause see Er hat probiert , ihr zu helfen.
He tried to help her. No comma was ever required when the infinitive clause was not expanded beyond zu plus an infinitive, e. Er hat probiert zu helfen. He tried to help. When a subordinate clause precedes a main clause in a complex sentence, the comma is an indispensable reading tool to indicate which verb belongs to which clause, e.
If he had helped me back then, I would have helped him with moving house yesterday. But even when the order of the clauses is reversed, a comma must of course be used, e. I would have helped him with moving house yesterday, if he had helped me back then. This is definitely not the case in German. Der Kuli, mit dem ich den Scheck unterschreiben wollte, war leer. Um Gottes Willen! It is also used after imperatives in German, although you may find some inconsistency in use here, e. Setz dich! Sit down. Come over to us after dinner if you feel like it.
Traditionally an exclamation mark was used at the beginning of a letter after the name of the addressee, and the first word in the next line was capitalized, as were all familiar pronominal forms i. Du, Dich, Dir, Dein , e. Lieber Franz! Ich habe Deinen Brief vom Dear Franz, Thank you very much for your letter of the 11th of March. These days a comma has replaced the exclamation mark but the first word of the next line is not capitalized as in English, because the first word in the letter is regarded as the beginning of the sentence, and all forms related to du are written with small letters when not at the beginning of a sentence, e.
Lieber Franz, ich habe deinen Brief vom Inflections are grammatical endings. The plural endings of nouns books, children, oxen and the endings of the various persons of the verb I go, he goes are examples of inflectional endings that both English and German share. Case is another form of inflection. At its simplest level case is the distinction between the subject the nominative case , the direct object the accusative case and the indirect object the dative case, i. Der Vater hat seiner Tochter eine Email geschickt. The father nom. This sentence shows case being applied to nouns, der, seiner and eine being the indicators not only of the gender of their respective nouns, but also of their case, something which English can only indicate with word order.
But look at this variant: Seiner Tochter hat der Vater eine Email geschickt. This sentence means the same as the former although the connotation is different, i. The forms seiner and der clearly indicate who is doing the sending the subject or nominative and who the email is being sent to the indirect object or dative. One advantage of case, as this simple example illustrates, is that it can give the speaker a greater choice of word order. English has only preserved separate case forms in its pronouns, i. Chapter 4 Case I visited him acc. Who lives here? Wer wohnt hier?
Who m did you visit in Berlin? Wen hast du in Berlin besucht? Who did you give the cheque to? Wem hast du den Scheck gegeben? But the point is that these distinctions are still very much alive and kicking in German and contribute to what English speakers find difficult about learning German.
But once you have got your mind around the concept of case, it is extremely logical and getting it right is one of the great satisfactions of learning German. Adjectives take case endings, and verbs and prepositions can require that the pronouns and nouns that follow them take either the accusative, dative or genitive case, e. Unser alter nom. Nachbar hat einen sehr netten acc.
Our elderly neighbour has a very nice son.
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Er hat mir geholfen. The verb helfen takes a dative object.
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He helped me. These few cases need to be noted. Ein toller Film, nicht? If an isolated noun is in fact the object of an otherwise unuttered sentence, as in abbreviated answers to questions, the accusative or dative may be required, e.
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A:Was liest du? B: Einen Roman. A:What are you reading. B:A novel. A:Wem hast du das Geld gegeben? B: Dem Sohn. A:Who did you give the money to? B:The son. People are addressed in the nominative case, e. Was ist passiert, mein lieber Freund? What has happened, my dear friend? Complements of the following so-called copula verbs are in the nominative case; copula verbs take the nom. Er ist ein sehr guter Lehrer. He is a very good teacher. Er wird ein ausgezeichneter Athlet. Er scheint ein ausgezeichneter Athlet zu sein. He seems to be an excellent athlete.
September 8th September Many adverbial expressions denoting a particular point in time or a period of time take the acc. Ich habe den ganzen Tag auf dich gewartet. I waited all day for you. For prepositions that take the acc. In more formal sounding German the -s ending is applied to the names of towns and countries but in everyday German is replaced by von, e. The genitive case For prepositions that take the gen.
Herrn Joachim Polenz see n-nouns 6. A considerable number of commonly used verbs take an indirect object, i. Thank you. Die Krankenschwester hat dem Patienten nicht geholfen. The nurse did not help the patient. Other common verbs that take a dative object are: antworten to answer s. For prepositions that take the dat. This is significant in German as a noun standing in apposition to another must be in the same case as the noun to which it refers, e.
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Nouns in apposition In Germany, where there is a long tradition of learning Latin and Greek at school, the order NGDA is traditionally used, as this is the order most usual in the learning of classical languages. This order is also the explanation for the cases commonly being called in German der erste, zweite, dritte and vierte Fall respectively, e.
Direktor steht im dritten Fall — Direktor is in the dative case in the last example in 4. Some textbooks for beginners adopt the order NADG, which is the order in which you normally learn the cases, as the genitive is usually regarded as the most difficult case to learn as well as being the least common. Some textbooks also apply the order MNF to genders instead of the usual MFN when setting out paradigms like the above. This can be very confusing so be on the lookout for variation in this respect from book to book.
These articles vary in German according to gender, number and case, as illustrated in 5. Not only articles but other words too can stand in front of nouns and these also vary according to gender, number and case, e. All these words, together with the articles, are referred to collectively as determiners. Depending on the determiner before the noun, any adjective that follows it will also be subject to a variety of endings see 8. Exkurse zu einzelnen Stellen des Neuen Testaments : Abhandlungen z. Theologie u. Lehrbuch der Kolloidchemie. Mathematische Instrumente.
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