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Seller Inventory B The criteria and the generated file with the responses about the word selection, with indication, by the specialists, of the criteria which lead them to the selection, were sent to the researchers. After the words were analyzed by the specialized judges, it was chosen, among the ones which presented more agreement, six words from each list to be drawn.
When there was standoff with more than one word in the 6 th position, all the words with the same number of votes were selected. In the total, words remained to be drawn by the student of Industrial Design to be, then, judged by the non specialist judges. Step 4: Criterion analysis by the non specialist judges: a new computer program was created and the pictures with the selected words were presented, one by one, in a computer screen, to be identified familiarity and named elicitation by the children.
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The non specialists judged the stimuli according to the familiarity with the pictures, based on the Scale Likert of familiarity After answering about the picture familiarity, the children were asked to elicit the name of the picture through the question "what is it? The criteria used for the words selection after the non specialist judges' answers were:.
After the analyses of the results by the specialist and non specialist judges, it was determined a list of words with its respective pictures cards, in order to indicate the best words to create an evaluation instrument of phonological evaluation to children speakers of BP. In the search of better words to represent an evaluation instrument, it was used the analysis method by judges with important knowledge of what is being measured.
That judges considered the instrument selected criteria, trying to relate the inclusion of those items with concepts and theoretical relevance To do that, it was performed a descriptive analysis of responses by the specialist judges and the best words were determined, after the mode and the Kappa Concordance Analysis. The criteria used by the judges in the words selection were also analyzed. The percentage of familiarity and correct elicitation for each tested word was obtained from the non specialist judges' evaluation.
The other words were not considered. In the selection of the best words to evaluate the children's phonology, the specialist judges described the criteria which were used for the selection. All doctors speech-language therapists DSLT referred to prefer words with easy representation in pictures and words which belong to the children's vocabulary, avoiding words with difficult definition. Three judges reported they only selected words which were not used in specific Brazilian regions.
The DSLT referred also that they considered the word extension, and all of them preferred shorter words and phonetic and phonological contexts, in order to balance the options. Finally, one of the DSLTs referred some more criteria such as the selection of only lexical coda, justifying that morphological codas plural and infinitive verbs are acquired in a different way; the non use of the suffix "zinho a ", because in lexical phonology it is considered apart words; codas with the "ul" sequence [azul blue ] were not selected, because of their difficult perception; complex coda was also avoided, because it is acquired differently from simple coda.
For the clinical speech-therapist judges CSTJ , the used criteria were basically the same as the ones from the previous group. All the judges chose mainly nouns, because they are easily represented by pictures, and they are considered as stable.
They also considered the inherence of words in the children's vocabulary, with higher communicative value, and they chose shorter and less complex words. The variations in the phonological context, as well as the regional variation were mentioned by one judge. Another judge referred avoiding words related to "bad things".
Regarding the linguists doctors judges LDJ , the common criteria for the three of them were: belonging to the children's vocabulary, being represented by pictures or objects and contemplating different phonological contexts. One of the judges made a more detailed analysis. The phonological contexts received more attention, being observed the height and nasality presence in the previous and posterior vowels, and the accent in the syllable which presented the mentioned phoneme.
For each consonant, it was verified if all the possible vowels were contemplated. It was observed a tendency for nouns, justified by a judge because they are easier to form images and they are more punctual, with predomination of the semantic category of animals, house and school objects, parts of the body, colors and numbers. After the results of the judges' analyses, it was performed the Kappa statistical test to verify the agreement among them. By analyzing the agreement among the responses by 11 specialist judges, without considering the groups in which they were organized, it was obtained weak agreement, with Kappa value of 0.
It is believed that weak agreement among the judges might be related to the different criteria used by them. In the total, the involved professionals presented different views about the words' analyses, resulting in a certain divergence among them. The words resulted from the specialized judgment were , which were illustrated and presented individually to the non specialist judges. The best words, classified according to familiarity and elicitation, are presented in Tables 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and 5. An aspect which was highlighted among the results was that the number of right answers for the question which corresponds to picture familiarity was higher than regarding correct elicitation.
The recognition and the correct elicitation of nouns were more favorable than of words which belong to other grammar classes, mainly verbs. In those cases, the researchers used words with higher percentage of recognition. In BP complex onset, the options are restricted in terms of presence in the younger children's vocabulary and, in the performed evaluation, the number of words which were indicated as familiar and correctly elicited by the non specialist judges was limited. According to the possibility, it was decided to indicate two words for complex onset in each position initial and medial.
Thus, the final result of the list of words is indexed below, with some words repetition for some phonemes:. The phonology evaluation requires that the target words to be elicited by children are part of their vocabulary, mainly when the evaluation involves spontaneous naming.
The specialist judges, from all groups, reported in their criteria of word selection, to choose the words which were part of the children's vocabulary to reach targets which were proper to the studied age group. The result with higher number of right answers by the non specialist judges for the analysis was expected to correspond more to familiarity than to elicitation, because it is considered as easier to a child to recognize the target represented in the illustration, than correctly elicit that target.
Observing the typical language acquisition, it is verified that the children's first word with about one year old presents a familiar referent and it is used generically to name objects with some similarity in several situations 6.
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Before the occurrence of the vocabulary spurt, almost half of the words used by children are related to the name of familiar objects The period between 2 and 4 years old corresponds to the development of the naming skill 7. The familiarity and the frequency of the objects in the children's routine are important for them to name them correctly, because those factors influence in the lexical access activation, through short and long term memory 8. As higher the familiarity with the words pictures is, lower is the incidence of naming mistakes 5.
The recognition and the correct elicitation of nouns were more favorable than words which belong to other grammar classes, mainly the verbs. A jagged landscape in a sodium haze.
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Breaks away from the sky. To shelter sparkling eyes. Para proteger os olhos brilhantes. A stolen kiss sends electricity. Um beijo roubado envia eletricidade. It trips a switch for a moment to reveal. Ele dispara um interruptor por um momento para revelar. A vision, a picture of a shared dream. The serpent sea has landed and is crashing at your feet. Reportar un problema. Last activities A. Last edit by.