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Breakfast for Outstationed candidates, Lunch, teas, and snacks included. Get 2 Coaching sessions worth Rs. Get 3 months phone support and lifetime email support from the Trainer. Get the Pre-requisite preparation ebook and videos around 10Gbs worth Rs. The Triple certification fee is included in the fee. Certificate is not charged separately.

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Get to re-attend the course for FREE as an Assist Team Leader for enhancing your skill or incase you do not get clear the certification. Learn to stretch your brain in 67 different leadership and managerial perceptual continuum and flexibility, persuade and negotiate convincingly in the Boardroom, get yourself and others into hypnotic trance, learn around plus NLP transformational patterns to become the Scriptwriter, the Editor, and the Director of the best Movie-YOUR LIFE and to pass on the tools to others.

Certification runs from 3 days to 14 days. His network with highly quality Trainers and Meta coaches spreads across 40 countries. He has strategic partners and operation in Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka currently. Benefits of the Course with the topics.

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The making of your internal Map of reality- How you uniquely experience the world out there. Your meaning making matrix- How you make your world a delight or disaster. How the Brain process information- How you delete, generalize and distort information in your world. Reclaiming your Neurology: How your state of mind-body-emotion has you, and dictates the quality of your life.

How you can Master your reactions and choose your responses to yourself, others and the world Sensory Acuity-How to be fully present to another person. Listening to the movies of the mind - Noticing what is really going on for others. Eye Accessing Cues - Watch what the eyes say. Physiological pacing - Learn to gain instant rapport, how to meet people in their world people like people who are like themselves. Meta Mind Pacing - How to develop deep connection through a meeting of the minds.

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Defining Meta-Programmes perception filters - Your coping mechanism in the social world that defines your personality- the reason you are, the way you are. Changing Meta-Programmes 4. Understanding and changing limiting beliefs Learn the NLP 6 steps reframe process Conscious reframing, Reframing criticism, Reframing motivation or the lack of it! Meta Yes Belief Change. Assessment Assessing Practitioner Standards for Competency Testing your Knowledge You leave this programme having integrated the learning, confident in the knowledge that you are fully competent to do all this going forward!

You leave this program having integrated the learning, confident in the knowledge that you are fully competent to do all this going forward! Who should attend Are you a CEO who have problem convincing the Board or cant have influence over your colleagues? Do you want to have tools to figure out your clients and colleagues? Are you a Housewife wanting to unleash your potential instead of just running the house? Do you want to grow and contribute to your society?

Are you a Trainer or Speaker who is dissatisfied with your limited knowledge of the cognitive behavioural science for change and tools to WOW your audience? Are you a Teacher who wants to learn how to inspire and empower the kids that will make them love you and adore you? Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing.

Neuropsychologia , 50 8 , Cerebral Cortex , 21 2 , Previous imaging studies of infants' speech perception revealed left-lateralized responses to native language. However, it is unclear if these activations were due to language per se rather than to some low-level acoustic correlate of spoken language. Here we compare native L1 and non-native L2 languages with 3 different nonspeech conditions including emotional voices, monkey calls, and phase scrambled sounds that provide more stringent controls.

Hemodynamic responses to these stimuli were measured in the temporal areas of Japanese 4 month-olds. The results show clear left-lateralized responses to speech, prominently to L1, as opposed to various activation patterns in the nonspeech conditions. Furthermore, implementing a new analysis method designed for infants, we discovered a slower hemodynamic time course in awake infants.

Our results are largely explained by signal-driven auditory processing. However, stronger activations to L1 than to L2 indicate a language-specific neural factor that modulates these responses. This study is the first to discover a significantly higher sensitivity to L1 in 4 month-olds and reveals a neural precursor of the functional specialization for the higher cognitive network.

Assessing signal-driven mechanisms in neonates: Brain responses to temporally and spectrally different sounds. Frontiers in Language Sciences , 2 Here, we tested whether newborns' brains show some evidence of signal-specific lateralization responses using near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS and auditory stimuli that elicits lateralized responses in adults, composed of segments that vary in duration and spectral diversity. We found significantly greater bilateral responses of oxygenated hemoglobin oxy-Hb in the temporal areas for stimuli with a minimum segment duration of 21 ms, than stimuli with a minimum segment duration of ms.

However, we found no evidence for hemispheric asymmetries dependent on the stimulus characteristics. We hypothesize that acoustic-based functional brain asymmetries may develop throughout early infancy, and discuss their possible relationship with brain asymmetries for language. Cerebral lateralization and early speech acquisition: A developmental scenario. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience , 1 3 , We review three competing classes of hypotheses, signal-driven, domain-driven, and learning biases hypotheses regarding the causes of hemispheric specialization for speech processing.

We assess the fit between each of these hypotheses and neuroimaging evidence in speech perception and show that none of the three hypotheses can account for the entire set of observations on its own. However, we argue that they provide a good fit when combined within a developmental perspec- tive. According to our proposed scenario, lateralization for language emerges out of the interaction between pre-existing left--right biases in generic auditory processing signal- driven hypothesis , and a left-hemisphere predominance of particular learning mechanisms learning-biases hypothesis. As a result of thiscompleted developmental process, the native language is represented in the left hemisphere predominantly.

The integrated sce- nario enables to link infant and adult data, and points to many empirical avenues that need to be explored more systematically. Mazuka, R. The development of a phonological illusion: A cross-linguistic study with Japanese and French infants. Developmental Science , 14 4 , Previous work showed that Japanese speakers, unlike French speakers, break up illegal sequences of consonants with illusory vowels: they report hearing abna as abuna.

To study the development of the phonological grammar, we compared Japanese and French infants in a discrimination task. In Experiment 1, we observed that month-old Japanese infants, in contrast with French infants, failed to discriminate phonetically varied sets of abna-type and abuna-type stimuli. In Experiment 2, 8 month-old French and Japanese did not differ significantly from each other. In Experiment 3, we found that, like adults, Japanese infants can discriminate abna from abuna when phonetic variability is reduced single item.

Hence, before having acquired many words of their language, they have grasped enough of their native phonological grammar to constrain their perception of speech sound sequences. Is the word-length effect linked to subvocal rehearsal? Cortex , 47 4 , Evidence for these two components comes, respectively, from the phonological similarity effect and the word-length effect which disappears under articulatory suppression.

But alternative theories posit that subvocal rehearsal is only an optional component of the pSTM. According to them, the depletion of the length effect under articulatory suppression results from the interference of the self-produced speech rather than the disruption of subvocal rehearsal. In order to disentangle these two theories, we tested two patients with a short-term memory deficit.

FA, who presents a pseudoword repetition deficit, and FL, who does not. FA's deficit allowed for the observance of an ecological case of subvocal rehearsal disruption without any articulatory suppression task.

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FA's performance in pSTM tasks reveals as controls a phonological similarity effect, and contrary to controls no word-length effect. In contrast, the second patient, FL, exhibits the same effects as control subjects.


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This result is in accordance with models of pSTM in which the word-length effect emerges from subvocal rehearsal and disappears when this latter is disrupted. Hannagan, T. Holographic String Encoding. Cognitive Science , 35 1 , We translate different well-known schemes into this format, which uses distributed representations and supports constituent structure.

We show that in addition to these brain-like characteristics, performances on a standard benchmark of behavioral effects are improved in the holographic format relative to the standard localist one. This notably occurs because of emerging properties in holographic codes, like transposition and edge effects, for which we give formal demonstrations.

Finally, we outline the limits of the approach as well as its possible future extensions. Where do illusory vowels come from? Journal of Memory and Language , 64 3 , Here, we test whether this phenomenon arises after phoneme categorization or rather interacts with it. We assess the perception of illegal consonant clusters in native speakers of Japanese, Brazilian Portuguese, and European Portuguese, three languages that have similar phonological properties, but that differ with respect to both segmental categories and segmental transition probabilities.

We manipulate the coarticulatory information present in the consonant clusters, and use a forced choice vowel labeling task Experiment 1 and an ABX discrimination task Experiment 2. We find that only Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese listeners show a perceptual epenthesis effect, and, furthermore, that within these participant groups the nature of the perceived epenthetic vowel varies according to the coarticulation cues. These results are consistent with models that integrate phonotactic probabilities within perceptual categorization, and are problematic for two-step models in which the repair of illegal sequences follows that of categorization.

Templatic features for modeling phoneme acquisition. This code is obtained by computing the similarity between speech sounds and stored syllable-sized templates. We show that this code yields a better linear separation of phonemes than the standard MFCC code. Additional experiments show that the code is tuned to a particular language, and is able to use temporal cues for the purpose of phoneme recognition.

Optimal templates seem to correspond to chunks of speech of around ms containing transitions between phonemes or syllables. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Communication via Pointing. Plos One , 6 3 , e It sets up a three-way relationship between a subject who points, an addressee and an object. Yet psychophysical and neuroimaging studies have focused on non-communicative pointing, which implies a two-way relationship between a subject and an object without the involvement of an addressee, and makes such gesture comparable to touching or grasping.

Thus, experimental data on the communicating function of pointing remain scarce. Here, we examine whether the communicative value of pointing modifies both its behavioral and neural correlates by comparing pointing with or without communication. We found that when healthy participants pointed repeatedly at the same object, the communicative interaction with an addressee induced a spatial reshaping of both the pointing trajectories and the endpoint variability.

Our finding supports the hypothesis that a change in reference frame occurs when pointing conveys a communicative intention. In addition, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using H2O15 PET-scan showed that pointing when communicating with an addressee activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the right medial prefrontal cortex, in contrast to pointing without communication. Such a right hemisphere network suggests that the communicative value of pointing is related to processes involved in taking another person's perspective.

This study brings to light the need for future studies on communicative pointing and its neural correlates by unraveling the three-way relationship between subject, object and an addressee. Boruta, L. Testing the robustness of online word segmentation: effects of linguistic diversity and phonetic variation. Accordingly, they implicitly assume that children know how to undo phonetic variation when they learn to extract words from speech. Moreover, whereas models of language acquisition should perform similarly across languages, evaluation is often limited to English samples.

Using child-directed corpora of English, French and Japanese, we evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art statistical models given inputs where phonetic variation has not been reduced. To do so, we measure segmentation robustness across different levels of segmental variation, simulating systematic allophonic variation or errors in phoneme recognition. We show that these models do not resist an increase in such variations and do not generalize to typologically different languages. From the perspective of early language acquisition, the results strengthen the hypothesis according to which phonological knowledge is acquired in large part before the construction of a lexicon.

Peperkamp, S. Perception of predictable stress: A cross-linguistic investigation. Journal of Phonetic , 38 3 , These findings are discussed in light of current theoretical models of speech perception. Parlato-Oliveira, E. Plasticity of illusory vowel perception in Brazilian-Japanese bilinguals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 6 , Here, several populations of Japanese-Brazilian bilinguals are tested, using an explicit vowel identification task experiment 1 , and an implicit categorization and sequence recall task experiment 2.

Overall, second-generation immigrants, who first acquired Japanese at home and Brazilian during childhood after age 4 showed a typical Brazilian pattern of result and so did simultaneous bilinguals, who were exposed to both languages from birth on. In contrast, late bilinguals, who acquired their second language in adulthood, exhibited a pattern corresponding to their native language. In addition, an influence of the second language was observed in the explicit task of Exp. These results are compared to other studies of phonological representations in adopted children or immigrants, and discussed in relation to the role of age of acquisition and sociolinguistic factors.

C Acoustical Society of America. How rich is consciousness? The partial awareness hypothesis Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 14 7 , Here, we argue that the empirical evidence for phenomenal consciousness without access is equivocal, resulting either from a confusion between phenomenal and unconscious contents, or from an impression of phenomenally rich experiences arising from illusory contents. We propose a refined account of access that relies on a hierarchy of representational levels and on the notion of partial awareness, whereby lower and higher levels are accessed independently.

Reframing of the issue of dissociable forms of consciousness into dissociable levels of access provides a more parsimonious account of the existing evidence. In addition, the rich phenomenology illusion can be studied and described in terms of testable cognitive mechanisms. Kouider, S. Cerebral bases of subliminal speech priming. Neuroimage , 49 1 , Here we used a subliminal speech priming method in combination with fMRI to investigate which regions of the cerebral network for language can respond in the absence of awareness.

Participants performed a lexical decision task on target items preceded by subliminal primes, which were either phonetically identical or different from the target. Moreover, the prime and target could be spoken by the same speaker or by two different speakers. Word repetition reduced the activity in the insula and in the left superior temporal gyrus.

Although the priming effect on reaction times was independent of voice manipulation, neural repetition suppression was modulated by speaker change in the superior temporal gyrus while the insula showed voice-independent priming. These results provide neuroimaging evidence Of Subliminal priming for spoken words and inform us on the first, unconscious stages of speech perception. Limits on bilingualism revisited: Stress "deafness" in simultaneous French-Spanish bilinguals.

In all three tasks, the performance of the group of simultaneous bilinguals was intermediate between that of native speakers of Spanish on the one hand and French late learners of Spanish on the other hand. Correlation analyses showed that the variables explaining language dominance are linked to early language exposure. These findings are discussed in light of theories of language processing in bilinguals. Teichmann, M. The role of the striatum in phonological processing. Evidence from early stages of Huntington's disease Cortex , 45 7 , According to the claim that language processing is subdivided into a lexical memory store and a computational rule system Pinker, several studies on word morphology e.

However, little is known about whether the striatum is involved in phonological operations and whether its role in linguistic rule application generalizes to phonological processing. We investigated this issue by assessing perceptual compensation for assimilation rules in a model of striatal disorders, namely in the early stages of Huntington's disease HD. In Experiment 1 we used a same-different task with isolated words to evaluate whether phoneme perception is intact in HD.

In Experiment 2 a word detection task in phrasal contexts allowed for assessing both phoneme perception and perceptual compensation for the French regressive assimilation rule. Results showed that HD patients have normal performance with both phoneme perception in isolated words and regressive assimilation rules. However, in phrasal contexts they display reduced abilities of phoneme discrimination.

These findings challenge the striatum-rule claim and suggest a more fine-grained function of striatal structures in linguistic rule processing. Alternative explanatory frameworks of the striatum-language link are discussed. Skoruppa, K. Language-specific stress perception by 9-month-old French and Spanish infants.

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Developmental Science , 12 6 , In this paper, we examine the perception of a non-segmental feature, i. We show that language-specific differences in the perception of stress likewise arise during the first year of life. Specifically, 9-month-old Spanish infants successfully distinguish between stress-initial and stress-final pseudo-words, while French infants of this age show no sign of discrimination.

In a second experiment using multiple tokens of a single pseudo-word, French infants of the same age successfully discriminate between the two stress patterns, showing that they are able to perceive the acoustic correlates of stress. Their failure to discriminate stress patterns in the first experiment thus reflects an inability to process stress at an abstract, phonological level. Episodic accessibility and morphological processing: Evidence from long-term auditory priming.

Acta Psychologica , 1 , A critical piece of evidence that could separate the two accounts rests on the existence of full morphological priming, where morphologically related words yield the same amount of priming as repeated words. In this study. In order to minimize the involvement of episodic factors, we increased the prime-target interval and decreased their physical similarity by introducing a change in speaker's voice. We show that under conditions that minimize access to episodic features, the magnitude of repetition priming decreased to attain that of morphological priming.

Importantly, morphological and repetition priming for words were always observed in the absence of any semantic and phonological priming, suggesting that they cannot be reduced to formal or meaning overlap. Our results support the view that long-term priming taps both abstract lexical codes with a morphological format and episodic memory components. Further, they show that episodic influences on priming can be modulated by prime-target interval and physical similarity.

Varadarajan, B. Unsupervised Learning of Acoustic Subword Units. The algorithm, originally proposed for unsupervised learning of allophonic variations within a given phoneme set, has been adapted to learn without any knowledge of the phonemes. An evaluation methodology is also proposed, whereby the state-sequence that aligns to a test utterance is transduced in an automatic manner to a phoneme-sequence and compared to its manual transcription. The role of the striatum in sentence processing: Evidence from a priming study in early stages of Huntington's disease.

Neuropsychologia , 46 1 , Based on linguistic claims that language processing implies both recovery of lexical information and application of combinatorial rules it has been shown that striatal damaged patients have difficulties applying conjugation rules while lexical recovery of irregular forms is broadly spared e. A neural dissociation within language: Evidence that the mental dictionary is part of declarative memory, and that grammatical rules are processed by the procedural system.

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9 2 , Here we bolstered the striatum-rule hypothesis by investigating lexical abilities and rule application at the phrasal level. Both processing aspects were assessed in a model of striatal dysfunction, namely Huntington's disease HD. Using a semantic priming task we compared idiomatic prime sentences involving lexical access to whole phrases e. Target words that were either idiom-related e. HD patients displayed selective abnormalities with passivated sentences whereas priming was normal with idioms and sentences containing only word changes.

We argue that the role of the striatum in sentence processing specifically pertains to the application of syntactic movement rules whereas it is not involved in canonical rules required for active structures or in lexical processing aspects. Our findings support the striatum-rule hypothesis but suggest that it should be refined by tracking the particular kind of language rules depending on striatal computations. Optical Imaging of infants' neurocognitive development: Recent advances and perspectives. Developmental Neurobiology , 68 6 , During the past 10 years, NIRS measurement of the developing brain has rapidly expanded.

In this article, a brief discussion of the general principles of NIRS, including its technical advantages and limitations, is followed by a detailed review of the role played so far by NIRS in the study of infant perception and cognition, including language, and visual and auditory functions. Results have highlighted, in particular, the developmental changes of cerebral asymmetry associated with speech acquisition. Finally, suggestions for future studies of neurocognitive development using NIRS are presented. Although NIRS studies of the infant brain have yet to fulfill their potential, a review of the work done so far indicates that NIRS is likely to provide many unique insights in the field of developmental neuroscience.

Subliminal speech perception and auditory streaming.

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Nevertheless, the existence of this qualitative distinction remains controversial, as past studies confounded awareness and stimulus strength energy, duration. Here, we used a masked speech priming method in conjunction with a submillisecond interaural delay manipulation to contrast subliminal and supraliminal processing at constant prime, mask and target strength. This delay induced a perceptual streaming effect, with the prime popping out in the supraliminal condition.

By manipulating the prime-target interval ISI , we show a qualitatively distinct profile of priming longevity as a function of prime awareness. While subliminal priming disappeared after half a second, supraliminal priming was independent of ISI. This shows that the distinction between conscious and unconscious processing depends on high-level perceptual streaming factors rather than low-level features energy, duration. Persistent stress "deafness": The case of French learners of Spanish. Journal of Memory Language 36, ; Dupoux, E. A robust method to study stress' deafness.

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , This raised the possibility that instead of a perceptual problem, monolingual French speakers might simply lack a metalinguistic representation of contrastive stress, which would impair them in memory tasks. We examined a sample of 39 native speakers of French who underwent formal teaching of Spanish after age 10, and varied in degree of practice in this language. Using a sequence recall task, we observed in all our groups of late learners of Spanish the same impairment in short-term memory encoding of stress contrasts that was previously found in French monolinguals.

Furthermore, using a speeded lexical decision task with word-nonword minimal pairs that differ only in the position of stress, we found that all late learners had much difficulty in the use of stress to access the lexicon. This affects their memory encoding as well as their lexical access in on-line tasks. Learning the mapping from surface to underlying representations in an artificial language. Hualde eds Laboratory Phonology, 9 , Mouton de Gruyter. This is difficult because words can have multiple phonetic realizations, according to the phonological context. In a series of artificial language-learning experiments with a phrase-picture matching task, we consider the respective contributions of word meaning and distributional information for the acquisition of underlying representations in the presence of an allophonic rule.

We show that on the basis of semantic information, French adults can learn to map voiced and voiceless stops or fricatives onto the same underlying phonemes, whereas in their native language voicing is phonemic in all obstruents. They do not extend this knowledge to novel stops or fricatives, though. In the presence of distributional cues only, learning is much reduced and limited to the words subjects are trained on. We also test if phonological naturalness plays a role in this type of learning, and find that if semantic information is present, French adults can learn to map different segments onto a single underlying phoneme even if the mappings are highly unnatural.

We discuss our findings in light of current statistical learning approaches to language acquisition. Developmental changes in cerebral responses to native and non-native vowels: a NIRS study. The neuronal correlates involved in such a dramatic perceptual reorganization process, however, are not well understood. Using near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS , this study compares the neural responses of Japanese infants at months and months of age as well as of adults to native [i] vs.

The findings demonstrated longitudinal developmental changes of functional temporal cortex asymmetries associated with the exposure of the native language. The native language of social cognition. Experiments with infants and young children suggest these tendencies are based on predispositions that emerge early in life and depend, in part, on natural language. Young infants prefer to look at a person who previously spoke their native language.

Older infants preferentially accept toys from native-language speakers, and preschool children preferentially select native-language speakers as friends. Variations in accent are sufficient to evoke these social preferences, which are observed in infants before they produce or comprehend speech and are exhibited by children even when they comprehend the foreign-accented speech.

Early-developing preferences for native-language speakers may serve as a foundation for later-developing preferences and conflicts among social groups. Breaking the mirror: Asymmetrical disconnection between the phonological input and output codes. Cognitive Neuropsychology , 24 1 , Her pattern of performance in repetition task - quantitative but also qualitative striking difference in errors with pseudowords versus words - cannot be properly accounted for either by a perception deficit or by a production deficit.

We discuss this finding according to theoretical models of phonological processing and show that it is best explained by an impaired ability to transfer phonological information from the perception to the production system. We also probed for a phonological link in the opposite direction, from the production to the perception system. Overall, our results suggest that a the phonological codes in perception and in production are separate but connected by two conversion mechanisms and that b these two mechanisms can be disrupted independently.

Universal moral grammar: a critical appraisal. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 11 9 , It is based on an intriguing analogy, first pointed out by Rawls, between the study of the human moral sense and Chomsky's research program into the human language faculty.


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To assess UMG, we ask: is moral competence modular? Does it have an underlying hierarchical grammatical structure? Does moral diversity rest on culture-dependant parameters? We review the evidence and argue that formal grammatical concepts are of limited value for the study of moral judgments, moral development and moral diversity. Darcy, I. Bilinguals play by the rules. Perceptual compensation for assimilation in late L2-learners In J. Hualde eds Laboratory Phonology, 9 , pp Mouton de Gruyter. We previously showed Darcy , Darcy et al. In particular, English speakers compensate more for place assimilation than for voicing assimilation, whereas the reverse holds for French speakers.

English indeed has a rule of place assimilation, whereas French has a rule of voicing assimilation. In the present study, we explore the patterns of compensation for assimilation in English learners of French and in French learners of English. We use the same design and stimuli as Darcy , Darcy et al. The results show that beginners interpret their L2 in exactly the same way as their L1: they apply the native compensation pattern to both languages.

Advanced learners, by contrast, succeed in compensating for the non-native assimilation rule in their L2, while keeping the native compensation pattern for L1; as little or no interference from L2 on L1 is observed for these learners, we conclude that two separate systems of compensation for phonological processes can co-exist. The role of the striatum in processing language rules: Evidence from word perception in Huntington's disease. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 18 9 , The role of the striatum in rule application.

The model of Huntington's disease at early stage. Brain, , ; Ullman, A T. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, ]. Yet, such impairment was documented only with explicit conjugation tasks in the production domain. Little is known about whether it generalizes to other language modalities such as perception and whether it refers to implicit language processing or rather to intentional rule operations through executive functions. We investigated these issues by assessing perceptive processing of conjugated verb forms in a model of striatal dysfunction, namely, in Huntington's Disease HD at early stages.

Rule application and lexical processes were evaluated in an explicit task acceptability judgments on verb and nonword forms and in an implicit task lexical decision on frequency-manipulated verb forms.

HD patients were also assessed in executive functions, and striatal atrophy was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging bicaudate ratio. Results from both tasks showed that HD patients were selectively impaired for rule application but lexical abilities were spared. Bicaudate ratios correlated with rule scores on both tasks, whereas executive parameters only correlated with scores on the explicit task. We argue that the striatum has a core function in linguistic rule application generalizing to perceptive aspects of morphological operations and pertaining to implicit language processes.

In addition, we suggest that the striatum may enclose computational circuits that underpin explicit manipulation of regularities. The acquisition of allophonic rules: Statistical learning with linguistic constraints. Cognition , 3 , BB Infants must thus acquire these rules in order to infer the abstract representation of words. We implement a statistical learning algorithm for the acquisition of one type of rule, namely allophony, which introduces context-sensitive phonetic variants of phonemes. This algorithm is based on the observation that different realizations of a single phoneme typically do not appear in the same contexts ideally, they have complementary distributions.

In particular, it measures the discrepancies in context probabilities for each pair of phonetic segments. In Experiment 1, we test the algorithm's performances on a pseudo-language and show that it is robust to statistical noise due to sampling and coding errors, and to non-systematic rule application. In Experiment 2, we show that a natural corpus of semiphonetically transcribed child-directed speech in French presents a very large number of near-complementary distributions that do not correspond to existing allophonic rules. These spurious allophonic rules can be eliminated by a linguistically motivated filtering mechanism based on a phonetic representation of segments.

We discuss the role of a priori linguistic knowledge in the statistical learning of phonology. Misperception in sentences but not in words: Speech perception and the phonological buffer. Cognitive Neuropsychology , 23 6 , The two patients display excellent performance in phonological discrimination tasks as long as the tasks do not involve a memory load.

We then show that their performance drops when they have to maintain fine-grained phonological information for sentence comprehension: They are impaired at mispronunciation detection and at comprehending sentences involving minimal word pairs. We argue that the phonological buffer plays a role in sentence perception during the phonological analysis of the speech stream: It sustains the temporary storage of phonological input in order to check and resolve phonological ambiguities, and it also allows reexamination of the phonological input if necessary.

The role of the striatum in rule application: the model of Huntington's disease at early stage. Brain , 5 , Recent studies have proposed that linguistic abilities involve two distinct types of processes: the retrieving of stored information, implicating temporal lobe areas, and the application of combinatorial rules, implicating fronto-striatal circuits. Studies of patients with focal lesions and neurodegenerative diseases have suggested a role for the striatum in morphological rule application, but functional imaging studies found that the left caudate was involved in syntactic processing and not morphological processing.

In the present study, we tested the view that the basal ganglia are involved in rule application and not in lexical retrieving in a model of striatal dysfunction, namely Huntington's disease at early stages. We assessed the rule-lexicon dichotomy in the linguistic domain with morphology conjugation of non-verbs and verbs and syntax sentence comprehension and in a non-linguistic domain with arithmetic operations subtraction and multiplication. Thirty Huntington's disease patients 15 at stage I and 15 at stage II and 20 controls matched for their age and cultural level were included in this study.

We found that early Huntington's disease patients were impaired in rule application in the linguistic and non-linguistic domains morphology, syntax and subtraction , whereas they were broadly spared with lexical processing. The pattern of performance was similar in patients at stage I and stage II, except that stage II patients were more impaired in all tasks assessing rules and had in addition a very slight impairment in the lexical condition of conjugation. Finally, syntactic rule abilities correlated with all markers of the disease evolution including bicaudate ratio and performance in executive function, whereas there was no correlation with arithmetic and morphological abilities.

Together, this suggests that the striatum is involved in rule processing more than in lexical processing and that it extends to linguistic and non-linguistic domains. These results are discussed in terms of domain-specific versus domain-general processes of rule application. Subliminal speech priming. Psychological Science , 16 8 , Masking is achieved by hiding a spoken word within a stream of time-compressed speechlike sounds with similar spectral characteristics. Participants were unable to consciously identify the hidden words, yet reliable repetition priming was found.

This effect was unaffected by a change in the speaker's voice and remained restricted to lexical processing. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares.

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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Meta NLP Curriculum 1. Learn the Art and Skill of Listening and Communicating Introduction and skills in using the NLP Communication Model How you uniquely experience the world out there How you make your world a delight or disaster How you delete, generalise and distort information in your world How your state of mind-body-emotion has you, and dictates the quality of your life How you can master your reactions and choose your responses to yourself, others and the world How to be fully present to another person Noticing what is really going on for others Watch what the eyes say Learn to listen with skill 2.

Learn the Skill of Supporting Others Learn to gain instant rapport, how to meet people in their world people like people who are like themselves How to develop deep connection through a meeting of the minds Understand the language preferences of others Step into wisdom as you learn the multiple perspectives of reality 3. Assessment Assessing Practitioner Standards for Competency Testing your Knowledge You leave this programme having integrated the learning, confident in the knowledge that you are fully competent to do all this going forward!

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