Had the outcomes been independent of GCM climate sensitivity there would have been less justification for weighting by reliability for the present climate. From a practical perspective, applying the less data intensive CF method enables a broader suite of emission scenarios and GCMs to be considered [e.
This was justified given that SDSM employs information from a wider domain e.
As a key determinant of summer precipitation, this disparity accounts for the wide divergence in scenarios produced by HadCM3 and CGCM2 in the s and s. Differences in atmospheric moisture are also thought to explain variance between the summer precipitation scenarios of the SDSM and CF methods. The former is sensitive to the quality of the downscaling predictor variables; the latter reflects the realism of precipitation schemes and behavior of atmospheric boundary conditions in the GCM.
It may be no coincidence that the two GCMs yielding least summer drying also exhibit the largest biases in relative humidity RHUM for the baseline period. Hence the Environment Agency of England and Wales is working with partners in the water industry and government to assess multiple uncertainties in the context of water resource planning and flood risk management [e. Therefore new frameworks for handling uncertainty at all levels are urgently needed. Further work will be needed to develop practical guidance for planners and engineers who have the difficult task of translating probabilities into adaptation responses.
The authors appreciate the constructive comments of Mark New and Christoph Frei as well as the excellent reviews of three anonymous referees. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Open access. Water Resources Research Volume 42, Issue 2. Regular Article Free Access. Wilby E-mail address: rob. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract  A probabilistic framework is presented for combining information from an ensemble of four general circulation models GCMs , two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, two statistical downscaling techniques, two hydrological model structures, and two sets of hydrological model parameters.
Introduction  General circulation models GCMs are one of the primary instruments for obtaining projections of future global climate change. Case Study River Basin and Data Sources  The Thames basin is relatively sheltered from the influence of midlatitude depressions and, as a consequence, is one of the driest and sunniest parts of mainland Britain. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
River Thames basin upstream of the Kingston gauge in relation to GCM grid boxes used for the statistical downscaling. Methodology  The trial framework for obtaining probabilistic information on future river flows involved three steps: 1 downscale GCM output to produce regional climate change scenarios, in this case for the Thames basin, 2 assign weights to the components of uncertainty emission scenario, GCM, downscaling technique, hydrological model parameters and structure , and 3 perform Monte Carlo simulations of impacts using scenarios from task 1 and weights from task 2.
Assigning Weights to Components of Uncertainty  Assigning weights to different components of the Monte Carlo analysis is one of the most problematic steps. Emissions Scenario Uncertainty  At present, there are no universally accepted methods of assigning probabilities to different emission pathways because of uncertainty in key drivers of emissions, such as assumptions about the future world economy [e.
Climate Model Uncertainty  Murphy et al. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Downscaling Uncertainty  Although downscaling uncertainty is represented by the SDSM and CF methods, it is acknowledged that substantial differences can arise between future scenarios downscaled from dynamical and empirical methods [ Wood et al.
Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. GDC 0. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The dependent variable is the annual Q Monte Carlo Simulations  The outcome of any Monte Carlo analysis is conditional on the weighting scheme. Results  The outcomes of the analysis are reported in two sections. Values are in percent.
Monte Carlo Analysis  The first experiment COND yields CDFs of projected changes in low flows conditional on the choice of GCM and hydrological model, recalling that no attempt was made to weight uncertainties in the emissions scenario or downscaling method. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. CDFs of changes in low flows Q95 by the s reflecting uncertainty in a the emission scenario only, b the GCM only, c the downscaling technique only, d the hydrological model structure only, and e the hydrological model parameters under the A2, HadCM3, CF scenario.
Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 7 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Acknowledgments  The views contained in this paper reflect those of the authors and are not necessarily indicative of the position held by the Environment Agency. Supporting Information Filename Description wrcrsupt Allen, M. Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Volume 42 , Issue 2 February Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout.
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You are in the Germany store Not in Germany? Choose Store. Placing maize border at 0. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.
The electroactive composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9. Background: Counselling is considered a prerequisite for the proper handling of testing and for ensuring effective HIV preventive efforts. HIV testing services have recently been scaled up substantially with a particular focus on provider-initiated models. Increasing HIV test rates have been attributed to the rapid scale-up of the providerinitiated testing model, but there is limited documentation of experiences with this new service model.
The aim of this study was to determine the use of different types of HIV testing services and to investigate perceptions and experiences of these services with a particular emphasis on the provider initiated testing in three selected districts in Kenya, Tanzania, and, Zambia. Methods: A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was applied using quantitative and qualitative approaches. A population-based survey was conducted among adults in the three study districts, and qualitative data were obtained from 34 focus group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews.
Women were much more likely to be tested than men in the districts that had scaled-up programmes for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV PMTCT. Only minor gender differences appeared for voluntary counselling and testing. In places where, the provider-initiated model in PMTCT programmes had been rolled out extensively testing was accompanied by very limited pre- and post-test counselling and by a related neglect of preventative measures.
Conclusion: Counselling emerged as a highly valued process during HIV testing. However, counselling efforts were limited in the implementation of the provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing model. The approach was moreover not perceived as voluntary. This raises serious ethical concerns and implies missed preventive opportunities inherent in the counselling concept.
Moreover, implementation of the new testing approach seem to add a burden to pregnant women as disproportionate numbers of women get to know their HIV status, reveal their HIV status to their spouse and recruit their spouses to go for a test. Obstetric fistula, a devastating maternal health complication associated with social stigma and isolation, is often found in resource-poor settings where access to specialized care is constrained.
In this study, the authors examine the perspectives of the healthcare providers on the factors that contribute to obstetric fistulae formation in West Pokot, Kenya. Key informant interviews with healthcare providers, social workers and traditional birth attendants were held to generate information on factors contributing to formation of obstetric fistulae.
Thematic analysis based on grounded theory approach was used.
- Natural Acne Treatments;
- Works of Eliza Cook.
Factors that contribute to the occurrence of obstetric fistulae include: female genital mutilation and early forced marriage; unskilled birth attendants and associated birth rituals; infrastructural constraints; and lack of women's empowerment. There is interplay between sociocultural, structural and economic forces in the region that culminate in maternal morbidity and possible mortality.
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Healthcare providers' perspectives are vital in understanding maternal health problems in rural Kenya. Community level initiatives aimed at improving the health of women in rural resource-poor areas should be encouraged. Ecological factors have contributed to increased malaria transmission in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was designed to document perceived and actual ecological changes in Gusii over the last three decades; to document changes in the malaria burden and to collect ethnographic data to understand folk causal linkages between environmental change and disease patterns.
Over a month period data was collection using malaria focused-ethnographic interviews, historical narratives and a review of statistical health records. A total of people were interviewed. Historical narratives reveal a decline in landholdings over three decades. Hospital health records show that over this period, the burden of malaria has increased.
Ethnographic interviews and hospital records show that the period during which malaria is most intense is between May and August, with July as the peak period. Ethnographic data point to weather changes, changes in landholdings and land use as the primary factors in the observed changes in the malaria patterns in Gusii. In conclusion, in the absence of documented data folk knowledge is a useful substitute for constructing trends. Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population.
The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation Sources of arterial blood supply included the carotid bifurcation Position and blood supply of the carotid body in the Kenyan population displays a different profile of variations from those described in other populations.
Neck surgeons should be aware of these to avoid inadvertent injury. However, there were significant differences in weight loss and moisture regain between cocoon shells as well as shell layers. The SEM micrographs also showed the presence of remnant sericin gum on the fibers surface. In both A. The physical structure and chemical composition ofthe cocoon shells and fibers contribute towards the variation in the moisture regain and weight loss and these features may have commercial implications due to their direct effect on the resulting fabric.
This chapter examines the conditions for achieving sustained agricultural intensification using evidence from micro- and macro-data from Kenya, as well as the six 'I's that represent significant proximate variables influencing agricultural performance, namely Incentives, Inputs, Infrastructure, Institutions, Initiatives and Innovations.
The chapter further demonstrates how a change in these 'I's affects agricultural productivity. Furthermore, the authors discuss agricultural intensification and a number of public interventions to promote it, and spell out their implications for the realization of Millennium Development Goal of halving, by , the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Emphasis is laid on maize production, since the lack of maize signals famine and poverty in Kenya, even when other food crops may be available. The chapter examines the conditions that led to a revitalization of increased agricultural productivity in the period to , after an enabling policy environment that favoured the six 'I's was put in place.
The authors also present scenarios likely to emerge after the skirmishes that rocked the country soon after the December general elections. The May 20, earthquake which occurred in southern Sudan is so far the strongest earthquake to occur in the eastern part of African continent within the past 21 years. Inversion of teleseismic body-waves has been undertaken for the purpose of this study in an attempt to reassess the seismo-tectonics of northern and central Kenya as well as southern Sudan.
The focal depth for this earthquake is The average dislocation along the fault is 1. The distribution of historical earthquakes from southern Sudan through central Kenya shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters confirms the existence of an active fault zone, the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further into the Indian Ocean. However, owing to lack of waveform data for these historical earthquakes, it is not possible to determine the source mechanism of the fault.
Further work on inversion of short period waveform data is required so as to precisely determine the fault mechanism of this NW-SE trending fault zone in the central and southeastern parts of Kenya. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to Recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts.
The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting which forms numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps. Gravity and magnetotelluric MT surveys were undertaken in the area in order to determine the heat source and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin for generation of geothermal power. In addition, magnetotelluric data comprising about fourty sites was also acquired in the study area.
The dyke injections occur at depths of km on average, but at 1 km depth at the shallowest. The gravity models show a north-south gradual variation in thickness of the uppermost low density layer comprising rift-fill volcanics from km on average. The variation in thickness of this layer from south-north suggests that these volcanic deposits are as a result of volcanic eruption s outside Lake Bogoria basin such as Menengai to the south.
The MT survey results show three distinct relatively thick layers in the basin. This layer is interpreted as the geothermal reservoir and the low resistivities are due to a combination of circulating hot mineralized geothermal fluids, hydrothermal alteration and saline sediments. The relatively high degree of fracturing has considerably enhanced circulation of water which gets heated by the underlying dyke injections and thus inducing convective heat transport to the geothermal reservoir.
The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0. Consequently, a heat source and a geothermal reservoir exist in Lake Bogoria basin. The magnetotelluric method, however, favours depths of km for the heat source and this may be attributed to lack of significant resistivity contrast between the dyke injections and the basement rocks where the former have intruded the latter rocks. More gravity data is warranted so as to precisely define the geometry and areal extent of the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin.
However, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that:- 1 exploratory drilling be undertaken in the area near Arus steam jets, 2 even though the study area is not prone to any pre-historic eruptions, microgravity and seismic monitoring be undertaken so as to help in tracking possible magma migration and variations in magma input. Such data could, in turn, play an important role in predicting future eruptive events in Lake Bogoria basin.
Key words: Public - Private Partnerships, Privatization, Water service delivery The Government of Kenya has introduced several water reforms in the provision of water services since independence in The Local Government Act Chapter of the laws of Kenya granted local authorities powers to engage in water services provision especially in urban areas Republic of Kenya, b. The Water Act of introduced far reaching reforms in the water sector in terms of management and provision services. It commercialized the provision of water services by forming Public Limited Companies PLCs owned by respective local authorities.
It also allowed private sector participation in the provision of services. Individual companies and communities have also been permitted to seek license from Water Services Regulatory Board WSRB to provide water services to the public. Among the private sector actors are independent water service Providers in the form of community water projects, Private bore-holes, Water tankers, and Water kiosks.
The paper examines the effectiveness of the existing policy and institutional framework for the management of privatized water service delivery. The paper particularly examines institutional monitoring mechanisms in ensuring clean quality water is supplied to the unsuspecting poor.
Are there clear mechanisms in which the public through the state institutions regulate the water service provision by private actors, as a requirement, before water is released to the public? How can the private sector be made accountable for offering public goods. The data was drawn from the existing secondary data and was analyzed through content Analysis. The paper has utilized the World Bank framework for the provision of transaction intensive services as its analytical framework where water is taken as a transactionintensive service with ministry of Water Development and Irrigation being policy maker.
The paper is expected to among others, identify and explain some role overlaps between WRMA and WSBs since both can set water tariffs and there are weak institutional arrangements to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency in the operations of the independent water service providers. Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it.
This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid in all the 6 public health facilities.
Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions FGDs and key informant interviews KIs. Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs.
Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers.
FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open- ended questions in April and May In this article we focus on women. To describe the actual current roles and tasks of nurses in SS African health services.
To analyze the health-, illness- and care needs of the SS African population in the light of the skills mix in the health team, with special reference to nurses. To compare and contrast the actual and perceived tasks and roles of the nurse in SS Africa. To provide a description or model for nursing in SS Africa that is needs, expectations and reality-based. Design: This is a multiple-case design Yin, , in which each country is a case and the description is based on a mail survey, observation in selected health care services, focus group interviews and a literature study.
Many issues were discussed noting that the health human resource challenges of Africa are enormous. The shortage of nurses is acute in many countries, and there seems to be little hope of a quick change in this situation. It is therefore essential that this scarce resource is not only appropriately trained, but also creatively deployed. The first step in achieving these objectives would be to understand exactly what the job demands are.
We believe that this study speaks to all three these strategies and could make an important contribution to developing evidence-based nursing and midwifery curricula in this region.
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While the study is aimed at a continental answer with the cross case analysis of data, the data from each country will also be made available locally in order to allow countries to take appropriate action. It was not possible to complete the discussion on the objectives of collected data but analysis was to be continued and some papers to be written from the data analysed e.
Results indicated that the graduates gained competence as they gained experience after internship. Recommendation was to evaluate BScN programs for achievements and improvement needed for quality BScN graduate nurses. A human papillomavirus HPV prevalence survey was done in Mombasa, Kenya, to improve the knowledge of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in sub-Saharan African countries overall, and in women of different ages. The most common types were HPV58 HPV prevalence was elevated among all age-groups range Our data strengthen the urgency of HPV vaccination in Kenya but also highlight the elevated number of women who would have positive results in an HPV-based screening program in the country.
We evaluated the duration of pH1N1 virus shedding in patients in Nairobi, Kenya. The median age was 6 years Range: 4 months years ; only two patients, both asthmatic, received oseltamivir. There was a strong correlation between rRT-PCR results and virus isolation in the first week of illness. In some patients, pH1N1 virus was detectable after all their symptoms had resolved. Research in machine translation and corpus annotation has greatly benefited from the increasing availability of word-aligned parallel corpora.
This paper presents ongoing research on the development and application of the sawa corpus, a two-million-word parallel corpus English-Swahili. We describe the data collection phase and zero in on the difficulties of finding appropriate and easily accessible data for this language pair. In the data annotation phase, the corpus was semi-automatically sentence and word-aligned and morphosyntactic information was added to both the English and Swahili portion of the corpus.
The annotated parallel corpus allows us to investigate two possible uses. We describe experiments with the projection of part-of-speech tagging annotation from English onto Swahili, as well as the development of a basic statistical machine translation system for this language pair, using the parallel corpus and a consolidated database of existing English-Swahili translation dictionaries. We particularly focus on the difficulties of translating English into the morphologically more complex Bantu language of Swahili. Abstract In this paper we present the development of a morphological analysis system for Gikuyu Major morphological processes prevalent in Gikuyu language are explored.
These include verb inflection, verb and noun derivation and verb reduplication. In this work, finite state transducers are used to model Gikuyu morphology. Xerox finite state tools are used to build the lexical transducers for the system and to model rewrite rules prevalent in Gikuyu. The system achieves an acceptable representation of Gikuyu morphology. It can correctly. Even though the Bantu language of Swahili is spoken by more than fifty million people in East and Central Africa, it is surprisingly resource-scarce from a language technological point of view, an unfortunate situation that holds for most, if not all languages on the continent.
The increasing amount of digitally available, vernacular data has prompted researchers to investigate the applicability of corpus-based approaches to African language technology. In this vein, the SAWA corpus project attempts to collect and deploy a parallel. The encouraging experimental results show that basic language technology tools can be developed using limit amounts of data and state-of-the-art language-independent machine learning techniques.
Abstract The potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation technologies for value addition of camel milk in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of northern Kenya was investigated. To find out existing postharvest handling and preservation practices, a survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on came l milk producers, 50 primary and 50 secondary milk traders. Results showed that the camel milk chain was characterised by poor milk handling infrastructure, including poor roads and lack of cooling facilities.
Camel milk was marketed raw under unhygienic conditions with minimal value addition, and spoilage was a major problem. Milk traders occasionally boiled milk using firewood as a means of temporary preservation during times when transport was unavailable. Provision of appropriate cooling facilities and utilisation of renewable energy technologies such as solar energy for milk processing were identified as possible intervention strategies to enhance marketing.
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Therefore, a low-cost charcoal evaporative cooler was developed and tested for the storage of camel milk. The cooler, 0. Total bacterial count changed from The outputs were cooled milk temperature and cooling efficiency. The development of the solar milk pasteuriser started with thermal performance testing of four water heating flat plate solar collectors available in Kenya with the objective of selecting a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for batch pasteurisation.
The collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi, Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1. Thermal performance of the collectors was determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation.
The FR ta e values, obtained using the effective collector areas and the inlet water temperature, were 0. The FRUL values were 8. It was used to develop a low -cost batch solar milk pasteuriser consisting of the collector and a cylindrical milk vat. The milk vat had a 50 mm-wide hot water jacket and an outer layer of 38 mm thick fibre glass insulation. The water jacket held approximately 30 litres of water, whereas the milk tank had a capacity of 80 litres. The hot water produced by the collector was used for pasteurising milk. The optimum quantity of milk which could be pasteurised by this device under the study conditions was 40 litres, which was pasteurised in approximately 1.
The average temperature difference between hot water and milk xvii being pasteurised was 8. Total bacterial counts in pasteurised milk were less than 10 cfu. The solar milk pasteuriser was modelled using ANN as described for the cooler. The inputs of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk being pasteurised. It has thus been established that there is both the need and potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation along the camel milk value chain in Kenya.
The two technologies augment each other in increasing the quantity and quality of marketed camel milk from scattered pastoral production sites in Kenya. The devices are of low cost and can be locally fabricated by village artisans using locally available materials , and their performance can be successfully modelled using ANNs, which helps to design an appropriate system for any application. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture.
Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. With the persistent challenges towards controlling the HIV epidemic, there is an ongoing need for research into HIV vaccines and drugs. We tested the hypothesis that T. Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi.
Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.
The study was carried out to compare production, purification and identity of phytotoxins from Exserohilum turcicum isolates of Kenyan, German and Austrian origin. Phytotoxins were extracted from maize leaves inoculated with the pathogen and liquid media seeded with the pathogen isolates. Detection of the phytotoxins was done by checking on inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis using the detached leaf bioassay technique.
Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and sephadex columns were used to separate, purify and identify the phytotoxins. Of the 86 isolates used in the study, The study showed that, a number of phytotoxins including monocerin are produced as indicated by the several peaks and retention times. Maize plants inoculated with the pathogen produced more phytotoxins than the liquid media seeded with the pathogen and each of them had mean lesion sizes of26 mnr' and 14 mm'', respectively.
Maize leaves inoculated with E. Nairobi City is underlain by volcanic materials that resulted from the formation of the rift valley. Some of the challenges that face design of structures in the city include: the need to develop structures in areas with poor site conditions; distress in structures that could be related to foundation conditions; encounter of unexpected subsoil conditions even after carrying out some geotechnical investigations, and; development of defects related to adjacent deep excavation.
The objectives of this study were: to investigate the qualitative and quantitative properties of subsurface materials, to establish the engineering property variations and to provide properties that represent the best estimates. Information available for this study included; Atterberg limits, grading, consolidation, swell and collapse, triaxial shear and direct shear, point load and unconfined compressive strength. Failure investigation and resistivity survey were carried out to fill the gaps in the available information.
The results indicate that the engineering properties of the materials are very variable. Material property variations and the expected performance of the various subsoil materials are provided. The study concluded that before construction, it is necessary to carry out geotechnical investigations to delineate sensitive soils, determine weak and strong spots and evaluate the relationship between total and differential settlements. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the heat exchanger are investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from to Model geometry is created, meshed, calculated, and post-processed using open source software.
Fluid flow and heat transfer are simulated and results compared using both laminar and turbulent flow models k- epsilon, and Menter SST k-omega , with steady-state solvers to calculate pressure drop, flow, and temperature fields. Model validation is carried out by comparing the simulated case friction factor f and Colburn factor j to experimental results from the literature.
In addition, those who identify themselves as scholars of architecture tend to be closed in their academic spheres and vice versa for those who are practitioners. The professionals and scholars seem not to have adequate interchange and reconciliation of the profession. This has not helped much in developing a unifying framework for research and practice of architecture.
The scholars and the practicing architect have yet to produce a comprehensive institutional framework capable of directing the profession toward the demonstrable improvement of the architectural practice; training and research. Survey is used as the research design. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from archiects in practice and those in academia, students of architecture and educational administrators. Forty practicing architects were selected. Twenty lecturers and fifty students were interviewed while four administrators were administered questionnaires.
Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the responses from the field. This paper has unraveled the minimal relationship between scholars and professionals; the information flow between them and presented the way forward. II'Is are the most common nosocomial infections in both. Each year millions of urethral catheters are put in place in these facilities across the United States.
In the acute care settings a vast majority of UTIs occur in patients with temporary urinary catheters. Efforts to contain theproblem have resulted in the introduction of guidelines to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the nosocomial UTI. Such measures have been. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Urine samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for growth of microorganisms to determine the incidence of NCAUTls.
It recommended that there was need for judicious use. The sugar industry has experienced poor performance attributed to industry deregulation, poor management and political interference. Adopting the Simons Levers of Control framework, this study sought to establish the relationship between belief control practices and organizational performance in the sugar industry in Kenya. Using a census survey of the 45 firms in the sugar industry value-chain in western Kenya registered by the Kenya Sugar Board as at 1st January , data was collected through self administered questionnaires sent to chief executive officers, finance managers and marketing officers of the target companies.
The findings of this study underscore the need of management to incorporate employees in the company core values and design of strategic control systems to cope with changing internal and external operating business environments. The study advances the extant theory of strategic management control practices by providing evidences from emerging economy and on a focused single lever of management control.
This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds.
Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.
In the Ankole pastoral production system animals are grazed on pasture all year round. The cattle are not supplemented with conserved pasture or commercial feed except minerals. The large number of factors that influence production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of a pastoral production system was developed to provide a tool for developing and testing the system; for example, drying off animals early and supplement them for quick return on heat, testing the economic and ecological viability of the different stocking rates.
The model links climate information, on a monthly basis, with dynamic, stochastic component-models for pasture growth and animal production, as well as management policies. Some of the component models were developed and published by other authors but are modified to suit the Ankole pastoral conditions. The model outputs were compared with on-farm data collected over 3 years and data collected for other on-farm studies in the region.
The model predicted pasture production and milk yield across seasons with relative prediction errors of The graph shapes of actual and predicted average daily milk yield as influenced by season month of the year were similar. Because pasture growth and milk production predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the model to test different management options such as seasonal breeding, alterations in lactation length and determination of appropriate off-takes and evaluation of economic viability of various stocking rates. Phenotypic characterization is critical in breed improvement and conservation.
To determine the performance and morphological features of Ankole cattle in three livestock production systems LPS of Uganda, farms were studied. Data were analysed using LPS crop livestock, agropastoral, pastoral , county Gomba, Kazo, Kiboga, Mawoggola, Nyabushozi and sex females, males as main factors. In the results, age at sexual maturity was Age at first calving was Lactation length differed between LPS 5.