In some instances the motif is used with effectiveness, definitely heightening the impression of the weird in a way that human supernatural- ism could not accomplish. We do not see here the mechan- istic supematuralism, which is to become important in later tales, and the effects here are crude, yet of interest in themselves and as suggesting later uses of the idea. Daemonology manifests itself in the supernatural science in the Gothic novels as well as in the characterization of the devil and his confreres.
We have diabolical chemistry besides alchemy, astrology, hypnotism, ventriloquism, search for the philosopher's stone, infernal biology, and the other scientific twists of supematuralism. In Vathekt where we have a regular array of ghostliness, we see a magic potion that instantly cures any disease however deadly, — the progenitor of the modem patent medicine. There is an Indian magician who writes his messages on the high heavens themselves. Vathek's mother is an industrious alchemist strangling an assembly of prominen t citizens in order to use their cadavers in her laboratorv, where she stews them up with serpent's oil, mummies, and skulls, concocting therefrom a powerful potion.
Vathek has an imcurbed curiosity that leads him into various experiments, to peer into the secrets of astrology, alchemy, sorcery, and kindred sciences. He uses a magic drink that gives the semblance of death, like that used later in The Monk, as earlier, of course, in Romeo and Juliet, and elsewhere. The Moor in Zofloya is well versed in daemonic science. He tells of chemical experiments where he forces every- one to do his will or die. By his potions he can change hate into love or love into hate, and can give a drug which produces semi-insanity.
Under the influence of this a man weds a daemonic temptress thinking her the woman he loves, then commits suicide when he wakes to the truth. In Ankerwich Castle a woman lying at the point of death is miraculously cured by a drug whose prescription the author neglects to state. In the same story a child is branded in a peculiar fashion. A new-bom babe whose birth must remain secret yet who must be recog- nizable in emergency, is marked on its side with letters burnt in with a strange chemical, which will remain invisible till rubbed with a certain liquid.
Matilda in The Monk dabbles in satanic chemistry and compoimds evil potions in her subterranean experiments. Mary Shelley uses the idea of supernatural biology in her story of the man-monster, Frankenstein, the story of the young scientist who after morbid study and experi- ment, constructs a human frame of supernatural size and hideous grotesqueness and gives it life. But the thing created appalls its creator by its dreadful visage, its more than human size, its look of less than human intelligence, and the student flees in horror from. Shelley describes the emotions of the lonely, tragic thing thrust suddenly into a world that ever recoils shuddering from it.
She reveals the slow hate distilled in its heart because of the harsh treatment it meets, till at last it takes diabolic revenge, not only on the man who has created it but on all held dear by him. The struggles that rend his soul between hate and remorse are impressive. The wretched being weeps in an agony of grief as it stands over the body of Frankenstein whom it has harried to death, then goes away to its own doom.
The last sight of it, as the first, is effective, as, in tragic solitude, tower- ing on the ice-floe, it moves toward the desolate North to its death. In the characterization of this being, as in the unusual conception, Mrs. Shelley has introduced something The Gothic Romance 35 poignantly new in fiction.
It was a startling theme for the mind of a young girl, as were Vathek and The Monk for youths of twenty years, and only the abnormal psychological conditions she went through could have pro- duced it. There is more curdling awfulness in Franken- stein's monster than in the museimi of armored ghosts. Bleeding Nuns, and accompanying horrors of the early Gothic novels.
The search for the philosopher's stone appears in various novels of the period. Leon, by William Godwin, relates the story of a man who knew how to produce unlimited gold by a secret formula given him by a mysteri- ous stranger who dies in his home. Shelley ' brings in this power incidentally with the gift of endless life.
There is an awe-inspiring use of ventriloquism in Charles Brock- den Brown's novel, Wieland, while Arthur Mervyn gives a study in somnambulism. These may illustrate the use of science in Gothicism. The elixir of life is brewed in divers Gothic novels. Dramatic and intense as are the psychological experiences connected with the discovery of the magic potion, the effects of the success are more poignant still. The thought that endless mortality, life that may not be laid down, becomes a burden intolerable has appeared in fiction since Swift's accoimt of the Struldbrugs, and perhaps before.
Godwin's St. Leon is a story of the secret of perpetual life. V 36 The Gothic Romance by a decrepit old man who wishes to tell him on a pledge of incommunicability what will give him the power of endless life and botindless wealth. The impoverished nobleman accepts with consequences less enjoyable than he has anticipated. Shelley's hectic romance, ' whose idea, as Shelley ad- mitted to Stockdale, came from Godwin's book, uses the same theme. The yoimg student with burning eyes, who has discovered the elixir of life, may be compared with Mary Shelley's later picture of Frankenstein.
Events are rather confused here, as the villain falls dead in the presence of the devil but comes to life again as another character later in the story, — Shelley informing us of their identity but not troubling to explain it. The most impressive instance of the theme of fleshly immortality in the early novels is fotmd in Melmoth.
Here the mysterious wanderer possesses the power of endless life, but not the right to lay it down when existence becomes a burden. Melmoth can win the boon of death only if he can find another mortal willing to change des- tinies with him at the price of his soul. He traverses the world in his search and offers the exchange to per- sons in direst need and suffering the extreme torments, offering to give them wealth as well as life eternal.
Yet no man nor woman will buy life at the price of the soul. Aids to Gothic Effect. Certain themes appear recur- ringly as first aids to terror fiction. Some of them are fotmd equally in later literature while others belong more particularly to the Gothic. An interesting aspect of the supernatural visitants is gigantism , or the superhuman size which they assume. The Gothic Romance 37 A dap of thunder shook the castle to its foundations; the earth rocked and the clank of more than mortal armor was heard behind.
The walls of the castle behind Manfred were thrown down with a mighty force, and the form of Alfonso,. This reminds one of an incident in F. Marion Crawford's Mr. Isaacs, where the Indian magician expands to awful size, miractdously draws down a mist and wraps it round him as a cloak. A diabolic apparition eight or nine feet high pursues a monk, ' and the knight ' engages in combat with a daemonic giant who slays him. The devil in The Monk is represented as being of enormous stature, and much of the horror excited by the man-monster that Frankenstein created arises from the creature's superhu- man size.
In most cases gigantism connotes evil power and rouses a supernatural awe in the beholder. The giant is an Oriental figure and appears in Vathek, along with genii, dwarfs, and kindred personages, but the Gothic giant has more diabolism than the mere Oriental original. He seems to fade out from fiction, appearing only occasionally in later stories, while he has practically no pdace in the drama, owing doubtless to the diflBctdties of stage presentation. Insanity as contributing to the effect of supematuralism 2.
Madness seems a special ctirse of the gods or torment from the devil and various instances of its use occur in Gothic fiction.
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When he awakes to the realization of what he has done, real madness drives him to suicide. In The Castle of Caithness the wicked misanthrope goes mad from remorse. He imagines that the different ones he has murdered are hurling him into the pit of hell, imtil, in a maniac frenzy, he dashes his brains out against the prison walls. In Ethdwina the father who has sold his daughter to dishonor flies shrieking in madness through the corridors of the dungeon to escape the sight of his child's accusing specter. Poor Nanny in Hogg's Brownie of Bodbeck is described as having "a beam of wild delight in her eye, the joy of madness.
Melmoth uses the idea with special effectiveness. The insanity of the young husband whose bride is mysteriously slain on their wedding day by the supernatural power accompanying Melmoth, may be compared with the mad- ness of the wife in Scott's Bride of Lammermoor. Maturin also shows us a scene in a mad-house, where a sane man, Stanton, is confined, whom Melmoth visits to offer ex- change of destinies.
Melmoth taunts him cruelly with his hopeless situation and prophecies that he, too, will go mad from despair. We hear Stanton's wild cry, echoed by a hundred yells like those of demons, but the others are stilled when the mad mother begins her lamentation, — the mother who has lost husband, home, children, reason, all, in the great London fire. At her appalling shrieks all other voices are hushed.
Another impressive figure in the mad-house is the preacher who thinks himself a demon and alternately prays and blasphemes the Lord Charles Brockden Brown rivals Maturin in his terrible use of insanity for supernatural effect. The demented The Gothic Romance 39 murderer in Edgar Huntley gives an impression of mystery and awe that is unusual, while Wieland with its religious mania produced by diabolic ventriloquism is even more impressive. Brown knew the effect of mystery and dread on the htmian mind and by slow, ctmiulative suggestion he makes us feel a creeping awe that the unwieldy machin- ery of pure Gothicism never could achieve.
In studies of the morbid mentality he has few equals. For psychologic subtlety, for haimting horror, what is a crashing helmet or a dismembered ghost compared with Brown's Wieland? What are the rackings of monkish vindictiveness when set against the agonies of an unbalanced mind turned in upon itself? What exterior torture could so appeal to our sym- pathies as Wieland's despair, when, racked with religious mania, he feels the overwhelming conviction that the voice of God — which is but the fiendish trick of a ventrilo- quist — is calling him to murder his wife and children as a sacrifice to Deity?
Such a tragedy of dethroned reason is intolerably powerful ; the dark labyrinths of insanity, the gloom-haimted passages of the htmian mind, are more terrible to traverse than the midnight windings of Gothic dungeons. We feel that here is a man who is real, who is htmian, and sttffering the extremity of anguish. Perhaps the most hideous aspect of insanity in the terror novel is that of the lycanthrope in The AJbigenses, The tragic wolf-man imagines himself to be a mad wolf and cowers in his lair, glaring with gleaming, awful eyes at all who approach him, gnawing at a human head snatched from the graveyard.
There are various other uses of insanity in the novel of the period, but these will serve to illustrate. The relation between insanity and the super- nattural has been marked in later literature. The use of portents is a distinct characteristic of the 3 horror romance. Calamity is generally preceded by some 40 The Gothic Romance sign of the supernatural influence at work, some present- ment of dread. Crime and catastrophe are forefelt by premonition of woe and accompaniment of horror. These phenomena are miraculous; when the common laws of nature are violated, the awful portents are not sent in vain.
She keeps her appointment promptly. Her experience might be compared with the vision which revealed his date of death to Amos Judd in James Mitchell's novel of that name, and to the foreknowledge in George Eliot's The Lifted VeU. In The Spirit of the Castle, ' the ghost of the old marquis knocks three times on the door preceding the arrival of the heir, and a black raven flies away as he enters. The Gothic Romance 41 I have offended " At this point the plumes are shaken still more strenuously, and the helmet is equally agitated when the great sword leaps in.
If these omens be from heaven or hell, Manfred trusts to righteous- ness to protect his cause. There is much use of portent in Melmoth, The specter of the Wanderer appearing just before the old man's death predicts the spiritual doom of the dying. Mysterious strains of music sound as heralds of disaster in several Gothic novels, as' where the inexplicable strains are heard only by the bride and groom preceding the strange tragedy that befalls them.
At the approach of a supernatural visitant in the terror novel the fire always bums blue, — where there is a fire, and the great hearth usually affords ample opportimity for such portentous blaze. The thermometer itself tends to take a downward path when a ghost draws near. The three drops of blood shed from the statue's nose in Otranto, while ridiculed by the critics, are meant simply as a portent of evil. This instance may be com- ' In Mdmoih.
Various other portents of ill appear in Gothic fiction. The ctimulative effects of supernatural awe are carefully built up by the use of grue- some accompaniments and suggestions. The triple veil of night, desolation, and silence usually hangs over the haunter and the haimted, predisposing to an uncanny psy- chosis. The Gothic ghost does not love the garish day, and the terror castle, gloomy even imder the brightest sun, is of unimaginable darkness at night. Certain houses add especially to the impression of fear. At crucial mo- ments the stroke of twelve or one o'clock is sure to be sounded appallingly by some abbey bell or castle clock or other rusty horologue.
In addition to its services as time- keeper, the bell has a predisposition to toll. Melancholy birds fly freely through these medieval tales, their dark wings adding to the general gloom. The principal specimens in the Gothic aviary are the common owl, the screech or "screeching" owl, the bat and the raven, while the flock is increased by anonymous "birds of prey," "night birds," "gloomy birds" and so forth.
In St. Eliza Heywood. Professor Ashley H. The Gothic Romance 43 tower, whose harsh, discordant notes were echoed by the hoarse croaking of the ominous raven" terrifies but does not deter the villain. The "moping, melancholy screech owl" is one of the prominent personages in The Accusing Spirit, emphasizing the moments of special suspense, as in St, Oswyth as the wicked baron lies quaking in remorse for having caused a nun to be buried alive, the condemning cry of the doleful birds increases his mental anguish.
Similar instances, with or without special nomenclature, occur in countless Gothic novels. Much use is also made of the dark ivy in its clambering over medieval architecture, shutting out the light and adding to the general gloom. The effect of horror is increased frequently by the location of the scenes in vaults and graveyards with all their gruesome accessories, and skulls are used as mural ornaments else- where, or as library appointments by persons of morbid temperament.
Enough skeletons are exhtuned to furnish as large a pile of bones as may be seen in certain antique churches in Italy and Mexico. The element of mystery and mystification is another it family feature of the novel of suspense. There is no ' proper thrill without the suspense attained by super- natural mystery. Even the novels that in the end carefully explain away all the ghostly phenomena on a natural basis strive with care to build up plots which shall contain astounding discoveries.
RadcliHfe abd Regina Maria Roche are noted in this respect. I The black veil constittrtw a favorite method of suspense with Mfll. On various occasions Emily pales 44 The Gothic Romance and quivers before a dark velvet pall uncannily swaying in the midnight wind, and on one such ramble she draws aside the curtain and finds a hideous corpse, putrid and dropping to decay, lying on a couch behind the pall. Many chapters further on she learns that this is a wax figure made to serve as penance for an ancient sinner.
Again she shivers in front of the inky curtain, watching its fold move imaccoimtably, when a repulsive face peers out at her. She shrieks and flees, thinking she has seen a ghost, but discovers later that it is only one of a company of bandits that have taken up their secret abode in the house. Black veils are in fashion in all of Mrs.
RaddiflFe's romances and she di-apes them very effectively, while the arras waves likewise in other tales as well. Myst Qpous manuscripts a re another means of mystifica- tion. Radcliffe's novels also abound in such scripts. The Spirit of the Castle has its dusty doctmient that starts oflf : "Already my hand brandishes the dagger that shall dose my eyes forever.
Mysterious manuscripts are not strong on grammar and make slight attempt to avoid mixed figures. I will expire by the side of the clay-cold corpse of my Antoinette. A codicil to the old imcle's will advises his nephew against reading the document, but of course he does read The Gothic Romance 45 it, since what axe mouldy manuscripts in Gothic novels for, but to be deciphered by the hero or heroine? In one favored tale," we are told of "a mystery whose elucidation I now have a presentiment would fill me with horror! You would be ready to forego the ties of nattire and shun society.
Time must, it will develop the whole of this mystery! Inexplicable mu sic forms one of the commonest elements of mystification m tnese romances. Its constant recur- rence suggests that there must have been victrolas in medieval times. The music is chiefly instrumental, some- times on a harp, sometimes on a violin, though occasion- ally it is vocal.
Radcliffe and Regina Maria Roche accompany the heroine's musings at all hours with doleful strains suspected to be of supernatural performance. The recurrence of the theme is so constant that it acquires the monotony of a tantalizing refrain. In fact, a chorus of lugubriousness arises so that the Gothic pages groan as they are turned. Mys- terious disappearances likewise increase the tension.
Lights appear and vanish with alarming volition, doors open and close with no visible human assistance, and vari- ous other supernatural phenomena aid in Gothic mystery and mystification. Although the ghosts and devils occupy the center of inter- est in the horrific romance, the human characters must not be lightly passed over. There are terror temperaments as well as Gothic castles, tempests, and scenes. The inter- fering father or other relative, brutal in threats and breath- ing forth slaughter, comes in frequently to oppress the hero or heroine into a loathed marriage.
The hero is of Rad- cliffian gloom, a person of vague past and saturnine temper, admired and imitated by Byron. There are no restful human shades of gray, only unrelieved black and white characters. The Romantic heroine is a peculiar creature, much given to swooning and weeping, yet always impeccably dad in no matter what nocturnal emergency she is surprised. She tumbles into verse and sketching on slight provocation, but her worst vice is that of curiosity. In her search for supernatural horrors she wanders at midnight through apartments where she does not belong, breaks open boxes, desks, and secret hiding-places to read whatever letters or manuscripts she can lay her hands on, behaving generally like the yellow journalist of fiction.
The Gothic Romance 47 and turn with ghostly flutter. The conversation is like nothing on land or sea or in the waters under the earth, for the tadpoles talk like Johnsonian whales and the reader grows restless under Godwinistic disquisitions. The au- thors are almost totally lacking in a sense of humor, yet the Gothic novel, taken as a whole, is one of the best specimens of unconscious htunor known to English litera- ture. In the meantime she wrote her other satires on society and won immortality for her work which might never have been begtm save for her satiety of medieval romances.
The title of the story itself is imita- tive, and the well-known materials are all present, yet how differently employed! The setting is a Gothic abbey tem- pered to modem comfort; the interfering father is not vicious, merely ill-natured ; the ptirsuing, repulsive lover is not a villain, only a silly bore. The heroine has no beauty, nor does she topple into sonnets nor snatch a pencil to sketch the scene, for we are told that she has no accomplishments.
Yet she goes through palpitating adventures mostly modelled on Mrs. Radcliffe's inci- dents. She is hampered in not being supplied with a lover who is the unrecognized heir to vast estates, since all the yoimg men in the county are properly provided with parents. The delicious persiflage in which Jane Austen hits off the fiction of the day may be illustrated by a bit of con- versation between two young girls. How delightful! Oh, I would not tell you what is behind that black veil for the world!
Are you not wild to know? What can it be?
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But do not tell me — I would not be told on any accoimt. I know it must be a skele- ton; I am sure it is Laurentina's skeleton. Oh, I am delighted with the book! I should like to spend my whole life reading it, I assure you. If it had not been to meet you, I would not have come away from it for the world. How much obliged I am to you ; and when you have finished Udolpho, we will read The Italian together; and I have made out a list of ten or twelve more of the same kind for you.
How glad I am! What are they all? These will last us some time. Are you stu'e they are all horrid? He is mistaken in his doubt, however, since during the progress of this investigation four out of the eight have been identi- fied as to authorship, and doubtless the others are lurk- ' In his introduction to his pocket volume of Tales of Mystery, The Gothic Romance 49 ing in some antique library. Jane Austen's stupid bore, John Thorpe, and Mr. Tihiey, the impeccable, pedantic hero, add their comment to Gothic fiction, one saying with a yawn that there hasn't been a decent novel since Tom Jones, except The Monk, and the other that he read Udolpho in two days with his hair standing on end all the time.
Opening a black chest at midnight, she finds a yellowed manuscript, but just as she is about to read it her candle flickers out. In the morning sunshine she finds that it is an old laundry list. The only result of her suspicious explorings is that she is caught in such prowlings by the young man whose esteem she wishes to win. He sarcastically assures her that his father is not a wife-murderer, that his mother is not immured in a dimgeon, but died of a bilious attack.
These delicately. The Gothic novel will be remembered, if for nothing else, for her parody of it. But Miss Austen is not the only satirist of the genre. It is interesting to note in this connec- 50 The Gothic Romance tion that while Northanger Abbey was written and sold in it was not published till 8, and Barrett's book, while written later, was published in In the introduction, an epistle, supposed to be endited by one Cherubina, says : Moon, May i, Know that the moment that a mortal mantiscript is written in a legible hand and the word End or Finis attached thereto, whatever characters happen to be sketched therein acquire the quality of creating a soul or spirit which takes flight and ascends immediately through the regions of the air till it arrives at the moon, where it is embodied and becomes a living creature, the precise coimterpart of the literary proto- type.
Know farther that all the towns, villages, rivers, hills, and valleys of the moon also owe their origin to the descriptions which writers give of the landscapes of the earth. By means of a book. The Heroine, I became a living inhabi- tant of the moon. I met with the Radclyffian and Rochian heroines, and others, but they tossed their heads and told me pertly that I was a slur on the sisterhood, and some went so as to say that I had a design on their lives. There is much dis- cussion of the Gothic heroine, particularly those from Mrs. Radcliffe's and Regina Maria Roche's pages.
The girl A The Gothic Romance 51 sprinkles her letters with verse. She passes through stonns, explores deserted houses, and comes to what she thinks is her ancestral castle in London, but is told that it is Covent Garden Theatre. She decides that she is Nell Gwynne's niece and goes to that amiable person to demand all her property.
She pokes around in the cellar to find her captive mother, and discovers an enormously fat woman playing with frogs, who drunkenly insists that she is her mother. Leaving that place in disgust she takes possession of somebody else's castle and orders it furnished in Gothic style, according to romance. She has the fat farmer shut up in the madhouse. It seems strange, however, that it is so little known. It burlesques every feature of terror fiction, the high-flown language, the excited oaths, the feudal furniture, the medieval architecture, the Gothic weather, the supernatural tempers, the spectral apparitions — one of which is so muscular that he struggles with the heroine as she locks him in a closet, after throwing rapee into his face, which makes him sputter in a mortal fashion.
Cherubina finds a blade bone of mutton in some Gothic garbage and takes it for a bone of an ancestor. Rad- cliflBan adjectives reel across the pages and the whole plays up in a delightful parody the ludicrous weaknesses and excesses of the terror fiction. Likewise the Anti- Jacobin parodies the Gothic ghost and there is considerable satire directed at the whole Gothic genre in Thomas Love Peacock's novel Nightmare Abbey.
True, the machinery of Gothicism creaks audibly ' at times, some of the specters move too mechanically, and there is a general air of imreality that detracts from the effect. The supematuralism often lacks the naturalness j which is necessary. Yet it is not fair to apply to these ' early efforts the same standards by which we judge the. Though the class became conventionalized to an absurd degree and the later examples are laughable, while a host of imitations made the type ridiculous, the Gothic novel has an imde- niable force.
Besides the bringing of supematuralism definitely into fiction, which is a distinct gain, we find other benefits as well. In Gothicism, if we examine closely, we find the be- ginnings of many forms of supematuralism that are crude here, but that are to develop into special power in later novels and short stories. The terror novel excites our ridicule in some respects, yet, like other things that arouse a certain measure of laughter, it has great value. The dreadful experiments by which Frankenstein's monster is created are close akin to the revolting vivisections of Wells's Dr.
Moreau, or the operations described by Arthur Machen whereby htunan beings lose their souls and become diabolized, given over utterly to unspeakable evil. Thomas Lovell Beddoe's extraordinary tragedy. Death's Jest Book, while largely Elizabethan in materials and method, is closely related to the Gothic as well.
In ancient times the ghostly had been expressed in the epic or the drama, in medievalism in the romances, metrical and prose, as in Elizabethan literature the drama was the specific form. But Gothicism brought it over frankly into the.
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That is noteworthy, since super- naturalism seems more closely related to poetry than to prose; and as the early dramas were for the most part poetic, it did not require such a stretch of the imagination to give credence to the unearthly. The ballad, the epic, I the drama, had made the ghostly seem credible.
But prose fiction is so much more materialistic that at first thought supematuralism seems antagonistic to it. That this is not really the case is evidenced from the fact that fiction since the terror times has retained the elements of awe then introduced, has developed, and has greatly added jtoi them. It is true that the prevailing type of fiction for the succeeding period was realism, but with a large admixture of the supernormal or supernatural. The supernatural fiction following it still had the same sources on which to draw, and in addition had various other influences andjteins of literary inspiration not open to Gothicism.
With the extension of general reading, and the greater range of translations from other languages, the writers of England and America were affected by new influences with respect to their use of the supernatural. Their work became less insular, wider in its range of subject-matter and of technical methods, and in our fiction we find the effect of certain definite outside forces. The overlapping influences of the Romantic movement in England and America, Prance and Gemiany, form an interestiiig but intricate study.
It is difficult to pcdot out 56 Later Influences marked points of contact, though the general effect may be evident, for literary influences are usually very elusive. And even so, that would not explain literature. If one could point with absolute certainty to the source for every one of Shakespeare's plots, would that explain his art? He was fascinated with the German ballads of the super- natural, especially Burger's ghostly Lenore, which he translated among others.
De Quincey likewise was a student of German literature, though he was not so ac- curate in his scholardiip as Scott. His horror tale. The Avengers, as well as Klosterheim, has a German setting and tone. There has been some discussion over the question of Hawthorne's relation to German Romanticism. Poe made the charge that Hawthorne drew his ideas and style from Ludwig Tieck, saying in a criticism : The fact is, he is not original in any sense. Those who speak of him as original mean nothing more than that he differs in his manner or tone, and in his choice of subjects, from any author of their acquaintance — their acquaintance not extending to the German Tieck, whose manner in some Later Influences 57 of his works is absolutely identical with that habitual to Haw- thorne.
The critic unacquainted with Tieck who reads a single tale by Hawthorne may be justified in thinking him original. Various critics have discussed this matter with no very definite conclusions. It should be remembered that Poe was a famous plagiary-hunter, hence his comments may be discounted. Yet Poe knew German, it is thought, and in his writings often referred to German literature, while Hawthorne, according to his journal, read it with difficulty and spoke of his struggles with a volume of Tieck.
Hawthorne and Tieck do show certain similarities, as in the use of the dream element, the employment of the allegory as a medium for teaching moral truths, and the choice of the legend as a literary form. Both use some- what the same dreamy supematuralism, yet in style as in subject-matter Hawthorne is much the superior and im- proved whatever he may have borrowed from Tieck.
Hawthorne's vague mystery, cloudy symbolism, and deep spiritualism are individual in their effect and give to his supematuralism an unearthly charm scarcely f otmd else- where. There the supemattiralism is franker, while that of Hawthorne's novel is more evasive and deli- cate, yet the same suggestion is present in each case. Hoff- mann. As Hawthorne was, to a slight extent, at least, affected by German legends and wonder tales, Poe was influenced by Hoffmann's horror stories.
He says : The verification of Poe's indebtedness to German is to be sought in the similarity of the treatment of the same motives in the work of both authors. The most convincing evi- dence is furnished by the way in which Poe has combined the themes of mesmerism, metempsychosis, dual existence, the dream element, and so forth, in exact agreement with the grouping employed by Hoffmann.
Notable examples of this are the employment of the idea of double existence in conjtmc- tion with the struggle of good and evil forces in the soul of the individual, and the combination of mesmerism and metem- psychosis as leading motives in one and the same story. Hoffmann's exaggerated use yS this idea is to be explained on the ground that he was obsessed by the thought that his double was haimting him, and he, like Maupassant tmder similar conditions of mind, wrote of supematuralism associated with madness.
Hoffmann uses the theme of double personality. Poe has here reversed the idea.
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In Hoffmann's Magnetiseur we find the treatment of hypnotism and metempsychosis and the dream-supematuralism in the same combination that Poe uses. Hoffmann on Edgar Allan Poe. Later Influences 59 tural portrait, where the wife-model dies as the sacrifice to the painting. Both Hoffmann and Poe use the grotesquerie of super- naturalism, the fantastic element of horror that adds to the effect of the ghostly.
Even the generic titles are almost identical. In his manner he is original and individual. He uses his themes with much greater art, with more dramatic and powerful effect than his German contemporary. Though he employs fewer of the crude machineries of the supernatural, his ghostly tales are more unearthly than Hoffmann's. His horrors have a more awful effect because he is an incomparably greater artist.
He knows the economy of thrills as few have done. His is the genius of compression, of suggestion. His dream elements, for instance, though Hoffmann uses the dream to as great extent as Poe— are more poignant, more un- bearable. A French influence is likewise manifest in the later English fiction. The Gothic novel had made itself felt in France as well as in Germany, a proof of which is the fact that Balzac was so impressed by Maturin's novel that he wrote a sequel to it. Balzac's Magic Skin is a symbolic story of supematuralism that suggests Hawthorne's allegoric symbolism and may have influenced it in part.
It is a new application of the old theme, used often in the drama as in Gothic romance, of the pledge of a soul for earthly gratification. A magic skin gives the man his heart's desires, yet each granted wish makes the talisman shrink perceptibly, with an inexorable decrease. This theme, symbolic of the truth of life, is such a spiritual idea used allegorically as Hawthorne chose frequently and doubtless influenced Oscar Wilde's Picture of Dorian Grey, Balzac's Unknown Masterpiece is another example of his supematuralism that has had its suggestive effect on English ghostly fictions.
Guy de Maupassant has doubtless influenced English tales of horror more than any foreign writer since Hoff- mann.
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As a stylist he exercised a definite and strong influ- ence over the short-story form, condensing it, making it more economical, more like a fatal bullet that goes straight to the mark, and putting into a few himdred words a story of supernatural horror relentless in its effect. Henry's delicately perfect ghost story. And surely F. What a terrible corpus it must be! There is the same gruesome mystery, the same implacable horror in each story of a mutilated ghost.
Maupassant's stories of madness, akin to Poe's analyses of mental decay, of the slow corruption of the brain, are among his most dreadful triumphs of style, and have influenced various English stories of insanity. In Mau- passant's own tottering reason we find the tragic explana- tion of his constant return to this type of story. Such tales as Mad, where a husband goes insane from doubt of his wife; Madness, where a man has a weird power over human beings, animals, and even inanimate objects, mak- ing them do his will, so that he is terrified of his own self, of what his horrible hands may do mechanically; Cocotte, where the drowned dog, following its master a hundred miles down the river, drives him insane; The Tress, a curdling story of the relation between insanity and the supernatural, so that one is unable to say which is cause and which effect, illustrate Maupassant's imusual as- sociation between madness and imcanny fiction.
Who but Maupassant could make a story of ghastly hideousness out of a parrot that swears? As Maupassant was influ- enced by Poe, in both subject matter and technique, so he has affected the English writers since his time in both plot material and treatment of the supernatural. A Mystery that anticipated it by a number of years, so it left its inevitable impress on Bierce's The Damned Thing and succeeding stories of supemattiral in- visibility. Maupassant's tales have a 62 Later Influences peculiar horror possessed by few, partly because of his tmdoubted genius and partly the result of his increasing madness.
Other French writers have also influenced the uncanny story in English. Th6ophile Gautier has undoubtedly inspired various tales, such as The Mummy's Foot, by Jessie Adelaide Weston, which is the match, though not in beauty or form, to his little masterpiece of that title. Something of the same theme is also used by F. This motif illustrates the prevalence of the Oriental I material in recent English fiction.
The Waters of Death, an accoimt of a loathsome, enchanted crab, suggests H. Wells's story of the plant vampire. Lord Dimsany, while startlingly original in most respects, seems a bit influenced by Anatole France. In France's satire the gods change pen- guins into men whose souls will be lost, because the priest has baptized them by mistake, while in Dtmsany's story the baboons pray to the Yogis, who promise to make them men in return for their devotion.
And the baboons arose from worshipping, smoother about the face and a little shorter in the arms, and went away and hid themselves in clothing and herded with men. Maeterlinck, influenced by his fellow-Belgian, Charles Van Lerberghe, whose Flaireurs appeared before Maeter- linck's plays of the uncanny and to whom he acknowledges his indebtedness, has strongly affected ghostly literature since his rise to recognition. In his plays we find an at- mospheric supematuralism. The settings are of earth, yet with an imearthly strangeness, with no impression of realism, of the familiar, the known.
In Maeterlinck's plays we never breathe the air of actuality, never feel the footing of solid earth, as we always do in Shakespeare, even in the presence of ghosts or witches. Shakespeare's visitants are ghostly enough, certainly, but the scenes in which they appear are real, are normal, while in the Bel- gian's work there is a fluidic supematuralism that trans- forms everything to tmreality.
We feel the grip of fate, as in the ancient Greek tragedies, the inescapable calamity that approaches with swift, silent pace. Yet Maeter- linck's is essentially static drama. There is very little action, among the human beings, at least, for Fate is the active agent. In The Blind, The Intruder, and Interior the elements are much the same, the effects wrought out with the same tmearthly manner.
The influence of Maeterlinck is apparent in the work of English writers, particularly of the Celtic school. Sharp's other literary self, Fiona McLeod, likewise shows his influence, as does Synge in his Riders to the Sea, and Gordon Bottomley in his Crier by Night, that eerie tragedy of an imseen power.
Maeterlinck's supematuralism seems to suggest the poetry of Coleridge, with its elusive, intangible ghostUness. The effect of naivet6 observable in Coleridge's work is in Maeterlinck produced by a child-like simplicity of style, a monosyllabic dialogue, and a monotonous, imreasoning repetition that is at once real and unreal. The dramatist has brought over from the poet the same suggestive use of IX rtents and symbols for prefiguring death or disaster that lurks just outside.
The ghostliness is subtle, rather than evident, the drama static rather than dynamic. Ibsen, also, has strongly influenced the supernatural in both our drama and our fiction. His own work has a certain kinship with that of Hawthorne, showing a like symbolism and mysticism, a like transfusion of the unreal with the natural, so that one scarcely knows just how far he means our acceptance of the unearthly to extend. He leaves it in some cases an open question, while in others he frankly introduces the supematiural. The imcanny power of tmspoken thought, the haunting force of ideas rather than the crude visible phantasriis of the dead, as in the tele- pathy, or hypnotism, or what you will, in The Master Builder, the evasive, intangible haunting of the living by the dead as in Rosmersholm, the strange powers at work as in The Lady from the Sea, have had effect on the nu- merous psychic dramas and stories in English.
The sym- bolic mysticism in Emperor and Galilean, showing the spirits of Cain and of Judas, with their sad ignorance of life's riddles, the vision of Christ in person, with His im- ceasing power over men's souls, foreshadowed the plays and stories bringing in the personality of Christ, as The Servant in the House, and The Passing of the Third Floor Back, Modem Italian literature, as represented by Pogazzaro and P'Annunzio, introduces the ghostly in fiction and in the drama, and has had its effect on our literature. Later Influences 67 packet of letters from two evil lovers lie buried in a hearth and by their subtle influence corrupt the soul of every woman who occupies the room.
Likewise a new force in the work of the Russian school has affected our fiction of the ghostly in recent years. Russian literature is a new field of thought for English people, since it is only of late years that translations have been easily accessible, and, because of the extreme diffi- culty of the language, very few outsiders read Russian.
As German Romanticism began to have its definite power over English supernatural fiction in the early part of the nineteenth century by the extension of interest in and study of German literature, and the more frequent trans- lation of German works, so in this generation Russian literature has been introduced to English people and is having its influence. A primitive, still savage race like the Russians naturally shows a special fondness for the supernatural.
Despite the fact that literature is written for the higher classes, a large peasant body, illiterate and superstitious, will in- fluence the national fiction. In the Russian works best known to us there is a large element of the imcanny, of a type in some respects different from that of any other coimtry. Like the Russian national character, it is harsh, brutal, violent, yet sentimental. One singular thing to be noted about it is the peculiar combination of supema- turalism with absolute realism. In Gogol's The Cloak, for instance, the fidelity to homely de- tails of life, the descriptions of pinching poverty, of tragic hopes that waited so long for fulfillment, are painful in themselves and give verisimilitude to the element of the tmearthly that follows.
You feel that a poor Russian clerk who had stinted himself from necessity all his life would come back from the dead to claim his stolen property and demand redress. The supernatural gains a new power, a more tremendous thrill when set off against the every-day- ness of sordid life. Marion Crawford. Tolstoi's symbolic story of Ivan the Fool is an impressive utterance of his views of life, expressed by the allegory of man's folly and wisdom and the schemes of devils. Turgeniev's pronoimced strain of the tmearthly has had its influence on English fiction.
He uses the dream ele- ments to a marked degree, as in The Song of Love Tri- umphant, a story of Oriental magic employed through dreams and music, and The Dream, an accotmt of a son's revelatory visions of his imknown father. The dream element has been used considerably in our late fiction, some of which seems to reflect Turgeniev.
This seems to have affected such stories as that of psychical vampirism in The Vampire, by Reginald Hodder. We find in much of Turgeniev's prose the symbolic, mystical supematuralism besides his use of dreams, visions, and a distinct Oriental element. In Knock! The same tone is felt in HamKn Garland's treatment of the subject, for instance.
The mystical romanticism of Turgeniev is less brutally Russian than that of most of his compeers. Like Maupassant and Hoffman and Poe, the Russian writers use to a considerable extent the association be- tween insanity and the supernatural to heighten the effect of both. They may have been influenced in this by Poe's studies of madness, as by Maupassant's, and they appear to have an influence over certain present-day writers. One wonders what type of mania obsesses certain of the Russian fictionists of to-day, for surely they cannot be normal persons.
But it is in the work of Leonidas Andreyev that we get the ultimate anguish of madness. The Red Laugh, an analysis of the madness of war, of the insanity of nations as of individuals, seems to envelop the world in a sheet of flame. The Russian fiction with its impersonality of pessimism, its racial gloom, its terrible sordid realism forming a basis for awesome supematuralism, is of a type foreign to our thought, yet, as is not infrequently the case, the radically different has a strange appeal, and the effect of it on our stories of horror is imdoubted.
English and American readers are greatly interested in Russian literature just now and find a peculiar relish in its terrors, though the harsher elements are somewhat softened in transference to our language. Other fields of thought have been opened to us within this generation by the widening of our knowledge of the literature of other European coimtries. Books are much more freely translated now than formerly and no person need be ignorant of the fiction of other lands.
From the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Chinese, Japanese, and other tongues we are receiving stories of supematural- ism that give us new ideas, new points of view. The greater ease of travel, the opportunity to study once- distant lands and literatures have been reflected in our fiction. Some one should write a monograph on the literary influence of Cook's tours! Apart from the foreign influences that affect it we notice a certain change in the materials and methods of ghostly fiction in English. New elements had entered into Gothic tales as an advance over the earlier forms, yet con- ventions had grown up so that even such evasive and elu- sive personalities as ghosts were hideboimd by precedent.
While the decline of the genre definitely known as the Gothic novel in no sense put an end to the supernatural in English fiction, it did mark a difference in manner. The Gothic ghosts were more elementary in their nature, more superficial, than those of later times. Life was, in the days of Walpole and Mrs. Raddiffe, more local because of the limitations of travel and communication, it being considered astoimding in Gothic times that a ghost could travel a thotisand miles with ease while mortals moved snail-like.
Scientific investigation was crude com- pared with the present and had not greatly touched fiction. Scientific folk-lore investigations were as un- known as societies of psychical research, hence neither had aided in the writing of ghostly fiction. The mass of ghostly stuff which has appeared in English since the Gothic period, and which will be classified and discussed tmder different motifs in succeeding chapters, shows many of the same characteristics of the earlier, yet exhibits also a decided development over primitive, classical and Gothic forms.
The modem supematuralism is more complex, more psychological than the terroristic, 72 Later Influences perhaps becatise nowadays man is more intellectual, his thought-processes more subtle. Himianity still wants ghosts, as ever, but they must be more cleverly presented to be convincing. The ghostly thrill is as ardently de- sired by the reading public, as eagerly striven for by the writers as ever, though it is more difficult of achievement now than formerly.
Yet when it is attained it is more poignant and lasting in its effects because more subtle in its art. The apparition that eludes analysis haimts the memory more than do the comparatively simple forms of the past. Compare, for instance, the spirits evoked by Henry James and Katherine Fullerton Gerould with the crude dap-trap of cloistered spooks and armored knights of Gothic times.
How cheap and melodramatic the earlier attempts seem! The present-day ghost is at once less terrible and more terrible than those of the past. There is not so much a sense of physical fear now, as of psychic horror. The pallid specters that glide through antique castles are ineffectual compared with the maleficent psychic invasions of modernity. On the other hand, the recent ghostly story frequently shows a strong sense of htmaor imknown in Gothicism, and only suggested in earlier forms, as in the elder Pliny's statement that ghosts would not visit a person afflicted with freckles, which shows at least a germinal joviality in classical spooks.
One feature that distinguishes the tmcanny tales of to-day from the Gothic is their greater range of material. The early terror story had its source in popular super- stition, classical literature, medieval legends, or the Elizabethan drama, while in the century that has elapsed since the decay of the Gothic novel as such, new fields of thought have been opened up, and new sources for ghostly plots have been discovered which the writers of modem stories are quick to utilize.
Present-day science with its Later Influences 73 wonderful development has provided coiintless plots for supemattiral stories. Comparative study of folk-lore, with the activities of the numerous associations, has brought to light fascinating material. Modem Spiritual- ism, with its seances, its mediumistic experiments, has inspired many novels and stories.
The Psychical Re- search Society, with branches in various parts of the worid and its earnest advocates and serious investigations, has collected suggestive stuff for many ghostly stories. The different soiu-ces for plot material and mechanics for awesome effect, added to these from which the terror novel drew its inspiration, have incalculably enriched the supernatural fiction and widened the limits far beyond the restrictions of the conventionalized Gothic.
Science has furnished themes for many modem stories of the supernatural. Bartholomew Park is arguably now better known for its haunting history than its wine, hence why it gets a spot on this list. Frank Bartholomew bought the site in the s and the winery has become an organic producer. There is a story told about the discovery of the remains of a prisoner in the basement walls following an earthquake in the s. If you fancy a supernatural soundtrack to a wine tasting then look no further! Dry Creek sits on the site of a Pomo Indian Reservation.
Yes, this really is just like those films where something is built on an Indian burial ground. American Indians have reportedly been seen by employees, as well as lights turning on and off and doors unlocking before proceeding to swing open. The manager of the tasting room has quite the ghost story too. Whilst working late, ignored their phone ringing. Once finished with their work, they checked the phone to see whom the missed call was from, only to find their own number was the caller… spooky indeed! If you're a ghost story fiend then don't miss our piece on haunted distilleries!
And if you're planning on some winery visits, well, we've got plenty to choose from Share article via. Loire Valley Castles with lunch at a Credit: chateau-brissac. Bartholomew Park Winery Bartholomew Park is arguably now better known for its haunting history than its wine, hence why it gets a spot on this list. Napa Valley Wine Tour on a Trolley. Thirsty for Drink Updates?