Bisogni linguistici dei discenti di italiano alla scuola di lingua e cultura italiana per stranieri di Siena Linguistic Needs of Students of Italian at the School of Italian Language and Culture for Foreigners of Siena. Presents the results of a questionnaire administered to students of Italian at the School for Foreigners of Siena to determine the following: 1 student characteristics; 2 student motivations for studying Italian; 3 student interests; 4 student linguistic needs; and 5 student evaluation of the program.
Dall'altra, hanno il compito di coordinare maggiormente la formazione universitaria in relazione Ireland has recently attracted more and more immigration.
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Even if there are not many Italian immigrants living in Ireland, the study of Italian as a foreign language is quite wide-spread, although not quite as popular as French, German and Spanish. This paper is a quantitative analysis of the study of Italian as a foreign language in Irish schools and universities. The survey was carried out using data from institutional sources, internet sites, printed materials as well as the author's personal experience teaching Italian in Ireland. The results illustrate the number of students studying Italian as a foreign language in high schools and the courses offered in the main Irish universities, in particular at the National University of Ireland in Galway, which offers numerous courses on Italian language and culture.
Tutto questo attraverso la scrittura in lingua italiana e tramite la fotografia. It is aimed at developing relationships, exchanges, dialogues, promoting mutual knowledge and creating dialogue between different cultures, identities and experiences through writing in Italian and photography.
Language gives substance to ideas, desires, inner worlds, becoming thought, and is thus an indispensable tool to exist and have a voice. Akkadian as Lingua Franca. In the later second millennium BC, the Akkadian language functions as lingua franca, the language of international communication and diplomacy, over a vast area, ranging from Egypt to Anatolia and from Cyprus to Iran. This dissertation investigates the form, function, and use of Akkadian dialects This survey includes a cursory literature search on BELF and a thorough literature study of 12 Chinese major academic journals.
From the data collected…. Parole chiave: Lingua italiana ; linguistica applicata; insegnamento ed apprendimento delle lingue straniere; letteratura. Keywords: Italian; applied linguistics; foreign language teanching and learning; literature. Language and theater: italian, a drama? This article aims at showing through examples and didactic activities, how the theater can develop learning Italian as a foreign language together with the intercultural awareness of foreign learners and create contexts for inclusion and learning. Doing theater in a didactic setting and to encourage the inclusion of foreign students is an original and effective method to employ in the school setting.
Thanks to this experience the foreigner can. In particular. Mind your languages: Lingua Receptiva in Estonian-Russian communication. This study was inspired by the idea that there is more diversity in the ways languages come into contact to create efficient and fair communication. The alternative mode explored in this study is called lingua receptiva or, LaRa : here interlocutors speak their own language and have enough. English is unquestionably the world language of academia--yet its most notable characteristic, being predominantly used by non-native speakers, has not seriously been taken on board in ESP descriptive studies.
The project English as an academic lingua franca ELFA based at the University of Helsinki investigates academic discourses, branching out…. Epistemic stance marking in the use of English as a lingua franca.
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A comparative study of the pragmatic functions of epistemic stance marking in problem-solving sequences at student project group meetings, with special emphasis on meetings where English is used as a lingua franca La chiesa antica nella storiografia italiana recente. Il contributo prende in esame problemi, tendenze e prospettive nella recente storiografia italiana , con particolare attenzione ai nodi interpretativi che le attuali indagini appaiono privilegiare sul tema della Chiesa nei primi secoli.
ABSTRACT: The recent Italian studies in the history of ancient Church show many novelties and new approaches, related to the new interests and methodologies of the various sciences involved in the religious history of Antiquity. The paper deals with the problems and the trends in the recent Italian historiography, with special attention to the main subjects of the research about the Church in the first Christian centuries.
Il caso della letteratura ucronica italiana. Ucronia e propaganda nella narrativa italiana. Full Text Available Oggetto dello studio sono le narrazioni ucroniche italiane del secondo dopoguerra, in comparazione con le principali opere anglosassoni del genere e in relazione con i movimenti di estrema destra. La problematica viene inquadrata con un approccio storico e le opere sono confrontate con i modelli stranieri in un'ottica comparativa. The use of English as a lingua franca in translation.
Full Text Available In translation, not only two languages but two cultures come into contact which means that translators must consider who wrote the text, when, why, for whom and who is now reading it and for what purpose. In the wake of rapid technological advances and the need to spread information quickly and efficiently, translation has grown in importance in the globalized world. So has its reliance on English in its role as a global lingua franca.
This is the linguistic hybridity used in constructing a wider view of the world. However, the prime aim of any lingua franca communication is mutual intelligibility. In this study , the translation of linguistic units can only be understood when considered together with the cultural contexts in which they arise, and in which they are used. Chinese English in as lingua franca in global business setting: A case study of ongoing emails of a foreign company in China.
Full Text Available With the process of globalization, English has been increasingly become the lingua franca for people speaking different languages to communicate with each other, among whom the number of non-native speakers of English far outnumbers those native speakers in traditional sense. Against this background, the principle of taking the rules of native English speakers as the norms is undergoing challenges.
The non-native speakers are claiming the ownership and rights of norm-providing to the English language Crystal, In business setting, this is especially true Charles, This paper intends to explore the use of Chinese English as lingua franca in business setting. Taking a foreign enterprise based in China as the case, this paper investigates over ongoing business e-mails written in English by its Chinese employees, including the management and other staff.
Four most salient patterns of Chinese English structures are identified, i. Based on the afore-said analysis, this paper concludes that Chinese English, during the process of language contact, has become a legitimate English variation, and has been providing new norms for the other countries to follow. It is suggested that business English users in China need to use their Chinese English with a confident stance, while business partners from other countries need to get familiar with this English variation in order for them to communicate effectively with their Chinese partners.
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The objective is to highlight some of the most typical features in relation to one of the most representative professionals in oral tourist communication, between expert and public: tourist guides. The first part of the article is devoted to the definition of the language of tourism and, in particular, to the characteristics of the.
La letteratura italiana tradotta in Argentina. Il presente lavoro tratta in maniera sistematica, ma provvisoria, il panorama della letteratura italiana tradotta in Argentina. La Storia della letteratura italiana come romanzo. Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.
Older patients are prone to multimorbidity and polypharmacy, with an inherent risk of adverse events and drug interactions. To the best of our knowledge, available information on the appropriateness of lipid-lowering treatment is extremely limited. The aim of the present study was to quantify and characterize lipid-lowering drug use in a population of complex in-hospital older patients. Lipid-lowering drug use was closely correlated with the clinical profiles, including multimorbidity markers and polypharmacy. The patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs amounted to subjects Atorvastatin At logistic regression analysis, the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension were significantly correlated with lipid-lowering drug use, whereas age showed an inverse correlation.
Diabetes was not associated with drug treatment. In this in-hospital cohort, the use of lipid-lowering agents was mainly driven by patients' clinical history, most notably the presence of clinically overt manifestations of atherosclerosis. Increasing age seems to be associated with lower prescription rates. This might be indicative of cautious behavior towards a potentially toxic treatment regimen.
The goal of this article is to re define key terminology in the study of English as a lingua franca ELF. Although the diverse perspectives and ideological standpoints represented in competing definitions of terms is appreciated, a critical conversation on definition and interpretation of ELF and other related concepts is crucial in providing a…. English has become the " lingua franca" of international exchanges. This is reflected in sociolinguistic studies of linguistic landscape LL which tackle the coexistence of English with local languages e.
Nino-Murcia, However, there is little…. Controversies on Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Just one year ago the Italian Society of Pathology S. Pasquale Calapso was asked to chair the Group and Prof. Stefano Pileri to take care of secretarial duties. The aim of the Group is to spread hematopathologic knowledge among young pathologists and to promote activities that can contribute to updating Italian pathologists on topics of both speculative and diagnostic interest.
The first Workshop of the S. About pathologists from all over Italy took part in the meeting, which consisted of two sections devoted to: a discussion of the boundaries between Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and b a case seminar illustrating the impact of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of bone-marrow biopsy. The first section included 5 presentations and a Round Table chaired by Prof.
Luciano Fiore-Donati. Below, the contributors to this section summarize the content of their presentations, which were aimed at answering specific questions the Organizers had put to them. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua -pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua - pedagogy.
The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua -pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua -pedagogic system — the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks.
Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation.
Full Text Available The article deals with lingua -semiotic representation of the power ritual as one of the symbolic forms of behavior that over time ceases to be spontaneous and becomes regular and repeated. Under discussion is the rite of coronation, which was becoming more complicated and acquired a final form throughout the history of Anglo-Saxon statehood. The process of defining parameters and characteristics of the power ritual is performed by chrono-, topo-, sound and language components of the ritual; it is established that in ritual communication the verbalization of the event is gradually becoming more complicated, clarifying its linguistic component, which largely ensures the success of the ritual; the non-verbal signs acquire additional meaning becoming dominant over simplified verbal signs.
It is proved that within the ritual space of the Anglo-Saxon statehood an extensive and rigidly fixed system of signs and symbols has been formed, nominating the process of interaction between the sovereign and his subjects — three groups of signs characterizing the Anglo-Saxon power ritual communication: regulating, processing and classifying signs. Their content distinction is analyzed. Authority widely applies these signs as tools to influence the society through social stereotypes and ethnic psychological associations. Artifacts, as symbols of state power, and oaths, as discursive element of the coronation, are stated as the central elements of the ritual.
Full Text Available The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities in the recognition of other varieties of English which, albeit not exploited as benchmarks for language testing and certification, must nevertheless boast a relevant place in the global scenario.
This can be achieved in practical terms by interrogating an expressly made corpus of Chinese English news texts and carrying out simple concordance activities. There is a lack of research on the impact of study abroad SA on the development of L2 English when students study in non-anglophone countries. Lingua patientis: new words for patient communication and history taking. The English language sometimes fails in its ability to describe the severity or complexity of medical symptoms and complaints. In frustration, patients or families occasionally create new words to convey the subtleties of their medical history.
Although medicine has created a comprehensive technical lexicon for physicians, we have failed to develop a corresponding patient-centric vocabulary lingua patientis that provides more accurate symptom description. The social networking of lingua patientis words might enhance history taking and afford improved appreciation of disease impact on individual patients.
The English language is renowned for its capacity for flexibility and adaptability - we need to exploit this capacity for the benefit of our patients. A Lingua Franca for Africa. Esperanto Documents No. The actual possibilities for communication among Africans are unsatisfactory. While the north has adopted Arabic as its lingua franca, most African states south of the Sahara still use the language s of their former colonial masters as official languages, thereby neglecting their native languages.
This situation excludes many people from higher…. This article will provide an overview of current research focussing on the use of English as a " lingua franca" in international business contexts. It selectively reviews research investigating the role of written and spoken communication in English and the work that has been done on specific text genres used by the international business….
Over the past 15 years or so there has developed a school of thought within English language education and applied linguistics globally which refers to the phenomenon and use of English as a lingua franca ELF. The thinking of ELF movement researchers has placed their work at the centre of current debates about the form, function and legitimacy….
It has long been maintained that the etymology of zani, zanni — the servant or buffoon of the commedia dell'arte — is a northern Italian variant of the proper noun Giovanni, or its shortened form, Gianni. In Tommaseo and Bellini's Dizionario della lingua italiana , published in Turin between and , it is stated that the The analysis of speech, particularly for emotional content, is an open area of current research. Ongoing work has developed an emotional speech corpus for analysis, and defined a vowel stress method by which this analysis may be performed. This paper documents the development of Lingua Tag, an open source speech analysis software application which implements this vowel stress emotional speech analysis method developed as part of research into the acoustic and linguistic correlates of emotional English as a lingua franca used at international meetings.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of English as a lingua franca. It concentrates on the environment of international meetings where English is used as a lingua franca. The aim of the research conducted through a survey of members of a NATO working group is to find out how native and non-native speakers feel about English used as a lingua franca during international meetings and how these two groups of speakers see each other in multinational interaction from the point of view of linguistics. The sections dealing with non-native speakers concentrate on the level of knowledge of English and on how native speakers cope with the English used during the meetings.
The sections dealing with the views of English native speakers should establish the approach they take towards mistakes made by non-native speakers, whether native speakers should adjust the way they speak at international meetings and how they generally view the fact that their mother tongue is used all around the world. Il Punto Organico: una storia italiana. The origin of the notion of P. Exploring solidarity and consensus in English as lingua franca interactions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: 1 to problematise the overly affiliative interpretations of English as lingua franca ELF interactions across all contexts and combinations of people, and demonstrate instances where this is not the case; 2 to explore the role of laughables and laughter These instances are dealt with through laughables and laughter sequences.
Sequential analysis of these naturally occurring audio-recorded conversations indicate that participants make salient and orient to what Un sistema di supporto alle decisioni per Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. It traditionally operates with a consistent view on innovation, safety and quality, and with a strong opening to processes optimization. RFI solutions provide total process integration: this trend also sees the introduction of GIS technologies, which represent an important geographical-based support for the decision makers.
Italian as lingua franca, the law of connected vessels and the improvement of the results into the multilingual class. About a teaching experience. Influenze lunguistiche romanze nello sloveno letterario di Trieste. La lingua di Boris Pahor. Per comparare il comparabile sono state messe a confronto alle opere di Pahor v. Full Text Available The issue of the interference of English in modern Italian has always been of interest to researchers in Italy. This paper outlines how this interference has affected the Italian language over the last two decades. Arrigo Castellani and Tullio De Mauro.
The most widespread English loanwords of the economic crisis found in the three major Italian newspapers from 1 September to 1 March have been taken into account and it has been verified whether they are present in three wellknown Italian monolingual dictionaries. It will also be shown that most of these loanwords have been adequately integrated into the Italian language in both written and oral texts.
Curriculum Guide for Italian Language Arts. Working Draft. A curriculum and teaching guide for introductory literature appreciation in the Chicago public schools is an orientation for the bilingual teacher of Italian students. Concepts such as rhyme and personification are developed for the teacher. For each of the two levels included, the section begins with a list of specific performance objectives,…. The historical issue in film genre Commedia all ' italiana : the first world war in fiction.
Full Text Available The theme chosen for this article was to join "Cinema and History" to the cinematographic genre commedia all' italiana. First, there is a general introduction that discusses the italian genre. Promoting lingua franca English in Europe. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of factors influencing the local language learning and the improvement in English language proficiency among exchange students coming to Scandinavia.
The study included four Scandinavian universities: two The paper presents findings on the students' perceived patterns of interaction and language use while in Scandinavia and discusses some of the consequences of EU exchange programs on the use of ELF English as a lingua franca in higher education. The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca ELF as the medium of instruction.
With this change, EAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF. These changes It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group.
These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP I tre giorni del congresso sono stati caratterizzati da letture, sessioni scientifiche, corsi educazionali, incontri con gli esperti, sezioni poster, corsi di aggiornamento su temi speciali, e diversi simposi. Dal punto di vista clinico, sono Full Text Available Young children with multiple disabilities e.
Stimulating the adult-child communication can decrease these limitations. Within Lingua Bytes, a three-year research program, we try to stimulate language development by developing an interactive and adaptive play and learning environment, incorporating tangible objects and multimedia content, based on interactive storytelling and anchored instruction. The development of a product for such a heterogeneous user group presents substantial challenges. We use a Research-through-Design method, that is, an iterative process of developing subsequent experiential prototypes and then testing them in real-life settings, for example, a center for rehabilitation medicine.
The Deceiving ELF? Can Englsh fulfil the role of a Lingua Franca? Full Text Available Abstract — The debate which surrounds the role of English as a lingua franca has been lively and extensive over the last twenty years or so. Numerous conferences and specific publications in the field testify to the interest and importance that the question of the development of a possible international functional language has stimulated. The present article aims to critically reassess the claims made for ELF and, at the same time, highlight the profound significance of the issues the debate has raised.
Discussion of ELF has touched upon the perception of linguistic diversity, inaccuracy and variation, intelligibility and the potential functions of an international language. Other topics of profound importance that are part of the debate relate to the role of any language in creating and maintaining identity, enabling social mobility and empowering its users. Some criticisms of ELF proposals have been easily rebutted, but this paper aims to underline the serious linguistic and socio-linguistic aspects of the debate in order to emphasize the need for a theoretical underpinning to our understanding of how language can operate in the global environment.
Clarification of what we can and cannot know about language change and behavior will also contribute to ideas as to future research in ELF but will also bring us to the conclusion that predictions of the future development of ELF are of little purpose beyond the curiosity value they may possess. Keywords: English1; lingua franca2; non-native speaker3. Luces y sombras de la historia de la renta italiana. La contabilidad nacional se ha planificado en Italia sin dar lugar a una democracia liberal, como fue el caso de los Estados Unidos. La narrativa italiana racconta la politica contemporanea.
Sguardi politici dalla narrativa italiana contemporanea, Roma, Carocci Editore, , p. Clinical strategies for the management of intestinal obstruction and pseudo-obstruction. Moreover, a general agreement in this field is currently lacking, thus SICUT Society designed a consensus study aimed to define their optimal workout. The Delphi methodology was used to reach consensus among 47 Italian surgical experts in two study rounds. Consensus was defined as an agreement of Four main topic areas included nosology, diagnosis, management and treatment. A bowel obstruction was defined as an obstacle to the progression of intestinal contents and fluids generally beginning with a sudden onset.
Panel also recommended a surgical admission, a multidisciplinary approach, and a gastrografin swallow for patients presenting occlusions. Moreover, rules for non-operative management to be conducted for maximum 72 hours included a naso-gastric drainage placement and clinical and laboratory controls each 12 hours. Conversely, consensus was not reached regarding the exact timing of CT scan and the appropriateness of colonic stenting.
This consensus is in line with current international strategies and guidelines, and it could be a useful tool in the safe basic daily management of these common and peculiar diseases. Delphi study , Intestinal obstruction, Large bowel obstruction, Pseudo-obstruction, Small bowel. Front-line window therapy with cisplatin in patients with primary disseminated Ewing sarcoma: A study by the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica and Italian Sarcoma Group. Response was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours criteria, and Simon's two-stage design was applied.
Twelve consecutive patients were enrolled in stage 1. Only one objective response was observed. Since the target response rate was not achieved, accrual was stopped and CDDP as a single agent in ES was judged unworthy of further assessment. The use of anthracycline at first-line compared to alkylating agents or nucleoside analogs improves the outcome of salvage treatments after relapse in follicular lymphoma The REFOLL study by the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi.
Follicular lymphoma FL patients experience multiple remissions and relapses and commonly receive multiple treatment lines. A crucial question is whether anthracyclines should be used at first-line or whether they would be better "reserved" for relapse and whether FL outcome can be optimized by definite sequences of treatments. Randomized trials can be hardly designed to address this question. The addition of rituximab to first-line chemotherapy had no significant impact HR Autologs stem cell transplantation performed better than any other salvage treatment HR The outcome of second-line treatments, either with salvage chemoimmunotherapy or with autologs stem cell transplantation, was better when an anthracycline-containing regimen was used at first-line.
Repertori retorici e negoziazione culturale nei racconti di vita di rifugiati: Lingua Franca e implicazioni ideologiche. Full Text Available Abstract — This chapter analyses the storytelling performance of an asylum seeker speaking in English for an international audience and recorded on a video released by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The primary purpose of the study is to investigate the rhetorical structuring of the narrative in an ethnopoetic perspective Hymes , and to identify the presence or, even more significantly, marked absence of dialogic signs of intercultural negotiation deployed in the process of conveying to a culturally diverse audience a highly culturally situated story embedded in a personal narrative of displacement.
At the same time, the study also intends to contribute to the current debate on English as a Lingua Franca ELF by addressing the issue of the inherently situated nature of ELF, and of the political and ideological implications of an ELF approach to intercultural communication in both asymmetric and programmatically symmetric power situations. Because of their global outreach, these videos qualify as instances of ELF usage in a broad international context and are eminently suited to the investigation and discussion of ELF approaches to conventionally asymmetric institutional communication. The growth of English into a lingua franca has inevitably created linguistic deviations and innovations in the use of English.
These emerging uses that result from the needs and preferences of speakers whose mother tongues are all different can be broadly identified as lexico-grammatical and pronunciation features and they compose one of the main…. The main feature of Monty Lingua is the coverage for all aspects of English text processing from raw input text to semantic meanings and summary generation, yet each component in Monty Lingua is loosely-coupled to each other at the architectural and code level, which enabled individual components to be used independently or substituted.
However, there has been no review exploring the role of Monty Lingua in recent research work utilizing it. This paper aims to review the use of and roles played by Monty Lingua and its components in research work published in 19 articles between October and August We had observed a diversified use of Monty Lingua in many different areas, both generic and domain-specific.
Although the use of text summarizing component had not been observe, we are optimistic that it will have a crucial role in managing the current trend of information overload in future research. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided.
Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries. Incoming exchange students' learning and use of lingua franca English and local languages in Scandinavia. Each interview concluded with two tests: a picture description test and a basic vocabulary test; all interviews were recorded. Findings relating to the interviewees' language goals, interaction with others and language use in such interaction will be presented and discussed Full Text Available Si fa una breve desorizione della funzione degli Osservatori Scientifico-Sperimentali del Servizio Meteorologico deU'Aeronautioa, militare italiana OSSMA, con particolare riferimento a quello di Messina, clie tra i suoi coinpiti ha anche quello degli studi e delle ricerclie sulla radiazione solare, con la gestione di una Rete attinometrica di 31 stazioni.
Si passa quindi ad una rapida rassegna evocativa degli studi sulla radiazione solare su scala mondiale, notificando il contributo italiano e mettendo in particolare rilievo quelli della radiazione globale D -j- I anche a scopo sinottico, che formano oggetto di particolari applicazioni da parte dell'OSSMA di Messina.
Inoltre fatta una breve descrizione del funzionamento della Rete attinometrica A. Detti fenomeni, unitamente all'azione delle correnti superflciali marine calde, a circolazione ciclonic. Si auspica pertanto una maggiore collaborazione t r a Meteorologia e Oceanografla. Inline, in relazione tra i fenomeni sopra detti e l'andamento della acqua precipitabile notturna e diurna, ricavata dai radiosondaggi, si emette l'ipotesi che una parte dell'ossigeno atoinico atmosferico possa trovare la sua origine nella scomposizione delle molecole del vapor d'acqua dell'aria,. Filmowa commedia all' italiana w latach In the time of 70's Italian and foreign critics thought about possibility of existence comedy movie all' italiana.
Turn of the unmodernised time, comedy movie all' italiana will come into impure hybridize form. The deepest transformation give way for comedy of manners. Directors bravely trespass on politic sphere and kitsch, movie scribblers and pornography.
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Old masters of this genres has duplicated typical features schematic diagrams, they used incompetent narrative techniques and differen Ma come parlano i bambini stranieri nati in Italia? Second generation Italian speakers. In Italian schools there is an important change which regards foreign children enrolled: every year there are more and more of them who were born in Italy and they enter the school system following the same rhythms as their native classmates while fewer and fewer foreigners arrive from their home countries to reunite with their families.
How do foreign children, born in Italy, speak? This observational study focused on some foreign 5-year-old children in Italian preschools and attempted to describe the language used by these second-generation speakers, between hesitations, silences, achievements and linguistic creativity.
Il concetto di storia della lingua nell'opera grammaticale di Benedetto Buommattei. A questo dato di fatto si deve senz'altro l'opinione altrettanto estesa che prima dell' non esistesse il concetto di linguistica diacronica o cambiamento linguistico in senso scientifico, come pure quella non meno erronea che la linguistica, come scienza, sia stata fondata solo nell' In formal organizations, VCs are regarded as dynamic; people or work processes move back and forth between formal business processes and VCs.
It is interesting to see how VCs in enterprise landscapes can execute using a common understanding My reading leads me to claim that traditional Marxist thinking is compromised by its association with authoritarian and totalitarian stances, as opposed to Post-Marxist views of pluralism, libertarianism, and openness to the cultural climate of postmodernism. Estudio comparativo de los aportes de las inmigraciones italiana y portuguesa a la vida nacional venezolana.
Finalmente, se res This article explores the issues of pronunciation and comprehension in the English as a lingua franca ELF context of pilot--air traffic controller radiotelephony communication, and how these are handled in the proficiency rating scale globally used to assess pilots and air traffic controllers engaging in international flight and air traffic….
In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…. Determinati e direttrici della politica finanziaria italiana. Determinants and trends of Italian financial policy.
Altri due tendenze - privatizzazione e deregolamentazione - sono stati molto meno in primo piano rispetto al resto del mondo. L'autore fornisce un'ampia panoramica dello stato della politica finanziaria italiana , guardando le circostanze economiche e le politiche macroeconomiche , l'innovazione finanziaria , il processo di liberalizzazione e privatizzazione di regolamentazione. Italian financial policy in the eighties has been aimed mainly at improving the relevant segments and achieving a better mix of the whole range of instruments and intermediaries.
Two other trends - privatisation and deregulation - have been much less to the fore than the rest of the world. The author provides a broad overview of the state of Italian financial policy, looking at economic circumstances and macro-economic policies, financial innovation, the deregulation-regulation process and privatisation. JEL: G Suitability of linear scoring in meat sheep: the practical case of Merinizzata Italiana breed.
Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported.
Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools measuring tape and a Lydtin stick.
The percentage of correct scoring ranged from These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds. Lists statistical surveys, research papers, and…. Conceptualising English as a lingua franca ELF as a tertiary To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua -apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills.
The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups.
The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common 40 cases, The third was palatal disorder 4 cases, 6. The substitution errors of velar were the most common Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing.
After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached The lingua -apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the. Data came from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A hundred Turkish EFL teachers working at two universities in Istanbul responded to the questionnaire. Ten randomly selected EFL teachers and 10 teacher educators working in language teacher education departments of two universities were interviewed to elicit their views about the role of ELF in language teacher education.
Findings of the study revealed a number of important results and implications for the field. Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A.
The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects.
Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development.
It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. Polilinguismo nella scrittura murale urbana: Note sulla lingua spagnola. Full Text Available Abstract — In this paper I focus on the polylinguistic and polycultural landscape of Milan on the theoretical basis of daily life studies , the sociolinguistics of globalization, and intercultural pragmatics. The relevance of this field is determined by the need for urban anthropology to semiotize the urban spaces as an interpretative bridge between the microsystem the individual level and the macrosystem the social level.
More concretely, I investigate the presence of the Spanish language in the superdiversity of Milan and, methodologically, I collect ethnographically and interpret qualitatively a corpus of daily life texts of various types of street writing.
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The results show the significant presence of Spanish in the urban landscape and a high level of hybridism which is, nevertheless, totally functional in communication. I also detect the emergence of linguistic, pragmatic and intercultural awareness in the writers.
Finally, with some precautions, I confirm the scientific potential of the daily life documents to investigate complex urban dynamics. Focus on language sensitivity: collaborative translation in language class How can translation facilitate language learning? Reporting on the preliminary findings of an ongoing research project into the use of translation in language learning at the University of Warwick, UK in collaboration with the University of Monash, Australia, the authors investigate the advantages of a specific translation model in terms of linguistic sensitivity and cultural awareness.
Full Text Available The article is written to identify lingua -cultural norms and axiological determinants of modern ergonomicon of Kazan implemented in borrowings from foreign languages, they serve markers of major changes in the linguistic landscape of the modern city viewed as a socio-linguistic category. The borrowed elements in the city ergonyms register synchronous state of axiological determinants of participants of interaction: individuals, organizations and companies that create public and commercial signs.
The common significance of the language of this kind of phenomena is determined by the possibility of using them to predict the range and diversity of linguistic and axiological changes, including the partial loss of national and ethnic identity. To create a high perlocutionary effect of ergonyms nominators use a variety of creative mechanisms, changing the shape and functions of native lexems, by borrowing lexems from foreign languages, resorting to different methods of derivation such as contamination, transliteration, hybridization, pun, etc.
Unfortunately, at present time these processes demonstrate fast increase. Most clearly this kind of phenomenon is explicated in preferred nominator names of urban sites, and advertising slogans, transmitting an alien principles and postulates to traditional Russian culture. La cultura italiana en la literatura argentina: los casos de Manuel Puig y Roberto Raschella. La lingua 2 nel Web. Full Text Available L'articolo si compone di due parti. Nella prima si espongono alcuni punti focali del dibattito sul rapporto tra glottodidattica e tecnologie digitali dai dispositivi mobili ai software per la comunicazione, fino agli attuali socialnetwork.
L2 on the Web. Digital perspectives for teaching italian to foreignersThe article consists of two parts. In the first we illustrate some focal points in the debate on the relationship between language teaching and digital technologies from mobile devices to communication software and current social networks. In particular, we focus on the fact that the language of digital communication is a linguistic variety which L2 teaching can no longer ignore, and.
Full Text Available La lingua filmata appare oggi uno dei campi linguistici in cui il dialetto torna ad essere scelta registica e veicolo di nuove istanze comunicative, in stretta relazione con un nuovo modo di intendere e praticare il cinema. Through careful analysis of the vernacular, the paper focuses on the motivations and the communicative effectiveness of the use of dialect and questions the degree of realism or linguistic mimesis that Diritti was able to reach. A New Exegetical proposal for De lingua Latina 5, 8.
A group of undergraduate students was asked to produce an intralingual translation for the subtitles of the video Capsized in Lampedusa — Fortress Italia, which deals with the situation in Lampedusa after a boat capsized in October Hengeveld, B. Young children with multiple disabilities e. Within Lingua Bytes, a three-year research program,. From a sociocultural perspective, this study…. Il cuore del saggio si incentra sull'analisi comparativa tra la versione daveroniana e l'ipotesto manzoniano, con particolare attenzione alle scaturigini del comico. When the parody of Promessi Sposi was sent to press, Guido da Verona did not imagine he was committing the crime of lese-majesty with regard to the Manzonian totem, nor that it would be blacklisted by the Fascist regime.
This paper shows that, based on the analysis of the manuscript, the author's intention was not satirical, but a playful parody. It is a comparative analysis between the da Verona version and the Manzonian hypertext, with particular attention placed on the origin of the comic. Besides highlighting the traits that characterize the text brimming with linguistic wit by da Verona, the paper describes the comedic strategies used by the author based on the characters and situations, as well as in the discourse itself.
The analysis shows how the comic meaning and the breaking of logical and temporal links crack the orderly vision of the world and the language carefully. In this thesis I investigate the understanding and use of the English emotion words guilty, ashamed, and proud by Japanese and Chinese speakers of English as a lingua franca. By exploring empirical data I examine 1 how Japanese and Chinese participants understand and use the three stimulus words In the thesis 65 participants are investigated. The participants consist of 20 native Japanese and 23 native Chinese.
For comparison, a group of 22 British native English The framework, which is based on the theoretical notion of the word as an image-idea pair as suggested by the theory of linguistic supertypes, consists of three tests each addressing three different aspects of the understanding and use of the stimulus words: the Free Association test FA test , the Context Online tools and technologies for teaching and learning languages This article analyzes the development of technologies aimed at online communication in the 2. The first part describes the current situation of the Internet, with its technological resources and peculiarities with respect to teaching.
It is more and more important to keep in mind the new communication. However, the term 'best' is often indefinite and based on subjective elements. The aim of this study is to compare the Spanish, English and Italian leagues by using the ELO rating system to determine which league is more homogeneous in terms of balance between the teams.
The level of interest in a league largely depends on the uncertainty of outcome or the competitive balance between the teams. If there is a competitive imbalance between the teams then the competition loses interest because the expected results coincide with the real results, namely the 'top' teams always win against the others. This can damage the spectacle, and therefore the earnings produced — especially in the case of television.
The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni "Italian language of signs" , although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana , reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language. Lingua del calcio come una lingua settoriale. Full Text Available The main motives of this article involve tecnical terms used by journalists in the Italian football press. The paper presents the Italian of football, its multiple aspects and its characteristics as a special language.
The aim of this article, in which we also consider the popularity of football press in Italy, is to analyse its semantic, stylistic, syntactic and textual features. This study focuses on the validation in the Italian context of the Brand Personality Scale developed by Jennifer Aaker. Five hundred and three Italians participated to this study.
Bulgari's personality was assessed by means a questionnaire containing the Italian translation of the 42 traits of Aaker's Brand Personality Scale. Respondents rated how much each trait described Bulgari's personality. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses did not supported Aaker's Brand Personal More specifically it aims to evaluate to what extent large organizations in Italy attribute strategic value to the function of communication, with a particular focus on the degree of its institutionalization and the strategic contribution provided by Italian CCOs to organizational competitiveness and success.
According to our findings, PR function has established itself within organizational structure, and Italian CCOs have become increasingly involved in strategic organizational decision processes. Our study allows us to outline a precise description of current trends within large organizations in Italy in terms of communication function and its role.
Furthermore this study enriches the stream of research concerning institutionalization of PR and strategic communication as well as it provides practitioners and scholars with precise insights into the strategic role of communication and its link with innovation. Ossian e Shakespeare nella letteratura italiana tra fine Settecento e primo Ottocento. The work is structured in a chronological itinerary that intersects different literary genres, periods and persona Dirlo o non dirlo? Discrezione in situazioni imbarazzanti nella cultura italiana e in quella olandese.
Full Text Available To say or not to say? Discretion in embarrassing situations in Italian and Dutch cultureHow tactful are Italians and the Dutch in embarrassing situations? This comparative study seeks to determine the factors that affect the degree of direction and communicative strategy used by native speakers of Italian and Dutch when involved in a situation that may cause embarrassment. The data were collected by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire and a discourse completion task.
The results show that the two groups use the same strategies. However, a qualitative analysis at the lexical level reveals that Italian speech acts also contain discourse markers lenitives, downtoners, apologies, etc. Il Concilio Vaticano II nella stampa comunista italiana In order to improve the Christian spirit in history, these changes renewed some ways of action and the positions of Catholicism in the contemporary age.
Prevalently reported in children, eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been reported with increased frequency also in adults. Aims: the purpose of this study was to report our experience with eosinophilic esophagitis in Italy, since there are only very few series of such patients in our country. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the histological data of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophagitis or reflux disease in the period September September Patients were excluded if gastric or duodenal biopsies showed a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate.
Results: twenty two patients 14 adults, 8 children, age range years were identified according to the above criteria. The main clinical complaints were dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn, and endoscopic findings consisted of mucosal thickening and inelasticity, longitudinal shearing, rings, and white specks, without difference between adults and children for both clinical and endoscopic variables.
Conclusions: eosinophilic esophagitis is not rare in Italy, and displays clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features similar to those described in other countries. Tradizione e traduzione. The two Spanish versions and , unlike the Italian one, are free reworkings of the original, in the sense that they alter the structure, transform the text and shape it to new ends. The versions of Llegenda thus permit the inclusion of this reflection on translation in the sphere of the reception of a text and of the influence exerted by the tradition.
Bettino Craxi, socialista, y por mons. Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration. How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a.
Lingua franca of personality - Taxonomies and structures based on the psycholexical approach. Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of. Dalla grammatica alla pratica della lingua.
Approcci linguistici medievali e umanistici. Full Text Available Recensione diLa pratica e la grammatica. The demand for internationalization puts pressure on Danish universities to use English as the language of instruction instead of or in addition to the local language s. The purpose of this study — though proceeding from the belief that true internationalization seeks to exploit all linguistic This case study concerns Danish university teachers' spoken discourse and interaction with students in a Danish-language versus English-language classroom.
The data are video recordings of classroom interaction at the University of Roskilde, Denmark. The focus is on the relationship Full Text Available In a wide-ranging theoretical framework, principally based upon discourse analysis and the studies on language and identity, this article explores the construction of identity in a corpus of oral narratives collected among the Spanish speaking communities in Milan, by means of sociolinguistic and biographic interviews, seen as a complex event in which both parties act as active participant-observers.
More specifically, the case studies will enquire, on the one hand, into the processes by which ELF users transfer typological, textual, lexical and logical features of their native languages and cultures to the domain-specific communication they are involved in, thus affecting their pragmalinguistic behaviours and interpretative strategies, leading ultimately to communication failure. Full Text Available There are two questions that fieldwork researchers committed to the documentation and description of a minority language ask themselves before venturing into the depth of their projects: 'Whom am I dealing with?
As trivial as they might appear, these two questions require a minimum of research to produce an answer able to define - without necessarily framing it - the target community and the role a researcher can play in it. This paper focuses on the case study of the Kushi, a Chadic speaking group of north-eastern Nigeria.
An unwelcome guest: the Non-NNS at the lingua franca table. ELF studies Full Text Available In the case of the Galician language, the translation of comics is quite important, because it contributes to the normalization of use of the Galician language and allows young readers to become familiar with the norm. The article focusses on an analysis of the Galician translation with the French original and a Spanish version of the text. The analysis focuses on the different language of the diaries and the functions that Antonia Pozzi gives them, functions that are both existential and poetic.
In the intimate diary, in particular, the writing is on the one hand configured as a pharmacon, rising above contingencies to address philosophical and literary issues, but it is also a place to fix images, reflections and impressions in view of a future poetic revision, as shown by the precise correspondences present between them. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning.
For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions. Il saggio considera entrambi i cardini della questione: dopo aver esposto brevemente le linee guida della legislazione circa il rapporto tra lingua e dialetti e sulla corretta pronuncia, si analizzano due strumenti didattici, concepiti per la duplice utenza dei maestri e degli alunni, nei quali si concretano due atteggiamenti sensibilmente diversi sulla questione ortoepica.
Spelling book and little vocabulary by Antonino TrainaThe title of this contribution epitomizes the praxis of the post-unification legislation concerning primary school, particularly about orthoepy, and the reception of that legislation by the authors of textbooksfor primary school. After having exposed the guidelines of the legislation about the relation between Italian and dialects and about correct pronunciation, this article analyzes two teaching tools a spelling book and a vocabulary, that can be used by both teachers and students. Finally, from their analysis it is deduced the model proposed for the relation between Italian and dialects in classrooms.
The interest in horticulture is the production of marketable fruit. In such experiments , phytomass and the number of fruits are commonly measured variables. However, these variables have a particular characteristic related to their absence or presence at harvest time. This attribute is represented by zero values for these variables, generating some variability and affecting the variance analysis.
This work aimed to define an appropriate data transformation for the variables observed in experiments with the zucchini culture, realized in protected environment, designed to stabilize the variability values generated by the presence of zeros in harvest multiple fruit. The analysis was based on. Full Text Available The author examines the incorporation of this painting into the collections of the Prado Museum in , which generated the scrutiny of the state of knowledge concerning the painter at the time and the consolidation of his artistic reputation. The painting probably came from Naples, thereby explaining the idiosyncratic Italian iconography, common in the Viceroyalty.
Full Text Available The recent history of Italian cinema includes several women directors who have contributed to the diversity and variety indispensable in any artistic discipline. However, these directors have received relatively little public recognition and the distribution of their films has been limited. The fact that production by women remains relatively unknown implies that there is only partial knowledge of contemporary Italian cinema. Therefore, this article attempts to highlight this lesser known part of this industry through the analysis of the main Italian women filmmakers of the last two decades, their common universe and individual peculiarities.
An interview with director Costanza Quatriglio is also included as an epilogue. She sets out the keys to her work and offers a previously unpublished reflection on the current state of Italian film and the role of women directors in it. Crystal ; McArthur ; Seidlhofer and diverse lingua -cultural backgrounds Cogo et al. Previous research into its syntax Mauranen and Ranta has undoubtedly shed light on some recurrent features of intercultural communication in immigration and asylum contexts e.
This paper is based on the analysis of a corpus of transcripts published on the internet by the Minnesota Historical Society. The site, Becoming Minnesotan, collects excerpts from oral interviews conducted between and with recent immigrants to Minnesota usually fleeing civil war and strife, and their American-born children. By adopting the quantitative research methodology typical of corpus linguistics Biber et al. It is analyzed from a glottodidactic point of view through the detailed description and evaluation of its structure, the linguistic-communicative objectives and the didactic.
It, subsequently, became the subject of speculation and a riddle which scholars have been trying to solve ever since. The term gradually came to represent a cultural principle regarding the image of femininity and it reached its Romantic apex, in the 19th Century, when various female archetypes were fused into a singe heroine. A thorough reading of her character suggests an aesthetic approach that makes use of certain Romantic aspects of the Eternal-Feminine principle.
The present article focuses specifi cally on the Cruda sorte! Amor tiranno! Mujeres en guerra: la imagen de la mujer italiana en los noticiarios Luce durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial Pratiche di Social Networking: una prima sperimentazione nei corsi di italiano L2 per studenti Erasmus. Keywords: Language, Subjectivity, Violence. Scripting Fonetico nuove risorse per leggere il greco antico mediante la sintesi vocale. Palabras clave. Schiavone's La storia spezzata, first published in they have outlined a new view of the history of Rome. The interest in theoretical and methodological problems, a new interpretation of the slave mode of production in Roman Italy and a critical approach to the classical tradition are also specific features of this school.
The paper finishes with some remarks on the relationship between classicism and postmodernity. The Concept of "Rural" as a Micro- Collectivity. Full Text Available The intention of this work is to analyze, in the years of the sociological study from the period after the Italian unity to the present, the concept of rurality through the contexts of reference on the subjects that have marked a period of "project" and emancipation, and, above all, a marginal growth rate that made the fortunes of Western society at the expense of the other parts of the same society.
AcetiLECT 2. AgostinianiLECT 3. Susi, S. Dosso, A. Anselmi, A. Bertolini, P.
Italy in the International System from Détente to the End of the Cold War
BibanLECT 4. Araimo, S. Osnaghi, M. Colombo, G. Regiroli, L. Colombo, F. MoscaLECT 5. ArengaLECT 6. Baldascino, G. Amorelli, D. Lepore, F. Molle, G. CaporossiLECT 7. Baracetti, G. Cavallaro, G. Raffaeli, L. Plevani, F. MoscaLECT 8. Barera, G. CassanoLECT 9. BattilomoLECT Boldrini, M. Boni, G. GarganoLECT Bozzetti, P. Tuttavia, potrebbe venire dalla legge elettorale. Non da Renzi, che, novello Ponzio Pilato dopo averla fatta approvare a colpi di fiducia, si dichiara disponibile ad accettare le variazioni introdotte dal Parlamento.
Se cade il sindaco, il consiglio comunale si scioglie e si torna a votare. Troppo tardi per cambiarle, non resta che bocciarle, molto pacatamente e molto serenamente. Contrariamente a quel che dice il loquace Renzi, la partita non finisce affatto qui. Gianfranco Pasquino and Andrea Capussela provide a comprehensive assessment of the proposed reforms, arguing that they would be unlikely to meaningfully improve Italian governance and could reduce levels of political accountability.
On 4 December, Italians will vote on a vast revision of the constitution, approved by parliament in the spring. The prospect that the electorate might reject it has raised concerns, especially among foreign observers. Worried about the potential consequences for the Eurozone, Joseph Stiglitz has even called on Italy to cancel the referendum. These concerns are unfounded, for three main reasons. Second, coupled with a parallel revision of the electoral law, it might well deepen them.
Yet it is right — and inevitable, in an interdependent world — to include also foreign voices in the debate, so that Italians may base their choice on a more informed and less parochial assessment. This is especially true in the light of the current travails of the EU. If the Union is to move towards greater political integration, as we hope, opening important national debates to the public opinions of other member states can assist the emergence of a European public sphere, eventually a European demos, which seems a necessary ingredient of any genuinely democratic form of political union.
In the interests of full disclosure, we ought to state at the outset that we are both intending to vote against the reform and one of us, Gianfranco Pasquino, is actively campaigning for a No vote. Also for this reason, we have eschewed all arguments concerning the justice, political morality, or procedural regularity of the reform. We limit ourselves to its presumable effects, a question which lends itself to more dispassionate discussion and is probably of greater interest to foreign observers.
The reform changes 46 of the articles of the constitution, touching many and disparate matters the text, in Italian, is available here. As a detailed analysis would take too long we focus on its core, which concerns the functioning and composition of the parliament. Indeed, the main claim of its supporters, echoed by foreign observers, is that the reform simplifies decision-making.
They have equal powers. All laws must be approved by both, in exactly the same text, which may require multiple readings of the same bill. And the formation of the government likewise requires a vote of confidence in both chambers, each of which can independently provoke their downfall by withdrawing its confidence that has occurred only twice since , however. The constitutional reform deprives the Senate of the prerogative to vote on confidence in the government.
The solution is clear-cut: henceforth, the executive will depend solely on the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies. According to the supporters of the reform, this will make governments more stable. Taken in general terms, the argument is unconvincing. Yet, until Italy had electoral laws that almost invariably produced similar distributions of seats in the two chambers: governments fell for political reasons, not because of the bicameral arrangement.
The argument is valid only with respect to the electoral law that was in force between and , when the constitutional court declared it unconstitutional. Indeed, that law — imposed by then Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi just before elections he was certain to lose — was specifically aimed at preventing his opponents from gaining a majority of seats in both chambers.
As such, writing an electoral law that produces similar distributions of seats in the two chambers would equally have solved the problem. Reducing the powers of the Senate, in other words, was not necessary , although it might of course have been advisable for other reasons discussed below. The constitutional reform preserves the bicameral procedure — in which the two chambers have equal powers, as we said — for a few categories of important laws, such as those revising the constitution and the electoral system, those on the ratification of international treaties and the most important EU policies, and those concerning local and regional government.
On all other matters, which comprise the bulk of legislative business, the Senate will be able to provide input, in various forms, but the Chamber of Deputies will have the last word. The argument may seem plausible. The productivity of parliament is not an issue in Italy. The country famously has too many laws, on the contrary, which change too frequently and are often difficult to interpret and coordinate. A far more serious problem is the defective implementation of legislation, which is also due to the inefficiency of the public administration, the length of judicial proceedings, and the more general weakness of the rule of law.
Reducing the powers of the Senate will have no bearing on any of these problems. It may well further increase the speed of law making, but this is not desirable in and of itself. Besides addressing an irrelevant problem, the reform also gives rise to a rather complicated law-making process. It creates several distinct legislative procedures, besides the bicameral one, which differ on whether the Senate may or must participate in reviewing a bill, and on how and with what majority the Chamber may overcome a divergence with the Senate.
The regulation is detailed, but not always clear. Controversies might arise as to which procedure is applicable in each case, which could lead to litigation before the constitutional court, legal uncertainty, and paradoxically delay. The supporters of the reform downplay these fears. Yet the mere fact that there appears to be uncertainty even on exactly how many legislative procedures the reform has created — some say eight, some ten — suggests that the risk of controversies and litigation is not far-fetched.
This may well remain within physiological levels, of course, but should the two chambers have different political majorities — which is quite possible, as we shall see — those in control of the Senate might use these legal uncertainties as a form of filibuster. Caused by an ill-designed constitutional reform adopted in , for instance, uncertainty on a similar question — whether certain matters fall in the jurisdiction of the national authorities or of regional government — has clogged the constitutional court.
Should the same happen with this reform, the effect would be worse, for repeated litigation would inevitably drag the court into the political fights between government and opposition, which could dent its impartiality which has thus far allowed the court to serve as an effective, respected, and sometimes crucial guarantor of civil liberties and the democratic process. The new composition and method of election of the Senate.
Such complications would not have arisen had the Senate been abolished. They did not really achieve this objective, in our view, but we leave these questions aside and focus rather on the composition and method of election of the new Senate. The Senate currently has members, elected by direct popular vote, and a few life senators former Presidents of the Republic, and personalities chosen by them. The new Senate will be composed of members. The two criteria appear contradictory, and the reform in fact leaves it to a subsequent law not yet drafted to establish exactly how they should be combined.
Besides other objections that could be made to this choice, it entails a risk. Abandoning the direct popular vote weakens the political accountability of the Senate, and of the political authorities taken as a whole, in circumstances in which trust in them is already very low.
In the latest Eurobarometer survey, only 17 and 16 per cent of the population has confidence in the parliament and the government, compared to EU averages, for both institutions, of 31 per cent. According to a respected Italian research centre these percentages are even lower, and only 5 per cent of Italians trusts political parties. Should the new Senate not be perceived as well functioning, the gap that already separates the political institutions from their constituents would further widen. In a political climate marked by vocal populism, widespread unemployment, and economic stagnation, the risk is considerable.
It appears reckless to run it, because the only justification offered for the choice of abandoning the direct popular vote — and the most widely advertised rationale for the whole reform — is that the new senators will not receive a salary they already receive one as councillors and mayors. There are three specific reasons for this risk, besides the more general one indicated above. First, these 95 senators will be part-time ones, as they will serve also as councillors or mayors, which has raised well-founded perplexities.
Third, they will enjoy parliamentary immunity, which was a wholly unnecessary and very unpopular choice. Should one of them invoke this immunity in a blatant corruption case, in the eyes of public opinion the whole edifice of the reform might crumble. As to the rest of the reform, some revisions are certainly useful, such as the abolition of an unnecessary advisory body called CNEL National Council of Economy and Labour. In other cases, reasonable people may disagree. The changes to the regulation of popular referendums are equally ambivalent, for they make it more difficult to call them more signatures are needed , but lower the quorum for the validity of the result, which caused many referendums to fail.
The different legislative procedures established by the reform may entail conflicts between the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, as we said, and lead to litigation before the Constitutional Court. To assess it properly, however, the reform must be viewed together with the new law, adopted in , that determines how the henceforth dominant Chamber of Deputies will be elected. The two must be viewed together because, as we said, they were presented by the governing majority as two parts of one and the same package of institutional reforms, as well as because the new electoral law does not apply to the Senate.
Should the voters reject the constitutional reform, therefore, they would de facto force a revision of this law too. The electoral law that accompanies the constitutional reform.
The new electoral law is very idiosyncratic and quite complicated. It uses a proportional-representation system, in short, but corrects it by awarding a bonus of seats to the party list that obtains more votes. The bonus is awarded either right away, if the winning list receives more than 40 per cent of the votes cast, or after a national run-off vote between the two most voted lists.
The bonus is not a fixed quantity of seats, but grants to the winning list seats, almost 55 per cent of the Chamber. This bonus will therefore transform the largest electoral minority into a parliamentary majority. In the current situation, moreover, the bonus is likely to be very large. Before we explain why, it may be useful to point out that no electoral system in the world uses a mechanism of this kind. The closest precedent is the unconstitutional law imposed by Berlusconi in it contemplated exactly the same bonus, but no run-off vote.
The current set-up of Italian politics is roughly tri-polar, according to the results of the most recent elections and the opinion polls of the last year or so. The centre-right, which used to be relatively united under Berlusconi, is split into three or four parties, which together could represent another 30 per cent.
They seem inclined to re-group, but the largest formation the Northern League: around 10 per cent might choose to compete alone. The rest of the political spectrum is occupied by much smaller formations. In this setting, the new electoral law is likely to produce the following results.
The PD, the Five Star Movement, and a probable centre-right grouping with or without the Northern League will compete to participate in the run-off. None will gain much more than 30 per cent of the vote. The winner of the run-off will obtain 55 per cent of the seats, nearly doubling its parliamentary representation. The other lists, representing some 70 per cent of the voters, will share the remaining 45 per cent. The law divides Italy into constituencies, each of which will elect six and sometimes seven deputies.
In each constituency, the first candidate of each of the lists that has obtained enough votes will automatically win a seat: in a six-seat constituency, therefore, the automatically elected deputies are often likely to be four the first candidate of the winning list, and the first candidates of three other lists. If a list obtains more than one seat, the second, third, and sometimes fourth seat are allocated according to the preferences expressed by voters they can indicate one or two names: in the latter case, admirably, the law requires voters to choose candidates of different gender : de facto, this will apply only to the winning list, which will always win three seats in each constituency, and sometimes four.
Only a minority will be truly chosen by voters. Both the bonus and this method for selecting deputies visibly distort parliamentary representation.
For these and other reasons, this law too has been challenged before the constitutional court which is expected to issue its decision shortly after the referendum , and many voices have called on parliament to revise it. In mid-September, this pressure led the same majority that has elaborated this law to pass a parliamentary motion declaring its readiness to revisit it. Yet how, when, and whether this law will actually be amended remains unclear.
The combined effects: unbalanced distribution of power and a loss of flexibility. Viewed together, the constitutional reform and the existing electoral law will grant to the winning list an impregnable majority in the dominant chamber, which will typically guarantee legislature-long five-year governments. The aim is commendable, of course, but the manner in which the two reforms pursue it has serious drawbacks.
The effect on the stability of the executive is akin to that assured by the US-style of presidential government and by the Westminster-style parliamentary form of government. Compared to the Westminster model, in the Italian one the parliamentary majority will not be the result of hundreds of first-past-the-post electoral competitions, but of one single nation-wide run-off vote, dominated by the officially declared candidates to the post of prime minister.
Such an electoral system, much closer to the presidential system, lacks the flexibility of the Westminster model, therefore, which allows prime ministers to be replaced if between elections they lose the confidence of the nation. Indeed, having to face a first-past-the-post election in single-member constituencies, MPs tend to have a strong incentive to enforce the political accountability of — and, in extremity, turn against — a prime minister and party leader who proves inadequate or strays too far from the electoral manifesto. In the Italian model, the prime minister will be far harder to replace, and therefore less politically accountable, for two obvious reasons.
First, because he or she will have won that office in what is, in effect, a direct popular vote on the prime ministerial candidates the national run-off. The parliamentary majority and the governing party are therefore unlikely to be able to hold their leader to account. Compared to the presidential system, conversely, the Italian model lacks its tight separation between legislative and executive power. It is true that other checks and balances will remain, such as an independent judiciary and the Constitutional Court incidentally, we disagree with the argument that these reforms expose Italy to the risk of an authoritarian turn.
The Italian model, in short, combines the worst of both worlds. It produces a legislature-long mandate to rule, shorn of any real political constraint, and grants it to one person, in effect, the leader of the winning party. This ensures neither the flexibility of the Westminster model, nor the dialectic of the US one. Put simply, between elections the Italian model allows for only a very weak degree of political accountability. Philosopher kings aside, lower political accountability is generally associated with less responsive government.
It does not seem advisable to lower it further. The combined effects: unpredictability and the further personalisation of politics. The selection of who will govern the country for five years will be up to slightly more than a handful of votes. Such unpredictability is generally undesirable. Considering the probable size of the majority bonus about 25 per cent of the seats , it could also be destabilising.
It is true that in all single-member constituency systems — the first-past-the-post one and the French two-round model — each electoral competition can equally turn on very few votes. Yet having five or six hundred separate competitive elections is radically different from having one nation-wide Russian roulette. This will harm the legitimacy of the election results and potentially produce other undesirable consequences discussed in the next section.