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    Lima, February 24, Concerning language and culture, most indigenous speakers within Latin America have had to do one of two things: 1 turn from their roots to culturally and linguistically assimilate into the dominant sociolinguistic hegemony or 2 cling to their roots and become culturally and linguistically isolated. Paraguayans have had to do neither. After independence from Spain in , Fernando de la Mora, a political leader who had been inspired by a Rousseauian Enlightenment education, advocated for Spanish as the sole language of instruction.

    The sociolinguistic landscape changed during the War of the Triple Alliance against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay from to As was the case with the War of the Triple Alliance, the language was appreciated as a symbol of national identity as well as a strategic tool [ Engelbrecht and Ortiz ]. The General Education Law assures that students receive education in their mother tongue.

    Nonetheless, Paraguayan public education today has not much changed from decades past. The issue is that the bilingual language policy, coupled with Spanish-only language practice in official realms, has failed to improve either the quality of education or Spanish proficiency Pic-[ Gillard ]. Or, do they drop out because the education system fails to properly teach them in their native tongue? This language ideology can be better understood through the lens of diglossia, the existence of two languages whereby one has a more privileged function in certain domains.

    In the theory of diglossia, the language with more formal functions and higher prestige is called the language of high variety H as opposed to the language of low variety L , with informal functions and lower prestige. For instance, H is used in public administration, schooling, mass media, business, and commerce, while L is used within the context of home and family, social and cultural activities in the community, and correspondence with relations and friends [ Baker ].

    Given that H is used in official domains, the speakers of H benefit socioeconomically from their ability to speak that language while the speakers of L are disadvantaged. Consequently, the speakers of L start favoring and learning H, usually to the detriment of L. How do we interpret this peculiar diglossia in the context of the Paraguayan sociolinguistic climate?

    There are two language values that may influence language use and attitudes: instrumental value and integrative value. These language values are often unconscious. Although these two terms are not easily defined, the instrumental value of language is largely socioeconomic, while integrative value is principally sociocultural. Learners with instrumental motivation have practical reasons for learning language.

    In Latin America, for example, despite its sociopolitical prestige and functions, former colonial languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, may already be detached from the colonial context in many respects, possibly because Latin America gained independence in the early nineteenth century and the majority of Latin Americans have spoken the former colonial languages for generations. That is to say, Spanish and Portuguese have become engrained in Latin American cultures.

    INTRODUCTION

    There is also the commercial utility of multilingualism to consider both within and across speech. This suggests their preference for languages with instrumental value over languages with integrative value. Legitimation of language refers to giving a language legal status as part of language policy, while institutionalization of language is to translate the language policy into practice.

    The aforesaid Quechua and Aymara, for example, have been granted official status and thus are legitimized but have not been institutionalized.

    MAJOR CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    French in Canada is an example of the institutionalization of a language. Rubin noted that the choice of language depended upon the situation at hand. For instance, none of the participants in Itapuami used Spanish when they spoke with their spouses or grandparents or drank tea with their friends. On the contrary, if the situation was formal, the language choice was Spanish. Likewise, if the relationship was not intimate, the language choice was Spanish.

    According to Rubin, there were certain social identities that required formal behavior, and thus the use of Spanish in some situations such as patient-doctor relationships and student-teacher relationships was the norm. Her study depicts the diglossic reality present in Paraguay. Even in familiar and informal settings, she concludes, more Paraguayans are now showing preference for Spanish. It is in this context and within this framework that my research was conducted and my data were analyzed. Parents, teachers, intellectuals, and policy makers were selected because they form a socio-political pyramid in education from the policy level to the operational level.

    Language policies are decided at the policy level, rendering opinions of officials from the Ministry of Education very important. At the operational level, however, bilingual policy has often been invisible without having materialized properly. In order to examine the process of how language policy has been transmitted or not to the public, interviews with actors at each level are considered essential, but no extant empirical research includes all of them.

    Which language do you speak to your children at home and why? If you do not have children, which language would you teach them and why? The first question concerning which language is spoken to children was intended to examine the language attitudes of the interviewees. These questions were developed based on my pilot studies as well as consultations with various scholars in the field and were adapted as necessary.

    Benitez confessed a dilemma of this diglossic situation. This creates a diglossic situation. Some interviewees, however, feel that these changes are superficial. Yet, in reality, very little or nothing has been done. Teachers do not respect the mother tongue of students and they teach in Spanish as they used to do because they find it easier to continue what they have been doing. A teacher in Central, for example, claimed that Spanish should be taught only in school because Spanish is not spoken at home in rural areas. Many parents and teachers seemed to believe that the language of instruction should be exclusively Spanish in order for rural students to learn the Spanish language effectively.

    Also, some parents and teachers announced that parents should talk to their children in Spanish at home. All the policy makers and intellectuals emphasized the urgent necessity of an adequate teacher training program for teaching Spanish as a second language as a prerequisite for the implementation of truly bilingual education. Benitez, for example, expressed her concern that teachers lack Spanish proficiency. The prefix of the verb conjugates according to the subject. The suffix of the verb conjugates according to the subject. Silvelo told me that teacher training and bilingualism are the two interrelated critical issues that have been problematic in Paraguayan education in the last two hundred years, and the government has to deal with this vicious cycle through training bilingual teachers.

    Galeano, while recognizing the inevitability of Spanish loan words, criticized the way the Ministry of Education uses distorted and often unnecessary loan words. The other reasons is that when words are borrowed from Spanish, they are often distorted, therefore distorting both languages. For example, the Spanish word for school, es c uela , when borrowed, become es k uela, instead of es c uela.

    The use of terms that are interpreted in different ways complicates the discussion of language issues in Paraguay. In essence, truly bilingual education has not yet been implemented at the operational level as Spanish continues as the dominant language of instruction.

    Policy makers and intellectuals emphasized the urgent necessity of bilingual teacher training. The majority of participants i. This discrepancy in opinion between policy makers and intellectuals may cause confusion and disrupt its implementation. I have just suggested proper training of bilingual teachers as one way to diminish the ideological and attitudinal gaps between the policy and operational levels of education.

    What else might be done to bridge the gaps and promote an effective language policy and its application? De [ Bres ] has explored this question in similar linguistic circumstances. He examined New Zealand, Wales, and Catalonia.

    La lucha boliviana para la Nueva constitución Política del Estado

    In terms of the increase of minority language speakers, the most successful case seems to be Wales. The number of Welsh speakers increased to The Welsh government, along with other stakeholders, has been making efforts to revive their language through promoting Welsh language rights, developing Welsh-media, and increasing the teaching of Welsh in school. Could the Welsh language policy be applied to Paraguay? In order to do so, there are several issues to be considered.

    La Asamblea Constituyente de Bolivia: de la oportunidad a la amenaza

    First, it is doubtful whether Paraguay possesses the financial and technical resources available in Wales. Second, the populations targeted for enhancing tolerability are different in these two countries. What would be the implications of these differences? The number of Catalan speakers has not increased. Yet, is the increase or decrease of the minority language speakers the only indicator to measure the change of language attitudes? Third, the Welsh language policy in promoting positive attitudes towards Welsh seems to have been implemented through enhancing integrative value of Welsh rather than its instrumental value.

    Inercias, rupturas, desafíos

    These arguments illustrate the dilemmas of sociolinguists but also showcase our strengths. Ultimately, it is the ends, more than the means, which I seek to promote and to see achieved in Paraguay. Students will be taught to acknowledge and to use both official languages of the Republic.