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Eusebius, Chronicle Kal 4k tovtov crracrt? When a battle was fought she killed large numbers, including Machaon. And Achilles kills Thersites after being abused by him and insulted over his alleged love for Penthesilea. This results in a dispute among the Achaeans about the killing of Thersites. Achil- les then sails to Lesbos, and after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto, he is purified from the killing by Odys- seus.

Mep,vova Kreivev koli tovtoh p. Kat rat? Thetis prophesies to her son about the encounter with Memnon. When battle is joined, Antilochus is killed by Memnon, but then Achilles kills Memnon. And Dawn con- fers immortality upon him after prevailing on Zeus. Thetis comes with the Muses and her sisters, and laments her son. They offer Achilles' armor as the prize for the outstanding hero.

Achilles had probably been lamented also by Briseis like Patroclus in Iliad And an Amazon came, a daughter of Ares the great-hearted, the slayer of men. Whose child do you claim to be? But if Homer had been describing the death of Achilles, he would not have had the body carried by Ajax, as the later writers do.

The verse quoted was probably spoken to Penthesilea by Priam or Achilles. Idcirco ex breui et longa pedem hunc esse compositum, quod hi qui iaculentur ex breui accessu in extensum passum proferuntur, ut promp- tiore nisu telis ictum confirment. In his great arrogance he was prepared to take this attitude even towards the gods. So Apollo came and squared up to him, and killed him. Hence after that the god was recognized as the patron of boxing.

The authority for this throwing method is said to be the Greek Arctinus in these verses: With legs slightly apart and one foot forward, so that his limbs should move vigorously at full stretch and have a good appearance of strength. The original con- text may therefore have been the funeral games for Achilles. Kal 'OSvcrcreia. Poculum Homericum MB 31 cf. ZG Eurypylus, Neoptolemus, Odysseus, Diomedes, Pallas, the wooden horse. Trojan women and Phrygians are taking the horse up. Priam, Sinon, Cassandra, the Scaean Gate. Most of them, perhaps all, are taken from actual tragedies.

Sophocles' Laconian Women dealt with the theft of the Palladion. Tabulam Iliacam Ti Thierry p. MvKpd, ktX. Eusebius, Chronicle Ol. Ajax goes in- sane, savages the Achaeans' plundered livestock, and kills himself. His tomb is at Rhoiteion. His body is mutilated by Menelaus, but then the Tro- jans recover it and give it burial. After this Deiphobus marries Helen. The Trojans are penned in the city. He is recognized by Helen, and comes to an agreement with her about the taking of the city.

After killing some Trojans, he gets back to the ships. After this he brings the Palladion 31 out of Ilios with Diomedes. The Trojans, believ- ing themselves rid of their troubles, take the wooden horse sage that led the later writers to say that Helen also married Deiphobus. According to Apollodoms and the first-century papyrus Rylands 22, it was Helenus again who revealed this secret. The pa- pyrus narrative puts the theft of the Palladion before the fetching of Neoptolemus from Scyros.

Rylands 22 saec. Vita Homeri 16 8ia. Versus ex parte exhibent testae duae in regione Pontica repertae, saec. C: Jurij G. Vinogradov, Pontische Studien Mainz, , , They heard some girls arguing, one of whom said that Ajax was much better than Odysseus, explaining: Ajax, after all, lifted up the warrior son of Peleus and carried him out of the fighting, but noble Odysseus would not. How can you be so wrong? Even a woman could carry a load, if a man put it onto her, but she couldn't fight. Because Athena made him insane, he had attacked the animals instead. The poet of the Little Iliad says: About it a collar of gold flashes, and on it a forked blade.

Witness Aeschylus. They are borrowing the story from the Little Iliad of Lesches, who says "About it — a forked blade. He says: The vine that Zeus gave in compensation for his son; it was of gold, luxuriant with splendid foliage and grape clusters, which Hephaestus fashioned and gave to father Zeus, and he gave it to Laomedon in lieu of Ganymede.

Compare Quintus of Smyrna, 7. The golden vine was inherited by Priam, who sent it to Eurypylus' mother to overcome her objec- tions to her son's going to fight at Troy. Clearchus explains. The author of the Little Iliad connects it with the theft of the Palladion. On this escapade see Odyssey 4. The inference is that in the Cyclic poem he re- turned to the Greek camp with some booty. FGrHist 26 F 1. Others say that Diomedes and Odysseus were on their way back from Troy at night after stealing the Palladion, and Odysseus, who was behind Diomedes, intended to kill him; but in the moon- light Diomedes saw the shadow of his sword, turned round, overpowered Odysseus, tied him up, and forced him to go ahead by beating his back with his sword.

The expression is applied to people who do something under compulsion. Odysseus, however, sees it twitch in indignation and realizes that it is the true one. He then makes his abortive attempt to kill Diomedes. He refrains when Diomedes draws his own sword, but it is then Odysseus who drives Diomedes along with blows on the back, not vice versa.

Odysseus had to restrain him from re- sponding when Helen went round the horse calling the heroes' names and mimicking their wives' voices 4. For he defines the date by saying that the capture occurred when It was the middle of the night, and the bright moon was rising. It rises at midnight on the 23rd of the month, and on no other day. Tzetzes, commentary on Lycophron: Sinon, as arranged, showed the Greeks a torch signal, as Lesches says, when "it was the middle of the night, and the bright moon was rising. He has a wound in the arm, just as Lescheos the son of Aeschylinus from Pyrrha says in his Sack ofllion; he says he got the wound from Admetus the son of Augeas in the battle that the Trojans fought in the night.

So clearly Polygnotus would not other- wise have depicted their wounds in this way, if he had not read Lescheos' poem. Besides Homer and Lesches whom he calls Lescheos , he refers to Stesichorus' Sack ofllion, and this explains his slip in naming Lesches' poem as the Sack ofllion instead of the Little Iliad. See the Sack ofllion, fr. Se kui em; ra Kvnpia fr. He said he was willing to grant him this, but only if he had Helens agreement. He sent a herald, and Helen granted the favor Lescheos says that his end came about when he was thrown from the fortifica- tions, not by a decision of the Greeks but from a private desire of Neoptolemus to be his slayer.

Of these, only Deinome s name appears in the so-called Little Iliad. And Aeneas him- self, the famous son of Anchises the horse-tamer, he embarked on his seagoing ships, to take as a special prize for himself out of all the Danaans. And Lesches mentions it: And as when a cucumber grows big in a well-watered spot. The first is about Neoptolemus' actions during the sack of the city; the second refers to the subsequent distribution of booty in the Achaean camp.

De Arctino v. On Arctinus see also the testimonia to the Aethiopis. Aeschines was perhaps thinking of the Little Iliad. They turn to festivity and celebrate their deliver- ance from the war. Feeling misgivings at the portent, Aeneas and his party slip away to Ida. They sail in from Tenedos, and with the men from the wooden horse they fall upon the enemy. First Echion, the son of Portheus, jumped out, and was killed; the rest let themselves down with a rope, and reached the walls and opened the gates to let in those who had sailed back from Tenedos.

And Neoptolemus kills Priam, who has fled to the altar of Zeus of the Court- yard; Menelaus finds Helen and takes her to the ships after slaying Deiphobus. Servius auctus in Verg. The Greeks are angry at this, and deliberate about stoning Ajax. But he takes refuge at Athena's altar, and so saves himself from the immediate danger. However, when the Greeks sail home, Athena contrives his destruction at sea. Demophon and Acamas find Aethra and take her with them.

Then they set fire to the city, and slaughter Polyxena at Achilles' tomb. FRAGMENTS 1 Scholiast on Virgil, "a horse like a mountain" Arctinus says that it was feet long and 50 feet wide, and that its tail and knees could move, Servius auctus on Virgil, "the huge horse" Some record that this horse was feet long and 30 wide, and that its tail, knees, and eyes could move. This seems to be the view also of Arctinus in the Sack of Ilion, where he says: For their father the Earth-shaker 52 himself gave them both the healing gift; but he made one higher in prestige than the other.

To the one he gave defter hands, to remove mis- siles from flesh and cut and heal all wounds, but in the other's heart he placed exact knowledge, to diagnose what is hidden and to cure what does not get better. He it was who first recognized the raging Ajax's flashing eyes and burdened spirit.

But elsewhere Machaon and Podalirius are the sons of Asclepius. They say that Electra, being unwilling to watch the sack of Ilion because it was a foundation of her descen- dants, 54 left the place where she had been set as a star, so that whereas they had previously been seven, they became six. The story is found in the Cyclic poets. But Lysimachus says that the author of the Sack writes as follows: To the sons of Theseus the lord Agamemnon gave gifts, and to great-hearted Menestheus, shepherd of peoples. But the same claim may have been made in Arc- tinus' time by the Aineiadai in the Troad.

Hesychius Milesius, Vita Homeri 6 avafyi-perai Se et? Eust Od. N6cttov9 7roiT? Telegonia fr. He, then, experienced every danger for the sake of rescuing his own mother. The Suda nostos: a return home. And the poets who have cele- brated The Returns follow Homer as far as they are able. Two manuscripts add from the margin: It appears that it was not one poet alone who wrote The Return of the Achaeans, but several others too.

Eustathius, commentary on the Odyssey The Colophonian poet of the Returns.

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The orator has made a mistake. Se Kcd NecrTojp avaxOivres et? AXyvmov irapa- yivero. TeXevrrjcraiTa Bairrovui. Agamemnon, to appease Athena's anger, waits behind; Diomedes and Nestor put out to sea and reach their homes safely. The others set sail, and meet with a storm near Tenos, for Athena had besought Zeus to send a storm on the Greeks; and many ships sink. On the death of Ajax see Odyssey 4. On coming to Thrace he finds Odysseus at Maronea. He completes the rest of his journey, and when Phoenix dies he buries him. He goes on as far as the Molossians, and is recognized by Peleus. At any rate the author of the Return of the Atreidai tells that when he came to the gods and spent some time with them, and was granted the liberty by Zeus to ask for whatever he wanted, he, 61 Apollodorus says that he became king of the Molossians af- ter winning a battle and that Andromache bore him a son, Molossus.

TTmovr pkva. Nootovs wotijcra? Zeus was angry at this, and fulfilled his wish, because of his promise, but so that he should get no enjoyment from what was set before him but suffer perpetual anxiety, he suspended a boulder over his head. Concerning her it is written in the poem Returns that she departed from mankind still a virgin, and that she was the daughter of Proitos son of Thersander, and that he was a son of Sisyphus.

She and Arestor were the parents of Argos, as it is related in the Cycle. The vase shows followers of Agamemnon named Alcmeon and Mestor son of Ajax, and a third whose name is illegible, reclin- ing at a feast and being attacked by men called Antiochus and Argeios. Photius, Library And the Epic Cycle is completed by being filled up from various poets as far as Odysseus' landing at Ithaca, where he is killed in ignorance by his son Telegonus. CTretra et? Odysseus, after sacrificing to the Nymphs, sails off to Elis to inspect his herds.

He is entertained by Polyxenus, and receives the gift of a mixing bowl, on which is represented the story of Trophonius, Agamedes, and Augeas. Then war breaks out between the Thesprotians, led by Odysseus, and the Bryges. Ares turns Odysseus' forces to flight, and Athena faces him in combat, but Apollo pacifies them.

After Callidice's death the king- dom passes to Polypoites, Odysseus' son, and he himself returns to Ithaca. They made a secret door in it, which they made use of to enter and steal the treasure. Augeas set a trap, and Agamedes was caught in it; but Trophonius cut off his accomplice's head to conceal his identity, and escaped. Herodotus' story of Rhampsinitus 2. Telegoniae ascripsit E. Livrea, ZPE 3.

Odys- seus comes out to defend it and is killed by his son in ignorance. In this poem it is stated that 71 This was taken as the fulfilment of Teiresias' prophecy in Odyssey 1 1. Kara rov TyXkyovov Kal to. Kara to Ktvrpov rrj? Kal 'OSucrirect? Nocrrous ironjcra? But some. Its head was of ad- amant, and its shaft of gold. With it he killed Odysseus. Post-Homeric writers invented the story of Telegonus the son of Circe and Odysseus, who is supposed to have gone to Ithaca in search of his father and killed him in ignorance with the barb of a sting ray.

Arcesilaus is probably an alternative name for Ptoliporthes, 73 This time Eustathius has got Telegonus' mother right but made a mistake about the poem. Epigr, 6 Pf. But Callimachus indicates the converse in an Epigram, that Creophylus composed it but that it was called Homer's as a result of the said hospitality: I am the work of the Samian, who once received in his house the divine bard, and I celebrate Eurytus' misfortunes and the flaxen-haired Iole; but I am known as a writing of Homers — dear Zeus, a great compliment to Creophylus!

And some say this man was Homer's teacher, though others say it was not he but Aristeas of Proconnesus. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies: see below, Testi- monia to Panyassis. OixaXias aXctxrii'. Kochly y Peppmiiller. Some relate that he was Homer's son-in-law, while others say that he was just Homer's friend, and that after giving Homer hospitality he received from him the poem The Capture of Oichalia. They investigate these questions, and above all which was the Oichalia taken by Heracles, and which one the author of the Capture of Oichalia wrote about.

Pausanias, Description of Greece The Thessalians and Euboeans most things in Greece being controversial say, in the latter case that Eurytion, a deserted site in my time, was anciently a city and was called Oichalia; and Creophylus in his Heraclea 2 has written things in agree- ment with the Euboeans' story. Strabo Inst, or. Herculis acta non bene Pisandros? Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies For on their own initiative the Greeks have stolen other peoples works and brought them out as their own; as Eugammon. Anonymous fragment on music from Aristoxenus The invention of music was preceded by that of meter.

For whereas the most ancient poets are Homer, Hesiod, and Pisander, and they were followed by the elegiac poets , etc. Camirus was a city of Rhodes. Some make him the contemporary and the loved one of the poet Eumolpus Eumelus? He had a sister Dioclea. His poetry consists of the Heraclea, in two books, an account of Heracles' deeds, in which he was the first to equip Heracles with a club. It is held that this zodiacal animal was honored by Zeus 6 because of its being the first among the beasts. But some say that this was the first of Heracles' Labors to be commemorated; for this was the 3 This canonical list of five epic poets is repeated by Tzetzes in several places.

Asir: 2. Pisander of Rhodes tells about it. That was why he got its skin, because he had accomplished a famous deed. Strabo, Geography They say that the Sibai 7 are descendants of those who accom- panied Heracles on this expedition, and that as a token of their lineage they wear skins like Heracles, carry staves, and brand their cattle and mules with the device of a club. This man- ner of equipping Heracles, too, is much more recent than the Trojan saga, a fiction of whoever wrote the Heraclea, whether it was Pisander or someone else; the old wooden statues of him are not fashioned like this.

A proverbial saying. It is a phrase from Pisander, applied to impossible situations. Duris, however, registers him as the son of Diocles and as a Samian, just as he makes Herodotus come from Thurii. Some, however, relate that it was not Lyxes but Herodotus' mother Rhoio that was Panyassis' sister.

He was put to death by Lygdamis, the third tyrant of Halicarnassus. As a poet he is ranked after Homer, and by some authorities also after Hesiod and Antimachus. He wrote a Heraclea in fourteen books, to the sum of 9, verses; lonica in elegiacs, deal- ing with Codrus, Neleus, and the Ionian colonies, to the sum of 7, verses. Hellenistic verse inscription from Halicarnassus Nor was it ancient Babylon that nurtured Herodotus' 8 The point is that Duris denied Halicarnassus' claims to both of its major authors.

Sgobbo, Rendiconti dell'Accademia Archeologica di Napoti 46 [] sqq. Yiavvacro-is 6 ttoitjttj? De imitatione fr. Or Another This city sowed the seed of Panyassis, famous master of epic verse; it gave birth to Cyprias, the poet of Trojan epic. Inscription on a statue of the poet Panyassis the poet is a severe pain. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On imitation For Hesiod aimed at pleasing by smoothness of names and melodious construction; Antimachus at well-toned, athletic toughness and departure from the familiar; while Panyassis brought the virtues of both, he in turn excelling by his treatment of his material and its disposition.

Proclus, Vita Homeri 1, v. Eusebius Chronicle Ol. For Panyassis in the canon of epic poets, see above on Pisander. For he says of Heracles; Crossing snowy Parnassus with swift feet, he came to Acheloian Castalia's immortal water. The next fragment may refer to his visit to Delphi to seek puri- fication. According to Apollodorus, Library 2. De pietate B Obbink; schol. Stesichorus in the Eriphyle saying that it was because he resurrected some of those who fell at Thebes. The allusions were probably explained more fully in what followed, and fragments 4 and 5 fit well in this context.

It was to atone for this that he was made to serve Admetus for a year. Asir 2. Kprjrrjpa p. Panyassis in Book 1 of the Heraclea: and the animal skin from the lion of Bembina, and again: 7 and the skin of Bembina's monster lion. Hence it has been highly honored by being numbered among the twelve creatures of the Zodiac. Se re voo-crd8as OpVLS. Versum restituit Meineke.

Frag- ment 13 suggests that it may have appeared in book 4 or 5. Conatur interficere draconem Hesperidum custo- dem, qui numquam oculos operuisse somno coactus existi- matur, quo magis custos adpositus esse demonstratur. De hoc etiam Panyasis in Heraclea dicit.

Likewise the simile in the Heraclea: And its shining scale glittered; sometimes it looked like blue enamel, and sometimes like flowers of copper. He is endeavoring to kill the Hesperides' guardian serpent, which is held never to have closed its eyes under compulsion of sleep, a proof of its guardian status. Panyassis tells of this in his Heraclea.

The lines probably come from a description of the serpent that guarded the Golden Apples. Avienius, Phaen. Aratus said of old that it had no name and that the reason of its exer- tion was obscure; but it was known to Panyassis. He relates that Amphitryon's son in the first flower of his youth, being subject to the harsh rule of an immoderate tyrant, came where the unknown South retreats into the distance, to the regions of the Hesperides, 18 and plucked the golden apples guarded by a custodian ignorant of sluggish sleep, after that serpent, the creature of a stepmother insatiable in her hatred, 19 suc- cumbed to the victor's blow, slackening its sinuous coils that barred the way.

Thus, they say, he held his body supported on his left knee, and thus the tale is that he rested, overcome by his exertions. Pherecydes was to transfer them to the far north fr. See JHS 99 , This too is a virtue, to drink the most wine at the banquet in expert fashion, and to encour- age your fellow. It's just as good to be sharp in the feast as in battle, busy amid the grievous slaughter, where few men are brave and withstand the furious fight.

I should count his glory equal, who enjoys being at the feast, and encour- ages other folk to as well. A man doesn't seem to me to be really alive, or to live the life of a hardy mortal, if he sits out 20 They were detained in the Underworld after they went down with the aim of securing Persephone as Pirithous' wife.

Heracles saw them when he went down to capture Cerberus. West: nlvei codd. TLavvaai'; frrjo-f "irptoTaL pev Xapire? Wine is as much of a blessing as fire for us on earth: a good shield against harm, accompaniment to every song, for it has in it a delightful element of the festive, of luxury, of dancing, of entrancing love, and a refuge from care and de- pression.

So you must take the toasts at the feast and drink merrily, and not sit costive like a vulture after you have fed your face, oblivious of good cheer. He says: "The Graces and the cheerful Horai take the first portion, and Dionysus the mighty roarer, the ones who created it. After them the goddess born in Cyprus takes her share, and Dionysus, at the stage where the wine session is at its most perfect for men: if you drink in measure and go back 21 The speaker is perhaps Eurytus at Oichalia, encouraging his guest Heracles to drink more deeply.

I take fragments to be from Heracles' reply as he tries to restrain his too bibulous host. This temperate Heracles, the counterpart of the moral hero rep- resented by Pindar and Prodicus, would be a modification of the older tradition. West VTrorpoiToi; Peppmiiller: dnorp- codd. Clem Strom. But when someone drinks heavily and presses to the limit of the third round, then Hybris and Ate take their unlovely turn, which brings trouble. Now, pal, you've had your ra- tion of the sweet liquor, so go and join your wedded wife, and send your comrades to bed.

With the third round of the honey-sweet wine being drunk, I'm afraid of Hybris stirring up your spirits and bringing your good hospitality to a bad end. So do as I say, and stop the excess drinking," 21 Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner after fr. And every pain it expels from men's hearts, so long as it is drunk in due measure; but beyond the measure, it is not so good. There are also Achelesian nymphs, as Panyassis says. Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes Panyassis says that Heracles fell sick in Lydia and obtained therapy from the river Hyllus, which is in Lydia; and this is why his two sons were both named Hyllus.

The inhabitants are Tremileis. The name is from Tremiles, as in Panyassis: And there dwelt great Tremiles, and he married a maid, an 22 This line may have directly followed fragment Also an island off Lycia. Also another island between Lebedos and Teos. Also another island near Psyra. Also another, as Cleon of Syracuse writes in his work On Harbors, a treeless one. Also one beyond Pisa, 24 mentioned by Panyassis in the Heraclea, Book The Sibrus or Sirbis is the Xanthus; the famil- iar name has intruded as a gloss in the next line.

Tloos and Pinaros are the eponyms of the Lycian hill towns Tlos and Pinara, and Cragus of the mountain to the west of the Xanthus valley. TO, ovk d-rreSLSov. And in Panyassis: Divided words once [. She, through the anger of Aphrodite whom she failed to honor , conceived a desire for her father, and with her nurse as accomplice she lay with him for twelve nights without his realizing it. When he became aware of it, he drew a sword and chased her, and she as she was being overtaken prayed to the gods to disappear.

They took pity on her and changed her into the tree called Smyrna myrrh. Ten months later the tree split open, and the said Adonis was born from it. Because of his beauty Aphrodite concealed him from the gods, still a baby, in a chest, and placed it with Persephone; but when she saw him, she refused to give him back. An adjudication was made by Zeus, and the year was divided into three parts.

He ordained that Adonis should stay by himself for one part, stay for one with 25 Compare Iliad 5. TrpotreveLpe Kal ttjv ISlav poipav. But Adonis gave Aphrodite his own time too. Later, while hunting, he was gored by a boar and died. Fragment 29 must belong with it. See Apollodorus, epitome 1.

Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies And Hesiods poetry was turned into prose and brought out as their own work by the historians Eumelus and Acusilaus. Cyril of Alexandria also dates Eumelus to the ninth Olympiad. Pausanias, Description of Greece In the time of Sybotas' son Phintas the Messenians first sent a sacrifice and men's chorus to Delos for Apollo; their processional song for the god was produced by Eumelus, and this poem alone is thought to be genuinely by Eu- melus.

Servius auctus ad Aen. Servius auctus on the Aeneid, "centuplet Briareus" Who, as some record, waged war on the gods' behalf against the Giants; but as others affirm, he fought against the gods, above all on the occasion when Jupiter and Saturn were con- 2 The author is reporting explanations of why some poets called Ouranos Heaven the son of Akmon.

Sipylos; see Aristides, Orations Hie contra Titanas Ioui ad- fuisse dicitur, uel ut quidam uolunt Satumo. Tn]v dvoKTeiva? Hence they record that he was driven down by Jupiter to the underworld with a thunder- bolt. Others say he was born from Earth and Sea, and had Coeus 5 and Gyges as his brothers. He is said to have assisted Jupiter against the Titans; or as some would have it, to have assisted Saturn.

Some write "Ithax. When they had been fighting for ten years, Ge prophesied to Zeus that he would be victori- ous if he had those who had been consigned to Tartarus 7 as his allies; so he killed their prison warder Kampe Worm and freed them. Then the Cyclopes gave thunder, lightning, and the thunderbolt to Zeus, the cap of invisibility to Pluto, and the trident to Poseidon. Armed with this equipment they 5 Thilo emends to "Cottus" to accord with Hesiod and other sources, Coeus was a Titan, the father of Leto.

In Hesiod he is the father of Helios, but the name often stands for the sun. They themselves cast lots for government, and Zeus got power in heaven, Poseidon in the sea, and Pluto in the underworld. The author of the Titanomachy says the apples were guarded by [. Mekone, often identified with Sicyon, was the place where according to Hesiod Theogony gods and mortals parted and deter- mined their respective portions.

Hi funales sunt mares; feminae iugariae, Bronte, quae nos tonitrua appellamus, Steropeque, quae fulgitrua. Huic rei auctor est Eumelus Corinthius. Hyginus, Legends, on the names of the Sun's horses Eous; through him the sky revolves. Aethops: more or less "flaming," the one that ripens produce. These trace horses are males; the yoke pair are females, Bronte, that we call thunder, and Sterope, that we call lightning.

The source for this is Eumelus of Corinth. His wife was Chariklo. Referring 11 Assumed to be an error for Titanomachy. KopivduxKa 15 Schol. Se yevop-evrjs 'Hirip. Sophocles liked the Epic Cycle, to the extent of composing whole plays in accordance with the mythology it contains. The reference will be to astronomical or meteorological lore.

Chiron was known in myth as an educator of heroes. A didactic poem ascribed to Hesiod, the Precepts of Chiron, purported to embody his teaching to Achilles. Mapadaiva 8e ktX. That he was a son of Zeus, I do not know that anyone has stated seriously apart from most of the Corinthians; for Eumelus the son of Amphilytus, one of the so-called Bacchiadai, and the reputed author of the poetry, says in the Corinthian History — if it is by Eumelus — that Ephyra, a daughter of Oceanus, first dwelt in this land; and that subsequently Marathon, etc.

Pausanias, Description of Greece The Corinthians too say that Poseidon got into dispute with Helios over the land, and that Briareos acted as their arbitra- tor, who decreed that the Isthmus and that whole area should belong to Poseidon, but gave Helios the heights above the city. Because Corinth was her an- cestral possession according to this account. And this we learn from Eumelus, a historical poet, who says: But when Aietes and Aloeus were born from Helios and Antiope, then Hyperion s glorious son divided the country in two between his sons.

The Asopus riverland he awarded to noble Aloeus, while all that Ephyra had settled he gave to Aietes. Aietes chose to entrust it to Bounos, until such time as he himself should return, or someone of his blood, a child or grandchild, and he went off to the Colchian land. PMG Q piirmisi Se NrjAfvs'. The scholiast should not be understood to mean that they were taken verbatim from Eumelus, but that some lines in Eumelus, spoken by Medea to the seer Idmon, appeared to be the model.

So reconstructed, the earliest period appears to us as a time of slow development in which the characteristic epic metre, diction, and structure grew up slowly from crude elements and were improved until the verge of maturity was reached. If they continued to sing like their great predecessor of romantic themes, they were drawn as by a kind of magnetic attraction into the Homeric style and manner of treatment, and became mere echoes of the Homeric voice: in a word, Homer had so completely exhausted the epic genre, that after him further efforts were doomed to be merely conventional.

Only the rare and exceptional genius of Vergil and Milton could use the Homeric medium without loss of individuality: and this quality none of the later epic poets seem to have possessed. Freedom from the domination of the great tradition could only be found by seeking new subjects, and such freedom was really only illusionary, since romantic subjects alone are suitable for epic treatment.

In its third period, therefore, epic poetry shows two divergent tendencies. In Ionia and the islands the epic poets followed the Homeric tradition, singing of romantic subjects in the now stereotyped heroic style, and showing originality only in their choice of legends hitherto neglected or summarily and imperfectly treated. In continental Greece 1 , on the other hand, but especially in Boeotia, a new form of epic sprang up, which for the romance and PATHOS of the Ionian School substituted the practical and matter-of-fact.

It dealt in moral and practical maxims, in information on technical subjects which are of service in daily life — agriculture, astronomy, augury, and the calendar — in matters of religion and in tracing the genealogies of men. Such a poetry could not be permanently successful, because the subjects of which it treats — if susceptible of poetic treatment at all — were certainly not suited for epic treatment, where unity of action which will sustain interest, and to which each part should contribute, is absolutely necessary.

How did the continental school of epic poetry arise? There is little definite material for an answer to this question, but the probability is that there were at least three contributory causes. First, it is likely that before the rise of the Ionian epos there existed in Boeotia a purely popular and indigenous poetry of a crude form: it comprised, we may suppose, versified proverbs and precepts relating to life in general, agricultural maxims, weather-lore, and the like. In this sense the Boeotian poetry may be taken to have its germ in maxims similar to our English.

Secondly and thirdly we may ascribe the rise of the new epic to the nature of the Boeotian people and, as already remarked, to a spirit of revolt against the old epic. The Boeotians, people of the class of which Hesiod represents himself to be the type, were essentially unromantic; their daily needs marked the general limit of their ideals, and, as a class, they cared little for works of fancy, for pathos, or for fine thought as such. To a people of this nature the Homeric epos would be inacceptable, and the post-Homeric epic, with its conventional atmosphere, its trite and hackneyed diction, and its insincere sentiment, would be anathema.

We can imagine, therefore, that among such folk a settler, of Aeolic origin like Hesiod, who clearly was well acquainted with the Ionian epos, would naturally see that the only outlet for his gifts lay in applying epic poetry to new themes acceptable to his hearers. Though the poems of the Boeotian school 1 were unanimously assigned to Hesiod down to the age of Alexandrian criticism, they were clearly neither the work of one man nor even of one period: some, doubtless, were fraudulently fathered on him in order to gain currency; but it is probable that most came to be regarded as his partly because of their general character, and partly because the names of their real authors were lost.

One fact in this attribution is remarkable — the veneration paid to Hesiod. Our information respecting Hesiod is derived in the main from notices and allusions in the works attributed to him, and to these must be added traditions concerning his death and burial gathered from later writers. Either in Cyme or Ascra, two sons, Hesiod and Perses, were born to the settler, and these, after his death, divided the farm between them. Secondly, Hesiod claims that his father — if not he himself — came from Aeolis and settled in Boeotia.

And that this Aeolic speaking poet was a Boeotian of Ascra seems even more certain, since the tradition is never once disputed, insignificant though the place was, even before its destruction by the Thespians. On such a matter precise evidence is naturally not forthcoming; but all probability is against the sceptical view. For 1 if the quarrel between the brothers were a fiction, we should expect it to be detailed at length and not noticed allusively and rather obscurely — as we find it; 2 as MM. In a word, there is no more solid ground for treating Perses and his quarrel with Hesiod as fictitious than there would be for treating Cyrnus, the friend of Theognis, as mythical.

Lastly, there is the famous story of the contest in song at Chalcis. Finally the contest, in which the two poets contended with hymns to Apollo 2 , was transferred to Delos. Nevertheless, there is much to be said in defence of the passage. The story of the end of Hesiod may be told in outline. This place, however, was also sacred to Nemean Zeus, and the poet, suspected by his hosts of having seduced their sister 3 , was murdered there. His body, cast into the sea, was brought to shore by dolphins and buried at Oenoe or, according to Plutarch, at Ascra : at a later time his bones were removed to Orchomenus.

The whole story is full of miraculous elements, and the various authorities disagree on numerous points of detail. The tradition seems, however, to be constant in declaring that Hesiod was murdered and buried at Oenoe, and in this respect it is at least as old as the time of Thucydides. The poem consists of four main sections. Helicon, comes a general exhortation to industry.

It begins with the allegory of the two Strifes, who stand for wholesome Emulation and Quarrelsomeness respectively. Then by means of the Myth of Pandora the poet shows how evil and the need for work first arose, and goes on to describe the Five Ages of the World, tracing the gradual increase in evil, and emphasizing the present miserable condition of the world, a condition in which struggle is inevitable.

Next, after the Fable of the Hawk and Nightingale, which serves as a condemnation of violence and injustice, the poet passes on to contrast the blessing which Righteousness brings to a nation, and the punishment which Heaven sends down upon the violent, and the section concludes with a series of precepts on industry and prudent conduct generally. Neither subject, it should be carefully noted, is treated in any way comprehensively. It is from the second and fourth sections that the poem takes its name. At first sight such a work seems to be a miscellany of myths, technical advice, moral precepts, and folklore maxims without any unifying principle; and critics have readily taken the view that the whole is a canto of fragments or short poems worked up by a redactor.

The poem has properly no technical object at all, but is moral: its real aim is to show men how best to live in a difficult world. So viewed the four seemingly independent sections will be found to be linked together in a real bond of unity. Such a connection between the first and second sections is easily seen, but the links between these and the third and fourth are no less real: to make life go tolerably smoothly it is most important to be just and to know how to win a livelihood; but happiness also largely depends on prudence and care both in social and home life as well, and not least on avoidance of actions which offend supernatural powers and bring ill-luck.

And finally, if your industry is to be fruitful, you must know what days are suitable for various kinds of work. This moral aim — as opposed to the currently accepted technical aim of the poem — explains the otherwise puzzling incompleteness of the instructions on farming and seafaring. It certainly gave some account of the principal constellations, their dates of rising and setting, and the legends connected with them, and probably showed how these influenced human affairs or might be used as guides. Possible references in Roman writers 1 indicate that among the subjects dealt with were the cultivation of the vine and olive and various herbs.

The inclusion of the judgment of Rhadamanthys frag. The gods are classified chronologically: as soon as one generation is catalogued, the poet goes on to detail the offspring of each member of that generation. Exceptions are only made in special cases, as the Sons of Iapetus ll.

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Part 2)

The chief landmarks in the poem are as follows: after the first lines, which contain at least three distinct preludes, three primeval beings are introduced, Chaos, Earth, and Eros — here an indefinite reproductive influence. Of these three, Earth produces Heaven to whom she bears the Titans, the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants. The Titans, oppressed by their father, revolt at the instigation of Earth, under the leadership of Cronos, and as a result Heaven and Earth are separated, and Cronos reigns over the universe. Cronos knowing that he is destined to be overcome by one of his children, swallows each one of them as they are born, until Zeus, saved by Rhea, grows up and overcomes Cronos in some struggle which is not described.

Cronos is forced to vomit up the children he had swallowed, and these with Zeus divide the universe between them, like a human estate. Two events mark the early reign of Zeus, the war with the Titans and the overthrow of Typhoeus, and as Zeus is still reigning the poet can only go on to give a list of gods born to Zeus by various goddesses. After this he formally bids farewell to the cosmic and Olympian deities and enumerates the sons born of goddess to mortals.

The following analysis after Marckscheffel 3 will show the principle of its composition. From Prometheus and Pronoia sprang Deucalion and Pyrrha, the only survivors of the deluge, who had a son Hellen frag. From the daughters of Deucalion sprang Magnes and Macedon, ancestors of the Magnesians and Macedonians, who are thus represented as cousins to the true Hellenic stock. Hellen had three sons, Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus, parents of the Dorian, Ionic and Aeolian races, and the offspring of these was then detailed. In one instance a considerable and characteristic section can be traced from extant fragments and notices: Salmoneus, son of Aeolus, had a daughter Tyro who bore to Poseidon two sons, Pelias and Neleus; the latter of these, king of Pylos, refused Heracles purification for the murder of Iphitus, whereupon Heracles attacked and sacked Pylos, killing amongst the other sons of Neleus Periclymenus, who had the power of changing himself into all manner of shapes.

From this slaughter Neleus alone escaped frags.


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Similarly the story of the Argonauts appears from the fragments to have been told in some detail. This tendency to introduce romantic episodes led to an important development. Nothing shows more clearly the collapse of the principles of the Hesiodic school than this ultimate servile dependence upon Homeric models. Two other poems are ascribed to Hesiod. Otto Muller suggests that the introduction of Thetis and of Phrixus frags. Its subject, however, seems to have been the histories of famous seers like Mopsus, Calchas, and Teiresias, and it probably took its name from Melampus, the most famous of them all.

Herodotus indeed puts both poets years before his own time; that is, at about B. The value of such a passage cannot be analysed: it can only be said that given such a subject, this alone is the right method of treatment. In this way, without any preconceived intention, a body of epic poetry was built up by various writers which covered the whole Trojan story. But the entire range of heroic legend was open to these poets, and other clusters of epics grew up dealing particularly with the famous story of Thebes, while others dealt with the beginnings of the world and the wars of heaven. In the end there existed a kind of epic history of the world, as known to the Greeks, down to the death of Odysseus, when the heroic age ended.

In the Alexandrian Age these poems were arranged in chronological order, apparently by Zenodotus of Ephesus, at the beginning of the 3rd century B. Eutychius Proclus of Sicca. The pre-Trojan poems of the Cycle may be noticed first. The story was thence carried down to the end of the expedition under Polyneices, Adrastus and Amphiarus against Thebes.

It has been assumed in the foregoing pages that the poems of the Trojan Cycle are later than the Homeric poems; but, as the opposite view has been held, the reasons for this assumption must now be given. This tradition cannot be purely arbitrary. His work included the adjudgment of the arms of Achilles to Odysseus, the madness of Aias, the bringing of Philoctetes from Lemnos and his cure, the coming to the war of Neoptolemus who slays Eurypylus, son of Telephus, the making of the wooden horse, the spying of Odysseus and his theft, along with Diomedes, of the Palladium: the analysis concludes with the admission of the wooden horse into Troy by the Trojans.

It is probable that this and other superfluous incidents disappeared after the Alexandrian arrangement of the poems in the Cycle, either as the result of some later recension, or merely through disuse. Or Proclus may have thought it unnecessary to give the accounts by Lesches and Arctinus of the same incident. It told of the dispute between Agamemnon and Menelaus, the departure from Troy of Menelaus, the fortunes of the lesser heroes, the return and tragic death of Agamemnon, and the vengeance of Orestes on Aegisthus.

It told of the adventures of Odysseus in Thesprotis after the killing of the Suitors, of his return to Ithaca, and his death at the hands of Telegonus, his son by Circe. The epic ended by disposing of the surviving personages in a double marriage, Telemachus wedding Circe, and Telegonus Penelope. The collection of thirty-three Hymns, ascribed to Homer, is the last considerable work of the Epic School, and seems, on the whole, to be later than the Cyclic poems. It cannot be definitely assigned either to the Ionian or Continental schools, for while the romantic element is very strong, there is a distinct genealogical interest; and in matters of diction and style the influences of both Hesiod and Homer are well-marked.

The date of the formation of the collection as such is unknown. Diodorus Siculus temp. Augustus is the first to mention such a body of poetry, and it is likely enough that this is, at least substantially, the one which has come down to us. Conceivably the collection was arranged in the Alexandrine period.

The view taken by Allen and Sikes, amongst other scholars, is doubtless right, that these longer hymns are only technically preludes and show to what disproportionate lengths a simple literacy form can be developed. The Hymn is doubtless a very ancient form; but if no example of extreme antiquity survive this must be put down to the fact that until the age of literary consciousness, such things are not preserved.

While it appears to have been a hymn of the longer type 1 , we have no evidence to show either its scope or date. In the end Zeus is forced to bring Persephone back from the lower world; but the goddess, by the contriving of Hades, still remains partly a deity of the lower world. In memory of her sorrows Demeter establishes the Eleusinian mysteries which, however, were purely agrarian in origin. This hymn, as a literary work, is one of the finest in the collection. It is surely Attic or Eleusinian in origin. Can we in any way fix its date? Firstly, it is certainly not later than the beginning of the sixth century, for it makes no mention of Iacchus, and the Dionysiac element was introduced at Eleusis at about that period.

Further, the insignificance of Triptolemus and Eumolpus point to considerable antiquity, and the digamma is still active. All these considerations point to the seventh century as the probable date of the hymn. The Delian hymn describes how Leto, in travail with Apollo, sought out a place in which to bear her son, and how Apollo, born in Delos, at once claimed for himself the lyre, the bow, and prophecy.

This part of the existing hymn ends with an encomium of the Delian festival of Apollo and of the Delian choirs. The second part celebrates the founding of Pytho Delphi as the oracular seat of Apollo. After various wanderings the god comes to Telphus, near Haliartus, but is dissuaded by the nymph of the place from settling there and urged to go on to Pytho where, after slaying the she-dragon who nursed Typhaon, he builds his temple.

After the punishment of Telphusa for her deceit in giving him no warning of the dragoness at Pytho, Apollo, in the form of a dolphin, brings certain Cretan shipmen to Delphi to be his priests; and the hymn ends with a charge to these men to behave orderly and righteously. The second part is not later than B. We may at least be sure that the first part is a Chian work, and that the second was composed by a continental poet familiar with Delphi. After a brief narrative of the birth of Hermes, the author goes on to show how he won a place among the gods.

The Hymn is hard to date. It tells how all creatures, and even the gods themselves, are subject to the will of Aphrodite, saving only Artemis, Athena, and Hestia; how Zeus to humble her pride of power caused her to love a mortal, Anchises; and how the goddess visited the hero upon Mt. The lines in which Aphrodite tells of her humiliation and grief are specially noteworthy. There are only general indications of date. The date is widely disputed, for while Ludwich believes it to be a work of the fourth or third century, Allen and Sikes consider a sixth or seventh century date to be possible.

The story is figured in a different form on the reliefs from the choragic monument of Lysicrates, now in the British Museum. The writer, after lauding the god by detailing his attributes, prays to be delivered from feebleness and weakness of soul, as also from impulses to wanton and brutal violence. This, beyond most works of Greek literature, is remarkable for its fresh and spontaneous love of wild natural scenes. The remaining hymns are mostly of the briefest compass, merely hailing the god to be celebrated and mentioning his chief attributes.

Croiset, is a fragment from a gnomic poem. Epigram xiv is a curious poem attributed on no very obvious grounds to Hesiod by Julius Pollox. In it the poet invokes Athena to protect certain potters and their craft, if they will, according to promise, give him a reward for his song; if they prove false, malignant gnomes are invoked to wreck the kiln and hurt the potters. It is unfortunately impossible to trace the plan of the poem, which presumably detailed the adventures of this unheroic character: the metre used was a curious mixture of hexametric and iambic lines.

The date of such a work cannot be high: Croiset thinks it may belong to the period of Archilochus c. Their punishment by Heracles is represented on one of the earlier metopes from Selinus. It would be idle to speculate as to the date of this work. Here is told the story of the quarrel which arose between the two tribes, and how they fought, until Zeus sent crabs to break up the battle.

It is a parody of the warlike epic, but has little in it that is really comic or of literary merit, except perhaps the list of quaint arms assumed by the warriors. The text of the poem is in a chaotic condition, and there are many interpolations, some of Byzantine date. Suidas is confusing the two Artemisias, but he may be right in attributing the poem to about B. This curious work dates in its present form from the lifetime or shortly after the death of Hadrian, but seems to be based in part on an earlier version by the sophist Alcidamas c.

Its scope is as follows: 1 the descent as variously reported and relative dates of Homer and Hesiod; 2 their poetical contest at Chalcis; 3 the death of Hesiod; 4 the wanderings and fortunes of Homer, with brief notices of the circumstances under which his reputed works were composed, down to the time of his death. Mahaffy, p. It is only necessary to add that on the whole the recovery of Hesiodic papyri goes to confirm the authority of the mediaeval MSS. Our chief gains from papyri are the numerous and excellent fragments of the Catalogues which have been recovered.

Demetrius Chalcondyles, Milan? Aldus Manutius Aldine edition , Venice, complete works. Juntine Editions, and Trincavelli, Venice, with scholia. Gaisford, Oxford, ; Leipzig, with scholia: in Poett. Minn II. Goettling, Gotha, 3rd edition. Leipzig, Didot Edition, Paris, Schomann, Koechly and Kinkel, Leipzig, Flach, Leipzig, Rzach, Leipzig, larger edition , smaller edition.

The summary account in Prof. The text of the Homeric hymns is distinctly bad in condition, a fact which may be attributed to the general neglect under which they seem to have laboured at all periods previously to the Revival of Learning. Very many defects have been corrected by the various editions of the Hymns, but a considerable number still defy all efforts; and especially an abnormal number of undoubted lacuna disfigure the text. The mediaeval MSS. The same scholar has traced all the MSS. Aldine Edition, Venice, Juntine Edition, Stephanus, Paris, and Martin Variarum Lectionum libb.

Barnes, Cambridge, Ruhnken, Leyden, Epist. Dindorff Didot edition , Paris, Gemoll, Leipzig, Goodwin, Oxford, Allen and Sikes, London, Allen Homeri Opera v , Oxford, Of these editions that of Messrs Allen and Sikes is by far the best: not only is the text purged of the load of conjectures for which the frequent obscurities of the Hymns offer a special opening, but the Introduction and the Notes throughout are of the highest value.

For a full discussion of the MSS. Among translations those of J. Edgar Edinburgh , and of Andrew Lang London, may be mentioned. The following collections and editions may be mentioned:—. Muller, Leipzig, Dindorff Didot edition of Homer , Paris, Kinkel Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta i , Leipzig, The fullest discussion of the problems and fragments of the epic cycle is F.

Banks, M.

THE SPICE OF LIFE

James Mair, Oxford, Through him mortal men are famed or unfamed, sung or unsung alike, as great Zeus wills. For easily he makes strong, and easily he brings the strong man low; easily he humbles the proud and raises the obscure, and easily he straightens the crooked and blasts the proud, — Zeus who thunders aloft and has his dwelling most high. Attend thou with eye and ear, and make judgements straight with righteousness. And I, Perses, would tell of true things.

As for the one, a man would praise her when he came to understand her; but the other is blameworthy: and they are wholly different in nature. For one fosters evil war and battle, being cruel: her no man loves; but perforce, through the will of the deathless gods, men pay harsh Strife her honour due. But the other is the elder daughter of dark Night, and the son of Cronos who sits above and dwells in the aether, set her in the roots of the earth: and she is far kinder to men. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil; for a man grows eager to work when he considers his neighbour, a rich man who hastens to plough and plant and put his house in good order; and neighbour vies with his neighbour as he hurries after wealth.

This Strife is wholesome for men. And potter is angry with potter, and craftsman with craftsman, and beggar is jealous of beggar, and minstrel of minstrel. But you shall have no second chance to deal so again: nay, let us settle our dispute here with true judgement divided our inheritance, but you seized the greater share and carried it off, greatly swelling the glory of our bribe-swallowing lords who love to judge such a cause as this. They know not how much more the half is than the whole, nor what great advantage there is in mallow and asphodel 1. Else you would easily do work enough in a day to supply you for a full year even without working; soon would you put away your rudder over the smoke, and the fields worked by ox and sturdy mule would run to waste.

But Zeus in the anger of his heart hid it, because Prometheus the crafty deceived him; therefore he planned sorrow and mischief against men. He hid fire; but that the noble son of Iapetus stole again for men from Zeus the counsellor in a hollow fennel-stalk, so that Zeus who delights in thunder did not see it. But afterwards Zeus who gathers the clouds said to him in anger:.

But I will give men as the price for fire an evil thing in which they may all be glad of heart while they embrace their own destruction. And he bade famous Hephaestus make haste and mix earth with water and to put in it the voice and strength of human kind, and fashion a sweet, lovely maiden-shape, like to the immortal goddesses in face; and Athene to teach her needlework and the weaving of the varied web; and golden Aphrodite to shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs.

And he charged Hermes the guide, the Slayer of Argus, to put in her a shameless mind and a deceitful nature. And they obeyed the lord Zeus the son of Cronos. Forthwith the famous Lame God moulded clay in the likeness of a modest maid, as the son of Cronos purposed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene girded and clothed her, and the divine Graces and queenly Persuasion put necklaces of gold upon her, and the rich-haired Hours crowned her head with spring flowers.

And Pallas Athene bedecked her form with all manners of finery. Also the Guide, the Slayer of Argus, contrived within her lies and crafty words and a deceitful nature at the will of loud thundering Zeus, and the Herald of the gods put speech in her. And he called this woman Pandora 2 , because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread. And Epimetheus did not think on what Prometheus had said to him, bidding him never take a gift of Olympian Zeus, but to send it back for fear it might prove to be something harmful to men.

But he took the gift, and afterwards, when the evil thing was already his, he understood. But the woman took off the great lid of the jar 3 with her hands and scattered all these and her thought caused sorrow and mischief to men. Only Hope remained there in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for ere that, the lid of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis-holding Zeus who gathers the clouds.

But the rest, countless plagues, wander amongst men; for earth is full of evils and the sea is full. Of themselves diseases come upon men continually by day and by night, bringing mischief to mortals silently; for wise Zeus took away speech from them. So is there no way to escape the will of Zeus. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint.

They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods. It was like the golden race neither in body nor in spirit. But when they were full grown and were come to the full measure of their prime, they lived only a little time in sorrow because of their foolishness, for they could not keep from sinning and from wronging one another, nor would they serve the immortals, nor sacrifice on the holy altars of the blessed ones as it is right for men to do wherever they dwell.

Then Zeus the son of Cronos was angry and put them away, because they would not give honour to the blessed gods who live on Olympus. They loved the lamentable works of Ares and deeds of violence; they ate no bread, but were hard of heart like adamant, fearful men. Great was their strength and unconquerable the arms which grew from their shoulders on their strong limbs. Their armour was of bronze, and their houses of bronze, and of bronze were their implements: there was no black iron.

These were destroyed by their own hands and passed to the dank house of chill Hades, and left no name: terrible though they were, black Death seized them, and they left the bright light of the sun. But to the others father Zeus the son of Cronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Cronos rules over them 5 ; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds.

And these last equally have honour and glory. For now truly is a race of iron, and men never rest from labour and sorrow by day, and from perishing by night; and the gods shall lay sore trouble upon them. But, notwithstanding, even these shall have some good mingled with their evils. And Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men also when they come to have grey hair on the temples at their birth 6. The father will not agree with his children, nor the children with their father, nor guest with his host, nor comrade with comrade; nor will brother be dear to brother as aforetime.

Men will dishonour their parents as they grow quickly old, and will carp at them, chiding them with bitter words, hard-hearted they, not knowing the fear of the gods. There will be no favour for the man who keeps his oath or for the just or for the good; but rather men will praise the evil-doer and his violent dealing. Strength will be right and reverence will cease to be; and the wicked will hurt the worthy man, speaking false words against him, and will swear an oath upon them. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with scowling face, will go along with wretched men one and all.

And then Aidos and Nemesis 7 , with their sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join the company of the deathless gods: and bitter sorrows will be left for mortal men, and there will be no help against evil. Thus said the hawk to the nightingale with speckled neck, while he carried her high up among the clouds, gripped fast in his talons, and she, pierced by his crooked talons, cried pitifully. One far stronger than you now holds you fast, and you must go wherever I take you, songstress as you are. And if I please I will make my meal of you, or let you go.

He is a fool who tries to withstand the stronger, for he does not get the mastery and suffers pain besides his shame. Even the prosperous cannot easily bear its burden, but is weighed down under it when he has fallen into delusion. The better path is to go by on the other side towards justice; for Justice beats Outrage when she comes at length to the end of the race. But only when he has suffered does the fool learn this. For Oath keeps pace with wrong judgements. There is a noise when Justice is being dragged in the way where those who devour bribes and give sentence with crooked judgements, take her.

And she, wrapped in mist, follows to the city and haunts of the people, weeping, and bringing mischief to men, even to such as have driven her forth in that they did not deal straightly with her. Neither famine nor disaster ever haunt men who do true justice; but light-heartedly they tend the fields which are all their care. The earth bears them victual in plenty, and on the mountains the oak bears acorns upon the top and bees in the midst. When you have planted the seeds, fill your Watering Can at the fountain, then stand behind the plot, holding down the button again once until the entire 3 x 3 plot is highlighted before you release the Button.

This will water the entire plot with a single use of the Watering Can. This process is known as 'charging' your Tool. Rune Factory 2 differs from most Harvest Moon games in allowing you to charge your basic Tools from the start of the game. These Basic Tools will serve you throughout the first generation of the game. You will not be able to upgrade them but as they will take a double charge, they are more than adequate for the tasks you need to perform. In the 2nd Generation, your child will inherit these tools, but they will have rusted in the interim and no longer will take a charge.

Fortunately, in the 2nd Generation, you will have the power to forge superior tools yourself. Your Shipping Container Some players have been confused by the Shipping Container in Rune Factory 2 as, when you press 'A' next to it, it will display a list of all the items you have shipped in the course of the game. Mistakenly believing that it displays items that the Shipping Container actually contains, they panic, wondering why the items have not been collected yet.

The menu divides all shipped items into the following categories: Crops Medicines Accessories Cooked Dishes Fish War Trophies The order in which the items in each list are displayed can be changed. There are two options: Automatic or by Total Value. Whenever you access the Shipping Container lists, you can highlight any item to see its description as well as its basic value as a Level 1 Item. On the upper screen, you will see both your total Farm Record and your Crop Record.

Below the total for each will be the total percentage achieved, the Amount of Wood and Monster Feed currently held and the Maximum and Minimum Value of the Items you have collected. Any item highlighted in a list that is displayed on the lower screen will have its description displayed on the upper screen. Exploring your Farmhouse Go into the Farmhouse now and find the Diary in the northwest corner of the ground floor chamber. Save your game there, then explore the room fully.

You will find a Refrigerator and Shelf to the right of the Diary Table. To the right of the Shelf is an empty Chest. In the southwest corner of the room, to the right of the entrance is a Bookcase. Search it now and you will find two items: Freyr: What is this? Is this a magic book?! The Fireball is the only Magical Spell you will acquire in the 1st Generation but it is important to equip it and use it often in order to increase your Magical Skill levels.

In the 2nd Generation, you will obtain healing spells that are extremely useful as well as other offensive magic spells. By increasing your levels in the 1st Generation through use of Fireball, you will be able to use all 2nd Generation spells more effectively. As with any Harvest Moon game, the manuals are extremely informative and if players read them thoroughly, they probably would not find my guides quite as necessary!

Choose the weapon that best suits your style. One-Handed Swords Overwhelm your enemies with a rapid series of attacks. You can also equip a shield to protect yourself. New warriors often pick this weapon. The blade length makes it easy to land blows. You can charge these swords for a faster special attack. Special Characteristics High attack power Wide attack field High critical hit rate Spears Spears deliver blows from a safe distance. It's hard to break through a barrage of spear thrusts. Special Characteristics Fairly high attack power Very effective forward attack Some improved defence if equipped Hammers Fell your enemies with a single blow of unimaginable power.

This is the hammer's specialty. Special Characteristics Extremely high attack power Effective in knocking out foes Good for repelling enemies Axes Axes slice your foes with a single blow. It's used like the hammer, but an axe has a higher critical hit rate. Special Characteristics Extremely high attack power High rate of critical hits Staves Staves increase your magical powers. It's the best weapon for an aspiring conjuror. Special Characteristics Very low attack power Increases wisdom Increases spell potency Chapter 2: About Rune Abilities Rune Abilities are special attacks that can be performed with your weapons.

You must have a Skill Seal equipped to use them. You can equip a Skill Seal by putting it in one of your Rune Ability slots. There are countless Rune Abilities for different types of weapons. However, there are no Rune Abilities for Staves. Rune Abilities can deliver a formidable blow regardless of your enemy's attack power. Use them when you're in a bind.

Chapter 3: About Magic Spells can be used only after you have acquired the corresponding magic book. Two types of spells exist: offensive spells and recovery spells. Chapter 4: About Attributes Elemental Attributes are divided into three opposing pairs: fire and water, wind and earth and light and darkness. Attack an enemy with an attribute opposite to that of your weapon or spell and your blow will be particularly powerful. But don't attack an emey with its own attribute! You'll attack in the direction that you're facing. Pressing the B Button repreatedly will result in a chained attack.

The maximum number of attacks that can be chained depends on the type of weapon equipped. Charge Attacks If you hold down the B Button with a weapon equipped, your hand will start to glow. This means that you are charging up your attack. You then can release the B Button to unleash a charged attack.

Charged attacks are blows that deal massive damage. Don't be afraid to use them! Critical Hits Occasionally, a successful attack will yield a critical hit. In other words, you will deal more damage than usual. Some weapons land critical hits more often than others. Try out as many different weapons as you can. Low attack power can be deceiving.

Knocking Enemies Back A successful hit will push your foes away from you. Spears and hammers are especially effective in repelling your adversaries. Small monsters are easy to knock back. Big monsters are hard to knock back. Knocking Enemies Out Sometimes a successful attack will knock your opponent unconscious, giving you a brief opportunity to land a second blow.

You must do this quickly or your opponent will wake up. Hammers are particularly effective for knocking monsters out. Knocking Enemies Out Cold When knocking monsters back, it is in your best interest to try knocking them against a wall. If you do this successfully, your opponent will be unconscious for an extended period of time. Backstepping A backstep is done when you move backwards without changing the direction you are facing. You can sometimes use this technique to avoid incoming attacks. To perform a backstep, you must have shoes equipped as an accessory. You can also chain two backsteps together.

Executing a backstep is easy. Surprise Attacks Both you and your opponents are vulnerable to attacks from behind. These attacks are particularly damaging. Some monsters will specifically move around you and attack from behind. Be sure to pay attention. Chapter 6: Weaponry Wisdom Swords and Spears As your weapons level increases, the amount of RP consumed by swords, staves and spears decreases.

You need to be especially careful when using heavier weapons. If your weapons level is low, they will consume your RP quickly. You will have trouble fighting if you've used up all of your RP, so be sure to use an appropriate weapon for your weapons skill level. If you use an Axe, your Logging Skill increases. You should exercise caution when using more powerful Axes and Hammers, as these decimate your RP if your skill level is too low. Small Hammers and Axes are used for mining precious stones and turning trees into lumber, respectively.

Their light weight makes them easy to handle. If you temper these tools, you can increase their charge power, destructive power and even the rate at which you find precious stones and gems.

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Large Hammers and Axes cannot be used to clear boulders or tree stumps on your farm. Forging Weapons You can also craft weapons yourself, provided you built a forge. You're on your own in figuring out how to build one, so play around and figure it out. Making strong weapons requires a high forging skill. Raise your skill level by making weapons. Weapon Levels Each individual weapon has a weapon level that influences its attack power. Be sure to compare weapon levels when you have two of the same weapon.

When forging your own weapons, high-level components yield high-level weapons. You can also use the forge to temper your weapons to increase their weapon level. Chapter 7: Battle Tips Preparing for Battle Taking on any monster one on one is not a particularly difficult task. You need to be careful, however, when taking on two or more opponents at once. When you do engage multiple monsters at the same time, take them down one by one to avoid being surrounded.

Taming Monsters You can tame monsters to fight for you. Fighting as a team is always more effective than fighting alone, so tame lots of monsters for your adventures. If you raise your monsters' friendship level, they'll also grow more powerful. To raise their friendship level, make sure to brush them once a day. If you get your hands on musical scores, you'll be able to exercise extra control over your monster companions. Plus you'll be able to use your monsters to seek out special items hidden in dungeons.

About Runes Runes are balls of energy that protect Earthmates from natural dangers. Collecting them will restore your RP. There are flowers and crystals that contain runes scattered throughout dungeons. Hit these with a hammer or sword to release runes. When they're fully grown, crops will produce runes at a rate of one rune per day.


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You can also use the fields in dungeons to grow crops. Try delaying your crop harvests to produce runes. This will soon become an indispensable part of your strategy for exploring dungeons. About Status Ailments Sometimes an enemy's attack will trigger a status ailment. When that happens, an icon will appear below your HP and RP gauges. Touching the icon will cause the name of your ailment to appear.

Use this to figure out what ailment you have! Status ailments can be ured with a variety of magic and items. You can also receive treatment at Alvarna clinic. The Calendar will display all Festival Days. This may come in handy. I personally avoid it in the 1st Generation as storage space is limited and every item either must be kept in your Rucksack, your Refrigerator or your Shelf. In my own view, it is not useful enough to merit a valuable slot. The bureau in the northwest corner is not accessible in the 1st Generation but in the 2nd, it will contain four drawers filled with different outfits.

There are two bedrooms on the upper floor as well. Your character can choose to sleep in either one of the beds. A Diary Table is in one of the bedrooms and a bookcase and vanity table with looking glass is in the other. In the 1st Generation, you will not be able to access the Bookcase upstairs, but you will find a Magical Spell there in the 2nd Generation. The Looking Glass is your Wi-Fi connection in both generations.

Looking Glass: 'There's something odd about this mirror… It almost looks as though it leads into another world! In either generation, you actually can obtain unique weapons through trade but as the unique items are derived from Weapons that only can be forged in the 2nd Generation, at least one of the players needs to be in the 2nd Generation for these unique weapons to appear.

Even in the 1st Generation, however, you can obtain Weapons and Accessories through this method. A superior Weapon and Accessory can help you immensely in combat situations, but there is no substitute for experience at the Forge. You still will need to forge your own items in the 2nd Generation if you wish to increase Skill Levels. When you have finished exploring your Farmhouse, you need to go into the village to meet all the townspeople. You need to meet all individuals as quickly as possible, then access the Message Board to initiate your first Request.

Your Field Apart from the Waterpot and Hoe, which you must purchase from Mana immediately for G if you wish to perform any farming tasks, all other Tools are obtained by completing Requests. It is possible to obtain all your basic Tools, including the Fishing Rod, in the first day of gameplay, if you waste no time.

The Fishing Rod is the result of completing Barrett's 1st Request. The Axe will be given to you by Tanya when you complete her 1st Request and the Sickle will be given by Jake when his 1st Request is completed. The Hammer is given by Gordon at the start of his 1st Request to allow you to use it to obtain the Gem he seeks.

The other vital Tool that you can obtain immediately by completing Ceci's 1st Request is the Pet Glove. This will enable you to tame Monsters but more importantly, will allow you to order a Monster Barn from Byron without delay. The Monster Barn will be completed overnight, allowing you to begin to tame Monsters on the second day of the game, provided always that you had sufficient funds and wood to order the Monster Barn.

Two Ranch Tools in the form of Clippers and Milker can be obtained at the start from Egan and Herman respectively by completing their Requests. Without the Brush, you will find it almost impossible to raise Monster Heart Levels, although a Tame Monster will work for you even at zero hearts. You can use a Monster for Transport at 0 hearts as well. If you intend to collect Monsters immediately, you must plant a few plots of Grass as soon as possible, as Monster Feed is expensive.

As your Tools can be charged even from the start of the game, it should take very little energy to clear your field of stumps and boulders and till it for crops.


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Plant first in the northwest corner as that is where any Monster set to water will begin his work each day. Completing the first Request, although it will raise Heart Levels, will not raise them by a full Level. In the 1st Week of Spring, two characters have birthdays: 2 Spring, the first day of the game, is Douglas' Birthday. There is no reason to rush forward in Rune Factory 2. You can take as much time as you like to complete Requests and raise Friendship Levels but if you wish reach all goals as early as possible in the game, you can give these items to Douglas and Barrett on their respective Birthdays in order to raise their Heart Levels.

Doing this will cause the next Request to appear on the Message Board. When the 2nd Request from each has been completed, the 3rd should appear immediately afterwards. In Douglas' case, you should be able to complete even his 4th Request in the first week of gameplay.

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It is his 4th Request that will allow you to obtain your third Empty Bottle, giving you a total of three Empty Bottles if you have completed the first Requests of all other individuals in Alvarna. Initial Walkthrough: Other Tasks Some of the 1st Requests that appear on the Message Boards will require you to enter hostile territory.

You will not be able to pass through the gates that are located in different parts of each of these Caves until the 2nd Generation, but unlocking all 1st Generation screens on the Map will further your familiarity with your surroundings. This is extremely important.

You need to pay attention to the Map as time always is limited in Harvest Moon. Whenever you visit hostile territory, you need to be able to complete any goals efficiently. In the first week, goals in the four Seasonal Caves will include: 1. Collecting all wild items on the tillable plots; 2. Clearing plots for crops in each of the 4 Seasonal Caves; 3. Planting seasonal crops and watering them daily; 4. Defeating Monsters for experience and to obtain War Trophies; 5.

Smashing all Rocks for Ores and Gems; 6. Fishing; 7. Taming Monsters for experience, Ranch Products and Transport. Apart from this, you need to plant crops on your own field and water them daily. Any Monster set to water your crops will be fairly inefficient so do not depend too much on his efforts. Fishing is a good way to make money in the beginning of the game. You will find that each location offers different varieties of fish.

Even if you catch rubbish often at certain locations such as the waterfall on your field or the bridge at De Sainte-Coquille Park, there are fish to be caught there as well. The fish caught in any location in Alvarna will vary according to the season. Those caught in any seasonal Cave obviously can be caught throughout the year at those locations.

Although Rune Factory 2 is a traditional Harvest Moon game in many respects, it is vital not to forget that it is an RPG fundamentally, which means that your character's levels of experience in each aspect of life are critical to success. Performing the same tasks again and again raise experience and Skill Levels. Those Skill Levels will be transferred to your child in the 2nd Generation, so no experience ever is wasted in Rune Factory 2.

You do need to water all crops occasionally, but if you wish to decrease your labour, you can request a rainy day from Alicia at least three days each week. As Alicia does not work on rainy days, you can pay for a rainy day prediction only on a sunny day. Crops that are not watered daily will take longer to mature, but should not die if they receive water every other day. Severe storms will decimate your Crops randomly but you always can prevent any severe storm by 'camping out' using a Sleeping Bag.

Her prediction will not be accurate for anything other than sun on a Festival Day. Festival Days must be distinguished from ordinary Holidays, however, in this respect. When a square is tilled, no wild items will grow there. You always can purchase all Wild Grasses, including Medicinal and Antidotal Herbs from the Clinic, and if you have completed all Requests, you will have more Wood for Lumber than you ever will be able to use, so the disadvantages of tilling every square are insignificant in practical terms.

Even if no Crops are planted, once a square is tilled it will remain tilled from Spring through Autumn. It is only when Winter arrives that the effects will end where your own Field is concerned. Poison Squares Although this is discussed in other sections of this Guide, perhaps it deserves a section of its own. This is a Poison Square. To combat poison, all you need to do is eat a piece of Antidotal Herb.

There is an Antidotal Potion that you can buy at the Clinic or make in your Pharmacy in the 2nd Generation that will rid your body of the poison and restore some health, but the Antidotal Herb usually works perfectly well. To destroy the source of the poison by destroying the actual Poison Square, you need to purchase and use Neutral Agent. This is sold both in the 1st and 2nd Generations at the Clinic for G.

The poison will dissolve, leaving a clear square of tillable soil. It is best to dissolve all Poison Squares as soon as you encounter them. Neutral Agent is not expensive. Severe storms can result in the creation of new Poison Squares but it is a random effect that is not very common. You always can store a couple of portions of Neutral Agents somewhere in case of emergencies if you wish to be prepared for all eventualities.

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Remember that you must ship one of every item in order to complete your shipping lists. Ship one Neutral Agent to add it to the lists that are displayed when you access your Shipping Container. Your Monsters each require one portion of feed per day. Purchasing this Monster Feed from the General Store quickly can bankrupt any player, especially at the start of the game. It therefore is essential that you grow Grass in your Field immediately.

Apart from the intrinsic value of the Grass as Monster Feed, it is a 'multiple harvest crop' that will continue to grow from Spring through the end of Autumn. All that is required in order to harvest it is a Sickle, a basic Tool that is obtained from Jake when you complete his first Request.

Furthermore, if you do not need Monster Feed, you can leave the ripened Grass unharvested in order to allow it to produce a Rune Point each day. It is not only in your own field that you need to grow some Grass. In the Caves, it will continue to produce Grass forever, unless you choose to eradicate it from the plot. If in fact you wish to grow a different crop in any plot where Grass is growing, you must wait until it is fully ripened to harvest it. It is only when Grass has been harvested on the same day that the Sickle can be used to destroy the crop.

Her Requests actually consist of little mini-games. Yue gives Cooked Dishes in many of her early Requests but she will give you items that will aid in combat as well. She will give you a Headband and a Critical Ring in a later Quests. It is as important to complete all Requests in the 2nd Generation as it was in the 1st. Heart Levels increase when you complete a Request and vital items often can be obtained only as Rewards for a Request that has been fulfilled. You will receive Missing Pages from Spell Books, for example, only if you complete Requests by almost every character in the 2nd Generation.

As with any Magic Book that you obtain, it will be severely damaged and is missing pages. The Fireball Missing Page will be given to you actually by Alicia in the 1st Generation in the course of a Request Event, but you will not be able to make the repair until the 2nd Generation. Beginner Spells: The following are the Magic Books that you can obtain within the first week of the 2nd Generation.

They consist both of Magical Attack Spells and 'White' Healing Magic as well as the useful 'Escape' spell that allows you to return to the Entrance to any Cave instantaneously. If you make all expansions and find all the following Spells, you will have the four basic Elemental Magic Attacks as well as the ability to restore HP and reverse Poison and Paralysis almost at the start of the 2nd Generation. Other Spells can be obtained later in the game. Escape: This extremely useful Magic Book is found when you search the table in the centre of your Farmhouse on the ground floor.

Press 'A' in front of the table and the Escape Spell will be yours! Unlike other Spellbooks, this one is intact and no repairs are needed. Use 'Escape' to return to the Entrance to any Cave instantly. Escape: Very useful magic that will whisk you to safety faster than you can say: 'There's no place like home. Search the bookcase by pressing 'A' to find the Water Laser Spellbook. This is a 'Water' Attack Spell. Water Laser: Fires water at high pressure. Serena and Sera will arrive and graciously tell you to keep the books.

When used, it recovers 80 HP both for you and for any Monster who accompanies you. When used, it will cure Status ailments and restore 30 HP in the process. Like 'Cure', it will affect both you and any Monster who is your companion in the Caves. Note that it works only on poison and paralysis. Medication: Status ailment magic. Cures poison and paralysis.

Search the bookshelves. Sonic Wind will be found in the southwest corner of the Library. This is a 'Wind' Attack Spell. Sonic Wind: Unleashes scythes of wind that chase down enemies. You will find it in a bookcase in the middle of the Library, on the right side of the bookcase. This is an 'Earth' Attack Spell. Stone Spike: Makes rocks spike up at your feet.

Use it as much as possible in the 1st Generation to increase your Magical Skill levels. This is a 'Fire' Attack Spell. Fireball: Hurls a blazing ball of flame. As with the other Magic Spellbooks you have obtained, these will be 'badly damaged' and to make them more powerful, you need to acquire the Missing Pages.

Even when Magic Spells are 'badly damaged', however, they can be used quite effectively in combat situations. The others are given by Barrett as rewards for meeting challenges in the Dojo in the 2nd Generation. They can be fun to use but in my view, Rune Points can be used to far greater advantage in other ways, either in Healing Spells, Escape or the Inquisitive Waltz. If you have a decent weapon and decent armou, you will not need any special Skill Seal Attacks to allow quick victory over ANY Monster.

The second disadvantage of the Skill Seals is the amount of space they occupy. They have to be stored either in your Rucksack or in a Shelf. Shelf storage always is at a premium as it is used for any War Trophies that you may need to create items in your Workshop. Barrett will invite you to return to the Dojo to repeat the Challenges even when he has no more Skill Seals to offer. If you have defeated Fiersome, a better Challenge is to be found in the four Underground Shrines, as there you will gain War Trophies when you defeat the Monsters at each Level.

Monsters in the Dojo never drop items. Causes long stun. This is the only Skill Seal you will have in the 1st Generation. It is for the Shortsword and cannot be used with other types of Weapons. As you continue to meet his Challenges in the Dojo, he will give you more Skill Seals. A precisely timed combo to the front, back, sides. Lower your spear and charge. Once you start, nothing can stop you. Closes the gap between enemies in a flash. Don't make yourself dizzy!

You will be rewarded with the following when you have defeated 8 Monsters from Palermo Shrine in the Dojo. Four of these are Aerians. The remainder are Little Emperors. Dodge and then strike back. Effect changes depending on the weapon. Can send any foe flying, but also makes you dizzy.

In the next Challenge, you must fight nine monsters. Barrett will remark: 'You must take after your father. These actually are easier to defeat than those in the preceding trial. An all-out, powerful swing. Make a new constellation out of your enemy. A flurry. Shape changes depending on weapon. Deflect an incoming attack and then strike back for a critical hit. A flurry of thrusts, faster than the eye can see. Remember that Heart Levels increase when you complete a Request.

Furthermore, all Requests appear in a set order. It is only by completing the initial Request from any individual that you allow the next to appear when any Heart Level requirements have been met. Important 2nd Generation Requests Among other Requests that appear in the 2nd Generation are those from Yue that will result in the acquisition of the Missing Pages from some of your new Magic Spellbooks. Barrett will give you Missing Pages as well. Jake's first Request will result in a Reward in the form of one of my favourite Weapons from the original Rune Factory: Windsword.

As it is his very first Request, you can obtain this excellent weapon in the 1st or 2nd week of the 2nd Generation. Both Yue and Barrett will give you more than one Missing Page as rewards for completing their Requests. Take the Missing Page with the Spellbook to Mana on any Weekday morning when she is in the classroom and ask her to repair the Spellbook for you.

Remember that even severely damaged Spellbooks can be used. A repair to any Spellbook simply makes it more powerful. As your character can be either a boy or a girl, however, there is a difference in the way in which the relationships develop depending on your gender. You can experience ALL Requests by your contemporaries, whether they are boys or girls, but they will lead ultimately to a romantic event that is in lieu of marriage only if the character is of the opposite gender. Nonetheless, even with contemporaries of the same gender, you can experience an ultimate 'friendship' event.

Be aware that your character in the 2nd Generation is not the same age as your character in the 1st and therefore Marriage is not appropriate. There are Events similar to the Marriage Event in the 2nd Generation but they are not real marriages! They fall somewhere between play-acting and a promise of affection in the general scheme of life. Tool Use: As your Levels increase, the amount of energy consumed when you use your Tool will decrease, allowing you to work harder and longer. Rune Factory 2 differs from most Harvest Moon games in that your basic Tools will take a charge even at the start of the game, allowing you to generate more power with them or achieve a greater range.

To charge an equipped tool, you must hold down the button. In the first Generation game, tools and weapons have two levels of charge at the most. The area surrounding the tool will change colour twice and, in the case of any farm tool, the number of squares that will be effected by the tool will be highlighted. For example, without any charge at all, any Farm Tool such as a Watering Can, Hoe or Sickle, will affect only one square. If you charge the tool to the next level, it will affect three squares. Charge it to the next level and it will affect nine squares.

This can be extremely useful so remember to charge your Farm Tools before you use them!

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Note that the original Tools in the 1st Generation become the 'Rusty' Tools of the 2nd. When your Child finds the Tools, they will have rusted and no longer will take a Charge. You need to upgrade them to better Tools at your own Forge in the 2nd Generation. Basic Game Controls: The 'A' Button is the action button to allow you to speak to an individual, take an item from the ground or harvest any Crop.

The 'B' Button is the Tool Button. When you press the 'B' button, you will use whatever Tool or Weapon is equipped currently. If you have an item in your Hands, however, that will override any item equipped as a Tool in terms of the Button's action. When an item is held, you will see the following options: 'A' will 'Toss' or chuck out the item. Whenever you are holding an item in your 'Held' slot, press the 'Y' button to store the item in your Rucksack.

If, however, you are inside hostile territory but are holding an item in your hands, the 'Y' button will transfer it to your Rucksack as always. As you have two slots for Magical Abilities or Spells, both the 'X' and 'Y' buttons will be assigned to these. Finally, in the bottom left corner of the lower screen of the DS, you will find three icons.

The first is a Sword, the second is a Magical Rune and the third is a Hand. These are shortcuts that, when tapped with your Stylus, allow access to a sorting menu for each type of item. If you tap on the Sword, you will be able to cycle through all your Tools and Weapons.