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Pyrrhus vous l'a promis. Sur lui, sur tout son peuple il vous rend souveraine. Oui, je m'y trouverai. Mais allons voir mon fils. Madame, qui vous presse? Que dites-vous? Quoi donc? Le soin de mon repos me fit troubler le leur? Je sais quel est Pyrrhus. On vient. C'est Hermione. Allons, fuyons sa violence. Non, je ne puis assez admirer ce silence. Fais-tu venir Oreste? Mais il entre. Je veux savoir, Seigneur, si vous m'aimez.

Si je vous aime? O Dieux! Vengez-moi, je crois tout. Non, Seigneur, demeurons : Je ne veux pas si loin porter de tels affronts. Mais si vous me vengez, vengez-moi dans une heure. Courez au temple. Pyrrhus, Madame? Ah I courez, et craignez que je ne vous rappelle. Moi, je l'excuserais? Vengeons-nous, j'y consens, mais par d'autres chemins. Tant qu'il vivra craignez que je ne lui pardonne. Mais cependant que faut-il que je fasse?

Cette nuit je vous sers, cette nuit je l'attaque. Enfin qu'attendez-vous? Mais quoi? Mais, Madame, songez Non, je vous priverai de ce plaisir funeste, Madame: il ne mourra que de la main d'Oreste. De retirer mon bras teint du sang du parjure. Ma vengeance est perdue S'il ignore en mourant que c'est moi qui le tue. Mais qu'est-ce que je vois? O Dieux I Qui l'aurait cru, Madame? Vous ne m'attendiez pas. Madame ; et je vois bien Que mon abord ici trouble votre entretien.

Oui, Madame, et j'avoue Que je vous ai promis la foi que je lui voue. Pour moi, loin de contraindre un si juste courroux. M'en dira d'autant plus que vous m'en direz moins. Vous vous abandonniez au crime en criminel. Non, non, la perfidie a de quoi vous tenter; 5 Et vous ne me cherchez que pour vous en vanter. Ne vous suffit-il pas de ceux que vous portez? Qu'ai-je donc fait?

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Seigneur, vous entendez. Andromaque m'attend. Qu'ai-je fait? Que dois-je faire encore? Quel transport me saisit? Errante, et sans dessein, je cours dans ce palais. L'ai-je vu se troubler et me plaindre un moment? Et je le plains encore? Je tremble au seul penser du coup qui le menace? Je parerai d'un bras les coups de l'autre main.

Il me laisse, l'ingrat I cet embarras funeste. Non, non, encore un coup ; laissons agir Oreste. Sa mort sera l'effet de l'amour d'Hermione? L'assassiner, le perdre? Le plus fier des mortels, et le plus amoureux. Et l'ingrat?

Madame, il ne voit rien. Il poursuit seulement ses amoureux projets. Le perfide 1 II mourra. Mais que t'a dit Oreste? Je ne sais. Tu ne sais? Oreste encore, Oreste me trahit? Oreste vous adore. Non, non, il les verra triompher sans obstacle : Il se gardera bien de troubler ce spectacle. Je ne mourrai pas seule, et quelqu'un me suivra.

Il est mort? Dussent de son hymen relever la splendeur. Et je le reconnais pour le roi des Troyens. Chacun se disputait la gloire de l'abattre. Qu'ont-ils fait? Tais-toi perfide. Barbare, qu'as-tu fait? Avez-vous pu, cruels, l'immoler aujourd'hui. Pourquoi l'assassiner? Qui te l'a dit? O Dieux? Quand je Saurais voulu, fallait-il y souscrire? Que ne me laissais-tu le soin de ma vengeance? L'a fait pour son malheur pencher vers ma rivale. Tu peux partir. Que vois-je? Et que viens-je d'entendre? Est-ce Pyrrhus qui meurt? Pour qui?

Il faut partir. Sortons de ce palais. Aux ordres d'Andromaque ici tout est soumis ; Ils la traitent en reine, et nous comme ennemis. Non, non, c'est Hermione, amis, que je veux suivre. Partez : j'ai fait le crime, et je vais l'expier. Il la faut oublier. Et parce qu'elle meurt, faut-il que vous mouriez? Elle meurt? Dieux 1 qu'entends-je? Lever les yeux au ciel, se frapper et tomber. Pour couronner ma joie, Dans leur sang, dans le mien il faut que je me noie ; L'un et l'autre en mourant je les veux regarder.

Quelle horreur me saisit? Ah I Seigneur. Pyrrhus, je te rencontre encore? Trouverai-je partout un rival que j'abhorre? Mais que vois-je? A mes yeux Hermione l'embrasse? Elle vient l'arracher au coup qui le menace? Il perd le sentiment. Nos efforts deviendraient impuissants S'il reprenait ici sa rage avec ses sens. Henrietta- Anna X daughter of Charies I. Pag9 2. See Introduc- tion, page xiv.

Page 3. It happened that day that Andromache was bearing to the ashes of Hector solemn libations and sad offerings. She summoned the Manes at the empty tomb on the verdant mound that she had consecrated with two altars, an occasion for tears. She bent her head and said in a low voice : ' Happy among all was the virgin daughter of Priam i. Polyxena destined to die on the pyre of an enemy beneath the lofty walls of Troy.

She underwent not the insult of the casting of lots nor, a captive, decked the bed of a conqueror, her master. I, leaving my country in flames, borne over distant seas, have brought forth in slavery and have suffered the pride of the son of Achilles, Pyrrhus, this haughty young chief, who then be- coming attached to Hermione, allied himself to the Spartan blood, to the race of Leda. But behold how in ardent passion for a woman of whom he is bereft, pursued by the Furies of crime, Orestes surprises him and slays him beside the paternal altars.

Euripide, Euripides B. C , Greek tragic poet. On the faithfulness to tradition of Racine's drama, see Introduc- tion, pages x-xii. Latin mores. Aristote, Aristotle, in his Poetics, Page 7. Ronsard 1 a noted French poet. His un- finished Franciade, an epic on the origin of the French, is one of his least successful works. Strabo 13, under Scepsis and Dionysius of Hall- camassus both preserve a tradition of the survival of Astyanax. Euripide, Euripides, Phoenician Women, 1 Camerarius about is meant, whose note to Electra, , is here freely adapted.

Page ACT I. The mother of Pylades was the sister of Orestes's father, Agamemnon. They had been friends from boyhood and had co-operated in killing Clytemnsestra and in an at- L. Buthrotum is baleful or fatal to Orestes because he wishes to marry Hermione who has come hither to marry Pyrrhus. The figurative use of yeux is almost a mannerism with Racine, and may be noted constantly in this play.

Pylades uses the plural of respect to Orestes who addresses him in the singular. See Introduction, page xii. An oxymoron. His death would have been a relief to Orestes, but a cruel grief to Pylades. The x, now usually pronounced was silent in Racine's day. That is, relies on her love for your self-preservation, lui refers to amour, which is usually feminine in Old French and in Racine e. It is contrary to tradition that Hermione had refused to marry Orestes before she was pledged to Pyrrhus. Say, ashamed of such a vain and prolonged courtship.

VOUS Pabhorriez, i. Say, loue and longing. That is, Such being the sad condition of things I was sorry that you saved me from destruction by your escort. Often used of persons in Racine. That is, tried to win him by coquetry. That is, Marvel at the destiny whose persecution, etc. See 58 note. On the survival of Astyanax, see Introduction, page X. Note the hiatus in Troie ensevelie.

Troie, Troy. Metonymy, supplice, death. This story is told also of Hannibal's infancy. This Latinism is quite common in Racine. This translates Eneid, iv. Gray, Elegy : " Still in our ashes live their wonted fires. Note the change in tense, brigue le suffrage, solicit the choice.

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That is, The ardor of my love is such that I shall rejoice to fail in my mission, for then I can rescue from Epirus the insulted and deserted Hermione. Note the fatalism here as in , , , , and cp. Intro- duction, page xiv.. See That is, He frightens Andromache in order that he may reassure her. Note, once for all, that in this and similar constructions the pronominal object may precede either the finite verb or the infinitive.

Vaugelas commends the latter usage, and Racine follows him in Andro- maque rather more than half the time, seventy cases to fifty. Where two infinitives are connected by et or ou the pro- nominal object will precede the second of them. This construction in which the subject of accorder, Pyrrhus, must be gathered from sa is bold and questionable. Seneca, Troasy , , makes Ulysses claim to be "the voice of all the Greeks and the leaders " in demanding the death of Astyanax.

That is, As we admire the exploits of AchiUes so we, etc. Say, There is one thing that. A favorite word with Racine. Seneca, Troasy and , has the same thought but with wholly differing expression. The allusion in , is to the familiar fable of the countryman who warmed a viper in his bosom.

That is, He will learn by betraying you how to war with them. Pyrrhus in his answer shows an ironical confidence. That is, basing my opinion on the dignity and repute of their envoy. The construction is similar to In like manner an adjective, participle or clause is found referring to a sub- sequent noun or pronoun in , , , , , , 1 See any Classical Dictionary. See Euripides, Trojan Wometty Seneca, Troas, , : " The future Hector greatly troubles the Greeks. Are you afraid he may raise up overturned Troy "i " Note the irony.

Temporal, as rarely to-day. Seneca, Troas, : " Is this a person to raise up the burned and ruined city? Shall these hands rebuild Troy? If Troy has hope only in him, it has no hope. Our fall has not been such that any need fear our rise. Imperfect indicative as in Latin when we should use a conditional. Pouvoir and devoir are similarly construed.

That is: They allege their weakness as a reason for sparing them. Do you expect that, etc. Translate by the passive participle. The story is probably an invention of Racine, though it might be supported by Strabo and Dionysius. Introduction, page x. Ce n'est. Modem usage would prefer : Ce ne sont. Alludes to the whole story of the Iliad, how Achilles, when his captive was taken from him by Agamemnon, withdrew in anger from the fight, permitting the Greeks to be for a time defeated by Hector.

Dont, with which. Hennione and Orestes were first cousins, bat Pyrrhus knew of their love. The word belongs to the artificial speech and social relations of the time which mask an ingrained contempt and mistrust of women under a smirking pretence of gallantry. How much. Plural by Euphuistic affecta- tion. Modem usage prefers par jour. For similar use of the subjunctive for the future or conditional, cp.

Iliad, vi. That is : Let the motive be as noble as the act, not dictated by an amorous fancy. That is : While I am, etc. Note the change from first to third person in , and cp. That is : The nobility of so magnanimous an action should com mend it to you thomgh I should refuse my consent. The thought is borrowed from Heliodorus, a decadent Greek novelist, in whose yEthioptca x. Grammars usually give it as feminine. But I consider my destiny. These ambitious hopes frighten me. To live suflices for the conquered. Note the insipid gallantry here.


That is : Does she owe her love, like me, to a dead husband? That is : Famous through deeds that cause my tears. See also That is : I have allowed my passion to go so far that if you will not accept my love you must await my hate. The verse is clumsy. The menace here suggests Corneille, PertharitCy But since gloire is opposed to normal morality it may naturally deviate into crime, and is therefore a moral state peculiarly suited to tragedy.

It is he who masters my heart and forbids me to die. He has prolonged my misery. ACT II. We must suppose that Pylades, complying with the request of , has procured an interview with Hermione for Orestes to whom il , lui , ses , and le refer. Obsolete in this sense. Si, Indeed, gloire, cp.


Emphatic nominative. This line suggests Corneille, SertoriuSy Demeurons, i. The metaphor is mixed. Feminine, here. A favorite word with the Euphuists. Note Hermione's fright at the realization of her passionate wish. Note the fatalism. In- dicative because the fatal result seemed so certain. These lines allude to the adventures of Orestes in Tauris, but do not accord with the tradition.

That is : became reluctant to shed my blood. Note the affectation throughout this speech, and cp. That is: perform the functions you undertook as envoy. He says he is freed from per- forming duties from which Hermione would have him free himself by performing them. Hermione thus implies that her betrothal to Pyrrhus was without her desire, if not against her will. She pretends affection for Orestes to make him the tool of her vengeance, for which she had already often desired his presence He falls an easy victim to her unscrupulous passion.

The charms of eyes beget love which then teaches them the power of their weapons. Contrast this insipidity with the admirable coquetry of It is probably true that utter hate springs only from deceived love. That is : Your instinct must tell you that your defence of him is vain, and even if it did not, he would tell you so. These words of Orestes add to Hermione's rancor which in rises to a venomous hate of Orestes. The whole speech is an often cited example of irony.

That is : Even the ruin and death of Pyrrhus would not have satisfied Hermione if he should have first enjoyed her rival's love. She thus almost betrays herself to Orestes. In these lines Hermione seeks to disperse the suspicion roused by That is : Your prejudiced soul interpenetrates my words with a jealous suspicion that preys on you and will cause your death. Common Euphuistic locution. This curious designation for a beloved princess recurs in It is Euphuistic in spirit.

For a king to seek an ambassador was contrary to the etiquette of , but is a concession necessary to preserve the unity of place. See Introduction, page xiv. We must assume that Andromache has not responded to the threats of Pyrrhus, in I. In his pique he is now ready to comply with the demands of the Greeks, thus reconciling Hermione to him in a moment and adding to the despairing jealousy of Orestes. Note the indicative for the conditional, for vividness, as also in , , In his reply, Pyrrhus shows his knowledge of Orestes's love with the most courteous mocking irony.

Note the Euphuism of receiving a heart from a hand. Phoenix betrays a delighted surprise at the king's changed position. Note the fatalism and cp. Pyrrhus feels that had Andro- maque encouraged he must have yielded. This is finely expressed in The indicative marks the certainty of the results.

Note the oxymqron. Paig;rit, makes her bitter. For the construction of farouche, cp. It refers to sa Ovid, Remedy of Love says : " You had better be still than say that you love no more. Note the strange attitude for a Greek hero. This line is the counterpart of Both lines have been criti- cised as inconsistent with the dignity of tragedy, their fault, to such critics, being that they are natural.

Perseus, in a Latin satire v. It is Euphuistic to make hearts run after people. We do indeed say : " My heart goes out to a person. That is : How can she dare to act so when she is, etc. That is : before promising to surrender Astyanax you should have realized that you were too unstable in mind to execute your design. That is : Can you fear that my anger will not overcome my love when I reflect on the outrageous ingratitude of Andromache. This was the result of his interview with Pyrrhus, ii. Latin inquietus.

Note the repetition of surtout. A new word in Racine's day, and more emphatic than now. For the mood, cp. These lines give the key to Hermione's true feelings. That is : She shall be miserable as she has made me miser- able. I have had to regret a marriage broken on its eve, and she shall do so also. That is : What do I care though Greece rejoice at the success of my efforts in her behalf if Hermione rejoices at my disappointment in regard to her.

This line has an ironical notoriety. It is certainly unfortunate in the mouth of a fury-haunted matricide and would-be temple-plunderer. That is : Whatever portion of my life I consider. That is : All my experience of life convicts the gods of injustice. Claudian speaks also of " guilty men in the glory of long prosperity and the good persecuted. Gardez, Take care. That is : If you will arrange for her abduction I will guarantee my discretion. She intends this as a contemptuous slur on the depth of his affection for her.

She masks her real exultation so that she may still have Orestes to fall back on in case of need. This line may have been suggested by Corneille, Agesilas, V. The calm of Orestes is the result of the counsel of Pylades, Note how Hermione's love for Pyrrhus magnifies his glory. That is : Still besieging Anconquered Troy. That is : the only one for which I cared. Note the Euphuistic affectation that makes seul refer in the same line to a figurative and a material heart.

Eneid, iv. Let him keep it and guard it in his tomb. Sophocles, Thrachinian Women, That is : Rest assured that his mother will try to restrain him from any dangerous enterprise. Seneca, Troas, , makes Andromaque say to Ulysses, " Grant him the right to be a slave. Can one deny that to a prince? This is the pride, the Greek "hybris," that precedes a fall. Pyrrhus, with silent s for the rhyme.

This line is an ironical allusion to She means, but hesitates to say amour. Sans espoir, i. C'en est fait, The case is decided, irrevocably. That is: In one of my former illustrious station, such a survival of a pride that fears to be importunate is excusable. Seneca, Troas, , makes Andromache say: "I fall sup- pliant at thy knees, Ulysses ; with this right hand I touch thy feet ; till now it has touched the feet of none. Auteur, Since he is the author. Euripides, Andromaque, : " I saw Hector slain and dragged by the chariot of Achilles. I saw deplorable Ilion bum and ascended, a slave, the ships of the Greeks.

That is : To save my son I not only consent to live but to be a slave. For to what will not a mother submit? Iliad, xxiv. The optative is more regu- larly expressed in by que, with the subjunctive, which in negations is obligatory. Note how Pyrrhus, foreseeing a weakness of which he is ashamed, desires to hide it from Phoenix.

That is : In causing your tears I have caused my own defeat. That is : Hector himself would advise you to yield. For the tense, see The indicatives fait , and foule , emphasize the certainty of the result. Racine often forms adverbs in this way. For the line, cp. Eneidy ii. Note the inversion in de- manda, modified by le jour. These lines were suggested by Iliad, vi. Pentraine, involve in his death. Note the Euphuism of complaining to eyes rather than ears. Pen, it i. Racine often uses cU with a substantive for an adjective.

L'amour, here, despised lave, "pique. In the very next line she wavers, saying she has no troth to plight for she is pledged to Hector still. ACT IV. The result of Andromache's reflections at Hector's tomb , appears in the "innocent stratagem " , that she explains 1 II, i. Croyez-en ses transports, Trust his lave for that, i.

By marrying Andromache Pyrrhus belies L. For the construction, cp. That is : You may now see Astyanax when you will, not as formerly , once a day ; therefore there is no haste. The change is for the eye-rhyme, like that noted in The sound of ai and oi was in Racine's day identical in these words. That is ; I thought that, as I had come to know you, so you, in your turn, had come to know me better than to suppose that I could really be false to the memory of Hector. Fortheconstmcrion, cp. Andromache means that her marriage would grieve the shades of all those Trojans slain by Pyrrhus.

That is : Make him appreciate my sacrifice in this marriage, mo. II That is : Let their deeds praise them rather than your words. Seneca, Troasy , makes Andromache say: "Should his father fill him with pride? But Hector himself, dragged around Troy, would have laid aside pride, for great woes break it. Act the captive. The plural for the singular is a slight affectation. That is: Even had you not summoned him he would have offered his services with no hope of reward salaire, That is : that I come to see you at your request. The phrase has been criticised as familiar.

That is: Let us take the place, I of my father, you of your mother. Orestes expected her to say Andromache. Hermione means that her love for Pyrrhus may at any moment prevail over her jealousy, so that she may revoke her order and leave Orestes once more without hope. Note the indicative of unquestioned assertion in ai, est 1 f aimaiy hais 1 , and cp.

For the construction, "slain" for "the slaying of," see For the word, cp. That is : It matters not whether it was the result of my love or of my father's command. Recognize it and act accordingly. For the verse, see Now military only, cp. English "recon- noiter. Hermione means that if Andromache has enjoyed a moment of wedded bliss her vengeance will be forever incomplete.

NOS : Définition de NOS

Elle, i. For the position, see That is : My heart courage as often is ashamed of its weak complaisance toward you. I have endured quite too many rebuffs for one day. Note, with regret, this affected line in a superb speech. Por the position, see So also siens, This play furnished also See 12, note. Compare encor iox etuore, That is : Pyrrhus impelled by passion, Andromache by maternal fear, will swear at the altar an eternal love against the will of both, for she feels it nobler to be true to Hector, and he to be true to Hermione.

Thus passion is felt by Racine to be uncontrollable, fatal, willing against will. What follows is a model of sar- casm. That is, to woo a Greek even while loving a Trojan. That is : I suppose it would flatter the vanity of your spouse if I called you perjurer and traitor. For the position of vous, cp. Pleurante and expirante, For the form, see For the mood and tense, see That is : It would wound your dignity to feel that I felt remorse.

Note the ironical slur on her love for Orestes. Say : returning. Note the concision. These lines suggest Euripides, Medea, "You are restless, far from your new betrothed. You regret that you linger outside her dwelling. Marry her I Perhaps a god shall ratify my words. You will make a marriage that you will wish you had left unmade. Not, as some have said, for une autre. That is : In your heart you are ever talking to her, and she is ever before your eyes.

Eneidy iv. Go, follow the Italian breeze. Henry VI. Did he avert his eyes? Had he any pity, overcome by my love? That is : In spite of all I shrink from executing my ven- geance, while to crown my misery I find that I still love him. Aussi bien, So much the more since. For the omitted reflexive, cp. That is : I shall ward off my own blows. It adds force to his contemptuous indifference to Hermione.

The statement is an invention of Racine. Peculiar use. ACT V. That is : continues to show a dignified melancholy. The separation of qui from its antecedent would now be thought a fault. This is spoken with desperation. That is : I will kill any who may oppose my passion.

Contrast and In the edition of thirty verses replace this couplet. They introduce Andromache as captive of Orestes. She rejoices in the safety of Astyanax, and so pities the fate of Pyrrhus that she almost loves him now that he is dead. That is : shrank from this assassination. For the constmction, cp. Dussent, Could only in his opinion , relever, exalt or increase. This was what Andromache had hoped, This means: "I declare all enemies of Astyanax to be mine," but, strictly construed, it does not say so.

In the edition of seven lines replace this one. Their omis- sion was involved in that noted at In them Orestes admits the safety of Astyanax, states that Greece will demand satisfaction of Epirus and that, to secure it, he will keep Andromache as hostage. It is astonishing that Racine's taste should not have saved him from such an esthetic blunder, but he had the grace to correct it almost as soon as made.

I had a mighty cause To wish him dead, but thou hadst none to kill him. And so again Shakspere, Richard II. Nor do I thee ; though I did wish him dead, I hate the murderer, love him murdered. Some editors scan this line as romantic, but this is quite unnecessary.

See Introduction, page xx. For the mood, see That is: The insanity brought on him by the Furies for his matricide. There is an unex- pressed condition : " If you had not come. The edition of adds here four verses, involved by those added at and , in which Hermione releases Andromache and bids her join with herself in mourning for Pyrrhus and in avenging him.

Not, as we see from , because the populace implicate Her- mione in the assassination of Pyrrhus, but because she has killed her- self. This is said to be the only instance of this common- place word in all the tragedies of Racine. Racine uses the same device to announce the death of Bajazet V. Far more emphatic then than now.

That is : They ascend the palace steps and thence look down on the corpse of Pyrrhus, its bearers and the crazed Hermione. The madness 'with which Orestes is now overcome is perhaps to be attributed to the vengeance of the Furies for the ironical blas- phemy of For the spelling, see To the crazed Orestes, Pyrrhus seems restored to life, but as he seeks to slay once more his rival, Hermione seems to defend her beloved, and Orestes feels himself given over vdthout hope to the Furies and their train of demons and serpents.

The hissing of the recurrent j is a noted case of onomatopoeia. Orestes now falls senseless transport, , which alone enables Pylades to save him from him- self and the Epirotes. Edireil'S Compendious Frencb Grammar.

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Abstract This essay concerns the emotions that we feel when reading a work of fiction. Bibliographie Bakaoukas, M.