Today, the union movement is in the forefront of efforts to ensure that the gains of the past are maintained and to fight for those still denied opportunity and equality. From its struggles to ensure U. Martin Luther King Jr. Another key force behind working people organizing is so that they can earn enough to support their families. Working people don't work forever. A healthy and secure retirement should be an attainable goal for any worker who wants it.
The labor movement has fought and still fights to make this dream true for as many as possible. The labor movement works to ensure working people receive a fair return on their work. Industrial Commission declares trade unions good for democracy. Bush pledges to strip collective bargaining rights from , civil servants in the new Transportation Security Administration and denies bargaining rights to airport-security screening personnel. Power concedes nothing without demands. Amendments and addenda were introduced to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus to create a bicameral parliament, expand the powers of the President.
The document took effect on 1 January Official Website of the Republic of Belarus. About Belarus. Key facts. Humanitarian cooperation. Symbols of the Republic of Belarus. Climate and weather. Natural history and wildlife. National holidays. Famous Belarusians. Did you know? Mass media in Belarus. Belarus Events Calendar. Home About Belarus History. The Berestye Archeology Museum. Early 20th century Minsk. A group of former farm hands of landowner Biiskaya reading the Pravda newspaper.
Partisans are discussing the plan of an operation. The destroyed Minsk. Midth century Minsk. After the Chernobyl catastrophe. Belovezhskaya Pushcha. But an attempt to drill for oil in Beaumont failed due to quicksand. When he could raise the necessary investment, Lucas continued to explore and drill in the area for the next nine years. The Texas Equal Rights Association was the first statewide women's suffrage organization.
Organized by Rebecca Henry Hays of Galveston in , the TERA advocated for equal voting and political rights for women, including the right to hold office and serve on juries. Oil was accidentally discovered by the American Well Prospecting Company on a water-prospecting trip in Corsicana. The discovery generated interest in prospecting in the area. In , a gusher drilled at Spindletop, near Beaumont, made Texas an oil power.
In , crews drilling for water in Corsicana struck oil instead. The result was chaos. So many wells were drilled that operators poured excess oil on the ground, and the price fell to less than 50 cents a barrel. To stem the contamination and waste, Corsicana contracted to build pipelines, storage tanks, and a refinery. This operation was called the Magnolia Petroleum Company, one day to be known as Mobil. On October 3, the Texas Legislature declared "prizefighting" boxing illegal in the state. All Rangers were called in to stop the much-anticipated Fitzsimmons-Maher fight.
McDonald allegedly replied, "Hell, ain't I enough? There's only one prizefight! Roosevelt later said,"No one can tell whether it was the Rough Riders or the men of the 9th who came forward with the greater courage to offer their lives in the service of their country. At its height, the Corsicana field produced over , barrels a year, in an era where remote Texas still could not compete with Pennsylvania oil.
Corsicana and the Magnolia Company worked to develop Texas markets for fuel, asphalt, and illumination. In , the state enacted the first laws regulating the industry, requiring operators to cap off wells to protect groundwater and to stop letting natural gas escape into the air. No; there is no honor, and but slight reward; let him fight like he can, in such furious onslaughts that nothing but the walls of hell can withstand him; and prove, to those vile creatures who would rob him of his glory and prowess, the soldier that he is, the most courageous Because of the success at Corsicana, further exploration was conducted throughout Navarro Country.
This led to the discovery of the Powell oilfield in By Powell produced , barrels of oil, which grew to more than 33 million barrels in The little town of Powell doubled in size to people, a foreshadowing of the wild oil boomtowns to come. The resort town of Sour Lake, 20 miles northwest of Beaumont, was the site of the first refinery in Texas in A gusher came in in and Sour Lake was transformed into a boom town. By , over-drilling had already caused the field pressure to decline drastically. On January 10, , at a. Wildcatter Anthony F. Lucas had been right about what lay under the salt dome near Beaumont.
Spindletop nearly ripped its derrick to pieces and shot a tower of pure crude feet in the air. It took more than a week to bring the giant gusher under control. The black gold headlines spread around the world. Former Standard Oil executive Joseph F. Cullinan had founded Magnolia Company to put the Corsicana oil fields on a businesslike footing. He did the same at Spindletop with the Texas Company later Texaco , which purchased oil and transported by barge and rail car to a new refinery in Port Arthur. In , the company completed a pipeline directly from the oil field to the refinery.
Wilbur and Orville Wright, who in had designed and flown the first successful aircraft at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina, also built the Army's first airplane. Although he crashed on the last of the four flights, Foulois's flight marked the beginning of the U. Air Force. In , drillers looking for water discovered the Electra field in Wichita County near the Red River. In , oil was discovered in the ranching town of Burkburnett.
Larger strikes in and caused a huge boom, drawing more than 20, people to the area before the boom died in the late s. Fearing the resurgence of Mexican nationalism spurred on by the Mexican Revolution, President Taft stationed 20, U. The Mexican Revolution raged between and Oil required the opening of new frontiers in law, chemistry, and engineering.
Refineries that rivaled the largest in the world were built. Port facilities along the coast were dredged to accommodate tanker ships. In , dredging began on the Houston Ship Channel. It was completed in , providing the link to the sea for the interior of Texas. It remains one of the most heavily utilized waterways in the U. Image courtesy of Fort Bend Museum.
Black History Milestones
Raids by Mexican outlaws intent on reclaiming Texas land as outlined in the Plan de San Diego escalated into guerrilla warfare. The Texas Legislature authorized mass inductions of men to serve as Ranger forces. Reports of vigilante-like brutality inflicted on both Mexicans and Tejanos by these less disciplined and under-supervised Rangers increased. Months passed and many Buffalo Soldiers died in ceaseless fights with Villa's men, but Villa himself remained at large.
The 92nd and 93rd Infantry regiments were established with approximately 25, African American soldiers from across the United States. Battle losses were high, but so were the Buffalo Soldiers' achievements. The French government bestowed the Croix de Guerre on 68 Buffalo Soldiers for their heroic service in battle. On November 1, , approximately 10, Texas and Louisiana oilfield workers walked off the job to protest long hours and low pay. The strike dragged on for months. Oil producers refused to accept federal authority to mediate the dispute. Prohibition gained momentum nationally, in part due to the efforts of Senator Morris Sheppard of Texas.
Texas approved the 18th Amendment to the U. Constitution in But by the mids, Prohibition had become unpopular as anti-prohibitionists took control of the Texas legislature. Prohibition was ended in Some estimates place the number of Hispanic citizen deaths by Texas Rangers during the wars with Mexico as high as 3, Canales of Brownsville insisted on a legislative investigation.
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As a result of the findings, the Texas Legislature reduced the number of Ranger companies as well as the number of men in each company. More stringent Ranger selection criteria and a citizen complaint process were also put in place. By June , there were 98 suffrage organizations in Texas alone! After years of struggle, a bill permitting women to vote passed in both the Texas House and Senate.
Governor William P. Hobby signed it into law on March 26, On June 28, , Texas became the first state to approve the 19th Amendment to the U. Constitution, winning women the right to vote in national elections. Prohibition passed in The Texas oil boom exploded two years later. Rangers spent a lot of time smashing stills, intercepting bootleg liquor from Mexico, and handcuffing criminals to telephone poles when the jails were too full.
It was during this time that Ranger Captain Manuel "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas cemented his legend as a one-man law enforcement agency along the Texas border. Miriam "Ma" Ferguson was the first woman governor of Texas, serving two terms , and She ran on a platform condemning the Ku Klux Klan, proposing spending cuts, and opposing Prohibition. Her husband, James E. Congress from until He was elected Speaker of the House in He was selected as Franklin Delano Roosevelt's running mate in and served two terms as vice-president.
He retired in The day after her inauguration, Governor Miriam "Ma" Ferguson disbanded the entire Texas Ranger force as payback for their support of her gubernatorial opponent. She personally appointed 39 men as replacements. Ferguson's men formed an ineffective and often sleazy "Special Ranger" force and crime rose steadily. Governor James V. Rangers retained law enforcement responsibilities but were now also required to keep careful records of criminal investigations. A scientific crime lab was built that rivaled the FBI's lab.
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A new era of Ranger history had begun. Colonel Homer T. Garrison, Jr. Under his year leadership, the Rangers developed into a world-renowned criminal investigation unit. Texans celebrated the th anniversary of Texas independence with statewide festivities. The United States issued commemorative three-cent stamps and half-dollars to observe the anniversary. The Centennial Exposition was held in Dallas on the state fairgrounds, and opened on June 6, It ran until late November of that year.
Over 6 million people attended. Although F. Jacqueline Jackie Cochran, famed American aviator, wrote to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to suggest the formation of an all-female auxiliary pilot corps to fly non-combat stateside missions for the military. Cochran explained that women pilots could fly " The act required all men between the ages of 21 and 35 later extended to age 37 to register with a local draft board. Each man was assigned a draft number that was entered into a lottery. Lottery number drawings determined who would be "called up" to military service for twelve months.
Jackie Cochran became the first woman to fly a military plane across the Atlantic Ocean. She traveled to England to meet with the women pilots of the British transport command to determine if American female flyers were needed to help the war effort in a besieged Britain. He also asked her to develop a proposal outlining the duties that women pilots might perform for the Army Air Forces. Just before 8 a. The strike was a well-planned and surprise retaliation against the U. In less than two hours, eight battleships, 20 additional ships and almost airplanes were destroyed. Over 2, American sailors and soldiers died in this attack.
President Franklin D. In his address to Congress, President Franklin Roosevelt said, "On the morning of 11 December, the Government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared war against the United States. The long-known and the long-expected has thus taken place.
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The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving toward this hemisphere. Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty, and civilization. This was a people's war and everyone was in it. Courier editor James G. Thompson wrote, "The first V for victory over our enemies from without, the second V for victory over our enemies from within.
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Under her command, , women served in Army jobs both stateside and abroad. In , Colonel Hobby received the Distinguished Service Medal for her outstanding contributions to the war effort. In her newspaper column, My Day , First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt wrote: "I believe in this case, if the war goes on long enough, and women are patient, opportunity will come knocking at their doors. We are in a war and we need to fight it with all our ability and every weapon possible. Women pilots, in this particular case, are a weapon waiting to be used. The hurricane is coming.
All of the men want to stay home. When you hear the alarm, we'll sound the siren, and report immediately. We've got to take these planes out. Do you? As more women entered flight training, it became clear that the facilities at the Houston Municipal Airport were no longer adequate. A second training facility was approved at Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas.
The base was already home to Canadian male trainee pilots. Half of the women pilots of Class reported to Avenger Field to begin training on February 14th. Cochran closed the Avenger Field airbase to all activities except female flight training and air emergencies. The Canadian male pilots were transferred to other bases. Populated by women only, Avenger Field became known as "Cochran's Convent. A direct result of the War, Beaumont's population boomed as people moved there to take jobs in the shipyards and war plants. The rapid increase of population forced integration due to the sheer lack of facilities in the town.
In June , overcrowding, Ku Klux Klan activity, and Juneteenth plans combined with an explosive incident—an African-American man was accused of assaulting an 18 year-old white woman. The suspect was shot and killed by police for allegedly resisting arrest. A second sexual assault was reported on June The accuser was unable to identify her attacker, but still a riot erupted that evening. The mayor of Beaumont called in the Texas National Guard and the city remained under martial law for five days.
Beaumont was one of many cities in the U. With her appointment as director, all civilian female flying corps were under Cochran's command. Arnold suggested "Women Airforce Service Pilots. Combat pilot losses continued to rise, which increased the already severe shortage of male pilots. Military leaders realized that many of the losses were due to American pilots' inability to avoid enemy radar detection. A new radar evasion program was developed but there were no test pilots. Cochran volunteered the Women Airforce Service Pilots. Women Airforce Service Pilots continued to take on more military pilot duties including target and glider towing, radar calibration, bombing range runs, and instrument instruction.
Training hours at Avenger Field were increased to flight hours and ground school hours. Some male combat pilots refused to fly the B Martin Marauder, a fast twin engine bomber also known as "the widow maker" and "the flying torpedo. It was over. I was profoundly sad but also sincerely grateful. To serve my country as a military pilot in wartime had truly been an opportunity of a lifetime.
Then I wrote fifty letters to every aviation company and airline that you could think of, trying to get a flying job. I didn't know there were that many ways to say no. Robinson was court-martialed when he refused to move to the back of a segregated bus during training exercises. He was acquitted of the charges and left the Army with an honorable discharge in Three years later, Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers and became the first African American to play major league baseball.
Jackie Cochran pinned the coveted silver Women Airforce Service Pilots wings above the left pocket of the graduates' jackets. At the present time, they are not entitled to benefits which should go to them in accordance with the duties they are performing. There was public resistance to granting Women Airforce Service Pilots military status, and although under attack as an organization because of HR , WASP continued to perform valiant military service.
In one of their non-flying assignments, several Women Airforce Service Pilots participated in high altitude testing to determine how oxygen affected women pilots. At a. By the end of the day, approximately , Allied troops had invaded, with more than 4, losses. After less than an hour of debate, HR was defeated by a vote of to All Women Airforce Service Pilots who were in service at the time of this decision had to pay their own way home. The Women Airforce Service Pilots program ceased to exist. All WASP military records were sealed, classified, and sent to storage archives for 30 years.
Distinguished Service Medal for her contributions to the war effort. Japanese Emperor Hirohito refused to accept the terms of unconditional surrender determined by the Potsdam Conference. In an effort to end the war, President Truman decided to drop an atomic bomb on Japan rather than risk American lives in an invasion of the mainland. Despite the devastation at Hiroshima, the Japanese War Council continued to refuse the terms of unconditional surrender. Determining that continuing the war would "only result in the annihilation of the Japanese people," Emperor Hirohito finally agreed to the terms of unconditional surrender.
Emperor Hirohito delivered a radio broadcast telling the country that Japan had accepted the surrender terms of the Potsdam Conference. World War II began to draw to a close. Congress passed the Women's Armed Services Reserve Bill which allowed women to serve in the military reserves. During the next two years, over Women Airforce Service Pilots were commissioned into the reserves as 2nd Lieutenants. They received only non-flying assignments.
President Truman issued Executive Order abolishing racial discrimination in the armed forces, effectively ending the formation of all-black regiments. The order tool six years to be implemented and full integration of all Army units did not occur until the Korean War. When African -American student Heman Marion Sweatt applied for admission to the University of Texas School of Law, he was rejected on the grounds that integrated education was prohibited.
Sweatt, with the help of civil rights activists, sued the state. Eventually, the U. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Sweatt and ordered the end of segregated professional schools. This case was influential in the later monumental ruling of Brown v. Board of Education which desegregated public schools. Born in Port Arthur and raised in Beaumont, Didrikson came to golf after a record-setting athletic career in other sports. She was a Olympic gold medal winner in the javelin and hurdles and an All-American basketball player. The main character, Texas Ranger Jayce Pearson, was fictitious, but the stories were reenactments of actual Ranger cases.
Following the Supreme Court decision to end segregation in profession schools, the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education further extended those rights to all schools in the United States. Students of all races were allowed to attend the same schools. San Antonio was among the first cities in the U. In , the U. The Manned Spacecraft Center was built in just outside of Houston.
Mission control responsibilities were designated to the Center in On November 21, , President John F. Kennedy flew to Texas to attend several events across the state. On November 22, he flew to Dallas to speak at a luncheon. As they entered Dealey Plaza on Elm Street, shots rang out. Both Kennedy and Connally were struck. They were rushed to Parkland Hospital where President Kennedy was pronounced dead shortly after. Connally was seriously wounded and took months to recover. Before the flight, Lyndon B. Johnson, who had been riding in a separate car with his wife Lady Bird, was sworn in as president of the United States by Texas judge Sarah Hughes.
Jordan was born in in Houston, graduated with honors from Texas Southern University, and earned a law degree from Boston University in In the Senate, she gained popularity among her colleagues that in she was elected unanimously to serve as president pro tempore of the body. The following year, she became the first African American woman from a Southern state to be elected to the U.
Noted for her leadership during the Watergate scandal, she retired from politics in due to her battle with multiple sclerosis. The original Garrison Ranger Museum in Waco was renamed and expanded to include a memorial library and a research center. Since its opening, more than two million people have visited. Flipper Award to a graduating cadet who exhibited "leadership, self-discipline, and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties.
By a slim margin, Congress passed Public Law The law, which became effective in , granted Women Airforce Service Pilots official military status, but with limited benefits. Born in Massachusetts in , George H. Bush had a successful career as an oilman.
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Zapata Off-Shore, one of three companies founded by Bush, was a pioneer in offshore drilling equipment. From there he moved on to serve as ambassador to the United Nations, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and vice-president of the United States under Ronald Reagan. Bush was elected to the presidency in Born in during Ma Ferguson's second term as governor , Ann Richards served as governor of Texas from Beginning her career as a schoolteacher, Richards volunteered for progressive causes and candidates for decades before winning her first office in , a seat on the Travis County Commissioner's Court.
In , Richards was elected Texas state treasurer, and reelected without opposition four years later. As governor, Richards boosted the Texas economy while the U. Ann Richards died in after battling esophageal cancer. In his address, General Powell said, "The powerful purpose of this monument it to motivate us.
To motivate us to keep struggling until all Americans have an equal seat at our national table, until all Americans enjoy every opportunity to excel, every chance to achieve their dream. Senate, winning the election by an overwhelming majority. Hutchison had begun her political career two decades earlier when she was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. She served as vice-chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board in the s, then went on to a career as a bank executive. Hutchison reentered politics in when she was elected Texas state treasurer. Hutchison served in the U.
Senate until her retirement in Bush and his wife Barbara. He entered the oil business and later became owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team. Bush ran for Congress unsuccessfully in In , he returned to politics and defeated incumbent Ann Richards to become governor of Texas. He was reelected by a wide margin in In , Bush was elected president of the United States, and reelected in The George W.
Postal Service issued the cent Buffalo Soldier commemorative stamp. Mort Kunstler, the artist who designed the stamp, said, "I deliberately placed the soldier and his mount against a white background to create contrast and to immediately establish the fact that these brave and famous troops were black Americans. To me, the story of the Buffalo Soldiers is one of the great sagas of our history. Twenty-nine Women Airforce Service Pilots attended the opening ceremonies and left their hand prints in cement.
Senator Hutchinson and Maryland Senator Barbara Mikulski signed on every single female senator as a co-sponsor. The bill passed unanimously. The law states in part: " The Texas Rangers Division is comprised of Rangers who oversee border security operations and specialize in major crime and corruption investigations. Out of nothing, it made me something, because it gave me the courage to try anything!
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