For other meanings cf. For further details as to the man's bliaut and for illustrations cf. In Aiol it is, in fact, mentioned as the last garment put on before the mantel. Tobler's second definition Ueberwurf , a definition given also by Meyer-Lubke [ 64 ] and Korting [ 65 ] , is evidently used with the sense of this dialectical German word defined by Heyse [ 66 ] landsch. For illustrations, cf. Heyse, Handwb. Magdeburg, Botes are described by Godefroy, Comp. Enlart, cf.
The new examples of bote noted in our period are of no aid in deciding this difference of opinion, both of which seem to have some justification from the other examples cited. Botes are worn by monks :.
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It is possible that Godefroy's description is correct for the man's botes and Lacroix' for the lady's. Used with regard to costume, the boucle is the buckle of a belt. The omission of the period after riche in Boucherie's edition of Galerent makes it appear as if the noische were in the boucle , but this is not possible, for the noische, q. For other examples of boucle , cf. Marie, Guig. The membre, espine and mordant are mentioned along with the buckle as parts of the belt. The espine, q. Used with mordant , however, boucle may indicate a clasp. For further discussion of this point see s.
The term bourre occurring in G. It is used in this passage along with garmos and farder as an artificial aid to beauty. The iconography shows no evidences of padding used on the figure, such as one might assume that bourre meant, but a reasonable explanation may be found in the supposition that the sack-like envelope, cf. XXXVIII, was stuffed with false hair or some other kind of padding by ladies whose tresses lacked the abundance and length which was considered a sign of beauty.
This supposition finds support in a thirteenth century text :. In relation to dress, bouton is found in the modern sense of the word as used as an ornament or to fasten a garment. Enlart, 37, Boutons of gold or precious stones as decoration on articles other than clothes appear Chan. As an ornament on clothes :. In chainse 17 , jupe 8 , they may have been used either as an ornament or as a fastening.
Illustrations of buttons used as ornaments are shown by Enlart, fig. The expression ne valoir un bouton which occurs Mon.
The ceinture is a belt worn with the dress. The elaborate and costly belts worn at this period have been described at length in the histories of costume, cf. From the texts we have further evidence as to the materials, which were of silk, or similar fabrics embroidered in gold, and of orfrois :. The illustrations show that the man's belt was often made of leather, but the woman's costume shows as a rule the twisted and knotted belt of silk fig. There is one case in which a distinction is made between a ceinture of cloth?
The illustrations show that the lady's belt was often wound twice around the waist and then tied in a loose knot, cf. In the case of the tight fitting dresses, in which the belt was not needed to hold in the material at the waist, a sozceinte is mentioned as loosely tied :. The monuments show us that a belt was not always worn, or that if it was, it was often concealed by a fold of the dress. This is especially true of the eleventh century and the first part of the twelfth, cf. Later in the century, it is occasionally lacking, cf.
For the appearance of the leather belt in the illustrations cf. Michel, La Sculpture en France , in Hist. Bibliography, p. The cercle, cercel, cercelet was a chaplet of gold, worn by a lady of high rank as an ornament, and to hold the hair in place. Very often it was set with jewels, in which case it is practically a crown, though not always used as the insignia of royalty :. In three cases the cercle or cercelet is of orfrois , which makes it synonymous with one meaning of chapel, q. Gay considers the cercle to have been a wreath of flowers as well as a chaplet of gold or ribbon, but it is probable that in the two cases where flowers are mentioned, 6 above and.
This is supported by the reading of ms. C : un cercle d'or ; ms. H reads uns laceles ovres. In regard to this point of flower designs executed in gold and gems, cf. For illustrations of the cercle cf. The cercle in its most elaborate form as a crown is frequently seen as in fig. The chainse was a dress of washable material. It was laid in pleats, and long.
Other facts to be noted in regard to it are that at this period it was not synonymous with chemise , but distinct from the chemise and worn over it ; nor was it a dress worn under the bliaut , but an outer dress, worn as a house dress or at court ; also that it was more specifically a woman's dress, though there is one case where it is mentioned as worn by a man.
The view that the chainse was made of washable material is supported also by the very frequent references to chainses blancs , which convey the idea that they were of linen or a similar material. We have, moreover, not a single clear reference to a chainse being made of wool or silk, which would not be easily washable. Chainse blanc is mentioned Erec , , , , , , ;. This material was one which lent itself readily to pleating, probably by ironing after being washed :.
Some erroneous opinions in regard to chainse need discussion. Chemise and p. Cited by Gay. Quicherat, p. There is only one manuscript of Raoul de Cambrai , of which there have been two editions, that of Le Glay, in , probably the one used by Quicherat, and that of Meyer and Longnon [ 71 ] which contains the variants from Fauchet's copy of a since lost manuscript.
In both the editions the passage to which Quicherat must refer reads : ed. Le Glay, p. Meyer et Longnon I. Quicherat's assumption that the chainse was worn under the bliaut , which has been followed by others [ 72 ] is based therefore on a mistaken quotation. He was probably led into this error by the desire to give a name to the garment worn under the bliaut , showing at the neck, sleeves and often at the hem, which we are justified in identifying as the chemise.
But whatever this under garment was called, there is no authority for thinking it the chainse , which is never mentioned as worn under another dress, but which was rather an outer dress interchangeable with the bliaut. Meyer et A. Longnon, S. F Quicherat's opinion that the chainse was an undergarment has already been disputed by Schultz,I, , who quotes, however, for the twelfth century, only the passage from Erec , 8 above. Other passages from Erec can be mentioned in confirmation of Schultz' statement that the chainse was not an undergament.
Enid arrives at court wearing :. The queen offers her a new bliaut , described at length, cf. Moreover, the following texts give additional evidence that the chainse was an outer garment. When Aelis goes to court :. It is obviously impossible for the chainse to be anything but an outer dress, in these cases. It is worn as a house dress by Lu-siane :. The only garment worn over it was the mantel , 4 above, or the cape 10 , a further proof that it was an' outer dress, not an undergarment.
It is worn with the pelice :. Also the definition of M. All the above passages with the exception of 2 , refer to the chainse as a woman's dress. The remaining examples add little information. For chainses gironez , a , Mort A. It was worn under more varying conditions than the elaborate bliaut , for while it is mentioned as a court dress in 15 , 16 above, and as a luxurious dress :. In 4 it is worn by a bourgeoise. The chainse seems to have been less elaborate than the bliaut , as embroidery at the neck and sleeves, and elaborate sleeves and belt are not mentioned in connection with it, as they so frequently are in describing the bliaut.
In the following passage :. The dress worn by the queen in fig. Chainsil is treated here because various scholars see below have erroneously considered it as the name of a garment, as well as the material of which the garment was made. As is generally recognized, chainsil was a kind of material which we find used a as a winding sheet, b for bed coverings, or c for garments:. From the facts that chainsil was especially used as the material for the chemise see also the examples in Godefroy, s. This assumption is strengthened by the fact that it was washable :. Du Cange states that M. A closer investigation of the Middle Latin texts would be necessary to ascertain if the form with the suffix — il — did designate the garment itself, as well as the material of which the garment might be made.
In any case, the differentiation between chainse for a garment, and chainsil for material is clear in our period. Godefroy's second definition of chainsil, par extension, diverses choses faites de toile ou de tin, comme chemise, jupon, peignoir, voile, nappe , is not justified by his four examples, in each of which the idea of chainsil as a piece of material is more suitable than any of the meanings he suggests. The reading chainsil for Lanval in Warnke's first edition, , of the Lais of Marie de France has been changed to the preferable reading chainse in the editions of and The passage Alex.
The emendation cainsil from analogy with 3 6 , above would be preferable. The chape was a wide cape with a hood, worn by both sexes and all classes on a journey and for protection against the weather. As a costly ecclesiastical garment the chape will not be discussed here [ 74 ].
Cabrol, Dict. A thief loses his cape at a game of dice at an inn, Jeu S. It is more especially a garment of the lower classes, as the mantel is of the nobility :. When adopted by noblemen it is of material better, though less costly, than that of the mantel , as it underwent a harder usage :. In Chron. Cappas manicatas are mentioned in a decree of the Lateran Council in [ 75 ]. XI, part I, p. A rain cape is mentioned several times : chape a pluie, G. It was sometimes lined : c Fils A. The chape is also mentioned in the following passages : Trist.
When the wide chape was wrapped around her, and the hood drawn over her face, a lady was well disguised :. The chape is also mentioned as a woman's garment in the following passages : Ors. In the sense of a complete covering the word is used figuratively, la cape del ciel, Rol. I, ; II, , It is difficult in the illustrations always to distinguish between the mantel and the chape.
The mantel , from the ninth to the eleventh centuries, was worn over the head, cf. When it is shown as a handsome garment, ornamented with embroidered bands, as in fig. As the chape is specifically mentioned as the garment worn on a journey, there is no difficulty in identifying it with the cape shown in fig. Here the circular hood is cut separately ; the chape is worn thrown back, and is shorter than the dress. A wrap is often shown in which there has been cut a circular opening framing the face ; this part of the garment then forms a kind of chaperon , Enlart, fig.
It is probable, however, that the later chaperon proper was cut separately and sewed to the chape at the neck line, thus staying in place better than in the earlier cases discussed above, where there would be a constant pull on the head covering from the heavy material beneath. A hood cut separate from the cape and of a different color appears on the wrap worn by Job's wife, fig. In the frescoes at Saint Savin [ 76 ] all three types appear contemporaneously, i.
Landsberg, VIII, pl. The chapel or chapelet was 1 a wreath of flowers, 2.
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It is worn by a man, G. The word occurs also Gal. The French word chapel was adopted in Middle High German in the form schapel to indicate a wreath of flowers or a circle of gold or orfrois. Enlart, , ; Winter, , ; Weinhold, II, References to the chapel as a lady's hat are rare, but at least three occur, all toward the end of the century. The earliest reference is probably that in Alex. In the French versions of Athis, Perceval and Era-clius hats are not mentioned, but they are in the Middle High German paraphrases of these texts :. The twelfth century iconography does not show hats as worn by ladies.
The earliest illustration which I have noted is in a ms. For illustrations of men's hats cf. The cap worn by Job, fig. The chaperon was a hood attached to the chape , also a short chape? As has been said, it was a part of the chape, q. When the latter was worn over the armor, the chaperon was drawn over the helmet :. It is especially noted as worn by monks : , Mon. There are no other details in regard to it, except that a lady's chaperon is lined with ermine and edged with sable, cf. The word occurs also as applied to men Trist.
A lady draws the chaperon over her guimple so that she will not be recognized, Gal. The two are mentioned in G. Chauces are defined by Enlart, Glos. This definition is not very precise, but, as Winter has pointed out, p. Godefroy's definition, Comp. This second passage proves the inaccuracy of Gay's definition applied to chauces in general: La partie du costume masculin couvrant le corps, de la ceinture aux pieds , for the style here described, while evidently existing, is described as provincial and old fashioned.
Although woven stockings already existed at this period, along with those made of cloth, according to M. Enlart, Glos. Chauces de paile, Trist. Chauces de brun paile seem to have been fashionable towards the end of the twelfth century, for they are mentioned Gal. Here the bands of black and red are probably cross gaiters, cf. The same detail of chauces cut to measure is noted of a lady's costume :. Mention of lacing the chauces as in Ales. Gay, s. Sorchauz or gaiters were also worn, cf.
Godefroy, s. The passages which he quotes from Tristan B are found in the S. For further discussion as to chauces , cf. The illustrations add nothing to our knowledge of the chauces. The lady's stockings are rarely seen, even in glimpses, as they are concealed by the long skirt. The verb chaucier has a wider meaning than the noun chauces ; it signifies, in general, to put anything on the feet, as spurs, and with a more restricted meaning, to put on the shoes and stockings.
Chalcier , meaning to attach the spurs, is found :. For other examples referring to the lady's costume, cf. Winter, Wort-Register, s. It is used c , Ren. The chemise was an undergarment. The word occurs in the eighth century, Glos. In the twelfth century references to it are very frequent, and we may learn the following details, which seem to have been identical for the two sexes, except in the matter of length. It was usually made of chainsil, q. This lacing might correspond to the lacing of the garment worn over the chemise , so that the flesh was exposed, cf. The brooch at the neck of the chemise is illustrated in fig.
The illustrations show the man's dress to be shorter than the lady's as a rule :. These sleeves show very frequently in the illustrations, fig. In warm weather a man might remove the cote or bliaut worn over the chemise, braies and chauces :. In many of the statues and illuminations of the period [ 78 ] there is apparent a garment worn under the outer dress and showing at the neck and sleeves.
This has incorrectly been assumed to be the chainse , cf. In the illuminations it is shown as white, and in both statues and illuminations it is often laid in fine pleats as it is described in the texts. The materials of which the chemise was made were very fine and were evidently intended for display ; cf. This is in reference to the chemise as worn by nobles.
That of the lower classes was undoubtedly of coarser material as chanvre , see above, p. An illustration of its cut may be found in the amulets of the fourteenth century modelled after the relic of an earlier period, la chemise de la Sainte Vierge [ 79 ] , which was preserved at Chartres. This relic is referred to in the texts, Pel. Loup de Naud, in Enlart, fig. For examples of the first meaning cf. Godefroy and Gay, also. Tours , 93 : Hoc capitium chevazalie. Viollet-le-Duc, IV,, quotes Hippeau's reading with the definition, which must obviously be discarded, of kievetaille as partie des robes qui entourail la taille.
For other passages in which one of these forms occurs, cf. Cliges , ; Perc. I have noted no examples of the last form in our period. Viollet-le-Duc, III, , is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the twelfth century, and one which is not seen in the thirteenth, This flat collar may be cut square, round, or in a V, and often extended down the front of the dress. Coe is synonymous with train, q.
The earliest example appears in Richeut : Grant coe trait par la podriere. For later examples cf. For illustrations cf. The coife is 1 the head piece of the armor ; 2 a style of head dress. For 1 see Gay, s. It is found as a head dress in O. Stroebe, p. Its occurrence in the twelfth century is rare.
I have noted only the following examples. One is the head dress of pilgrims :. In another it appears as a woman's head dress, different from a guimple in that it was a less formal head dress :. The cap worn by the woman in fig. Cordoan , originally leather of which the shoes were made, cf. The second example is cited by Godefroy, s. Worn as a part of the costume, the cor r oie is a belt of leather. That this belt was of leather is assumed from the use of the word courreie to indicate saddle straps, etc.
The material is not mentioned in the texts of this period, though it is later. As part of the nobleman's dress one is described :. It is to be noted that the frequent appearance of cor r oie in the texts coincides with the more frequent appearance in the illustrations of the leather belt, which, in the thirteenth century, supersedes the belt of silk or orfrois. With reference to clothing, cors means the bodice [of] a bliaut. Godefroy does not give it in this sense.
The same terms are used in Folq. When the mantel was removed, the bodice of the dress, concealed before, was shown, as is indicated in the passage :. Quoted by Winter under las . In other cases, as Ipom. Illustrations of the dress cut in two distinct parts, i. The cote represents a simple type of everyday dress worn by both sexes and all classes. A related word occurs at an early date in OHG. That it was the simplest and most general form of garment is shown by its use to express a primitive garment. Adam and Eve make themselves coteles de fueilles qu'ensemble acousirent , a Rom. As a man's garment it is worn by all classes : by a peasant, a , Gar.
Y ; by sergenz , , Theb. These examples range over the second half of the twelfth century. The materials of which it was made are sometimes mentioned : the leper's cote is of de let burel, Tris. It was a house or work dress worn over the chemise : Erec , ; Ivain , ; but with the addition of the chape, Tris. B , or mantel, Troie , ; Erec , 97 ; Ivain , ; Perc.
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Toward the end of the century it is worn under the surcot, q. As a lower class dress it has a chaperon , cf. Though it is early mentioned as worn with armor, Cor. B , , the term cote d'armes , which becomes frequent later, is not found until p. The omission of other details, and the lack of the epithets so often applied to more elaborate garments, confirm the conclusion stated above, that the man's cote was the simplest form of dress used.
The same is true in regard to the cote as a lady's dress, which is mentioned frequently but without description. It is worn by all classes : by children's nurses, Gal. The cote is long, Esc. It is a queen's dress, Lanc. It is worn with the surcot, Gal. Towards the end of the twelfth century the lady's cote , of simple cut but of costly material, is more frequently mentioned and can be worn at court :. A cotele, cotelete is a diminutive of cote , Hist.
As a simple, everyday dress, we find the cote illustrated as worn in the eleventh century in fig. Germain l'Auxerrois reproduced by Quicherat, p. These types of dress differ in some details, but they represent the plain house dress as contrasted with the bliaut worn on important occasions. As has been said before, it is a mistake to look for a style unvarying in cut over a long period of time.
A child's cotele is shown in fig. In general, any dress of a very plain style in our period may be identified with the cote , which in the thirteenth century became the prevailing type, perhaps through the simplicity characterising the reign of St Louis. The more frequent mention in the texts, towards the end of the twelfth century, of the cote as a dress worn by a noble lady, coincides with its more frequent appearance in the iconography.
The form chief appears to be an emendation of a later scribe, as S was written in the last part of the thirteenth century, at which time the meaning of chief and couvrechef had been extended beyond the idea of a cloth worn on the head cf. Faral [ 80 ] ascribes it to the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century. Couvrechef , if to be read at all in our period, is probably a generic term, including coife, guimple, orel, louaille, q. It is not in Gay. Desfubler , the opposite of afubler, q. En may stand for de son mantel , though this has not been previously mentioned.
Meyer and Michelant, s. The translation for 14 and for 10 above suggested by M. Servois in his Glossary for Guillaume de Dole, s. For en pure le chief , cf. Godefroy's definition, s. Foerster, s. C reads. Le chl'r vit an pur cors. Foerster's view is apparently correct in this passage, but merely on account of the addition of nu , and it does not hold in the other instances cited. The extension of desfubler to other garments, which took place later, as shown by the examples in Godefroy and by Montaigne :. I have noted one case, however, in Mon G. In this connection cf.
Strowsky Bordeaux, , III, The word mingaut or emingaut appearing in Esc. This passage is cited by Godefroy, loc. In the S. Michelant and Meyer, the passage is as follows, :. The emendation of the edition of Michelant and Meyer is evidently occasioned by the desire to secure a text that reads smoothly without the assumption of a lacuna or unusual syntax.
It is not very satisfactory, however, as it involves two changes. The form ol is to some extent supported by the ou of the Anglo-Norman Vie de S. Gilles , 1. Mundarten [Marburg, ], p. An illustration of the emingaut and the method of drawing the garment over the head is shown in Herrad v. Three of the passages on which he bases his definition are from two mss. Two of these passages are found in Loh. Vietor, Hds. Confirming this definition that it was a light weight shoe, i. Here the eschapins are fastened with cross garters, and may be identified with the type of shoe shown in the mural paintings of S.
Savin [ 82 ] , a light shoe, apparently made of cloth or a very soft skin, judging by the way it closely fits the foot, and attached with cross garters, which may not, however, have been a necessary accompaniment of the eschapin. The word also appears in Chr. Gay gives, s. I have noted no other examples. The ms. Meyer, p. The espine was probably the tongue of a buckle. It is not in Godefroy or Gay in this sense, but is defined as ardillon by Cloetta in the Glossary of Mon. Pfeiffer, Wigalois by Wirnt von Gravenberg, Leipzig, Dorn , with the definition Schnallenzunge and also Neidhart v.
I have noted two cases of its occurrence: Chr. The other case is quoted by Godefroy from a manuscript of Guillaume d'Angleterre, s. For its use in the thirteenth century and later, cf. This gives a date earlier than that given by Racinet who says, Glossary, s. Further evidence to the same effect has been mentioned by Weinhold, II, ; Wright, op. As is generally recognized, the fermail was a brooch.
It is synonymous with afiche and nosche, q. Fermer , to fasten, is occasionally used of garments see below. The fermail is mentioned as a brooch of gold and precious stones, worn at the neck, and fastening the opening of the chemise or dress :. The form fermal is found in Troie , fermax in Perc. The verb fermer , as has been said, is found occasionally with the meaning to fasten, in speaking of garments :. The lining is of fur :. Michel's edition of C. The noun forreure , meaning lining, does not occur often. Besides the examples cited by Godefroy, Comp.
Illustrations of the fur lining of a mantel in the twelfth century are shown in the mss. Its meaning is made clear by two later passages, one of which has been cited s. The other passage has been quoted by Godefroy, s. This use of fouriaus, forreure as a sheath covering the braids is evidently an extension of fourreau as a sheath used for other purposes, as to cover a sword. Nouns of the same origin are fresel, orfrois, q. Passages not cited by Godefroy are :. A fresel or fresele is a ribbon of silk or embroidery.
The term is obviously related to orfrois, q. The meaning of fresel is clear from the following passage :. Here, as 3 above, freseles represents the ribbons which were used to lace both the sleeves and the bodice in order to insure a snug fit, cf. Godefroy quoted the above passage, s. Of the definitions given by Godefroy, s.
Here bende is a generic term and freiseaus de fin argent indicates the special kind of band of silver ribbon. In the same way a hat is trimmed with fresaus or ribbon cf. In the passage Perc. H, , as quoted by Godefroy, is fresiaus. In the above passages it is easy to see a possible connection between frois and orfrois , or gold embroidery, and this meaning seems to be suitable in :.
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Derbyshire, England, UK. Jardin des Plantes, Paris, France. Manoir de Souarcy-en-Perche. Fry Hall. New Jersey, USA. Hertford, Hertfordshire, England, UK. Nevada, USA. Kensington, London, England, UK. Pyrenees, France. Beauvais, Hauts-de-France, France. Dayton, Ohio, USA. Vilnius, Lithuania. South America. Havana, Cuba. Harrods, London, England, UK. Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Virgin Islands. Harfleur, Normandy, France.
Cambridgeshire, England, UK. Bayonne, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. Bucharest, Romania. Margate, Kent, England, UK. Oakland, California, USA. Peking, China. Delaware, USA. Castile, Spain. Rhodes, Greece. Palermo, Sicilia, Italia.
Gascony, France. Skorpios, Greece. Middle East. Ostend, West Flanders, Belgium. Kansas, USA. Caracas, Venezuela. Malibu, California, USA. Cuzco, Peru. Le Havre, France. Constantinople, Byzantine Empire. Luxor, Egypt. Reims, Grand-Est, Frankrijk. Nancy, Grand-Est, France. Chartres, Centre-Val de Loire, Frankrijk. English Channel. Seville, Andalusia, Spain. Orvieto, Umbria, Italy. Samarkand, Uzbekistan. The Left Bank. Reykjavik, Iceland. Black Sea. Mayfair, London, England, UK. Vientiane, Laos. Loire Valley, France.
Bruxelles, Belgique. Duchy of Burgundy. Giza, Egypt. Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland. Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany. Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Yeavering, Northumberland, England, UK. Lucca, Tuscany, Italy. Ludwigshafen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, UK. Elba, Tuscany, Italy. Paris, Frankrijk.
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany. Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Stockholm, Zweden. Northumberland, England, UK. Kharkov, Ukraine. Augusta, Georgia, USA. Angleterre, Royaume-Uni. Kingsbridge, Devon, England, UK. Istanbul, Turquie. St Petersburg, Russia.
Shiring, England, UK. Mykonos, Greece. Amsterdam, Hollande du Nord, Pays-Bas. Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. Fez, Morocco. Centre-Val de Loire, France. Bohemia, Czech Republic. Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Nederland. Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Mailand, Lombardei, Italien. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Orient Express. Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Duitsland. Gloucestershire, England, UK. Cumbria, England, UK. Hessen, Duitsland. Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rhode Island, USA. The Dreaming. Lenox, Massachusetts, USA. Charleroi, Hainaut, Belgium. Metz, Grand-Est, France. Marrakesh, Morocco.
Mediterranean Sea. Milano, Lombardia, Italia. Solomon Islands. Greenwich, Connecticut, USA. Kingman, California, USA. Ischia, Campania, Italy. Campania, Italy. Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Liguria, Italy. Tetelpan, Mexico. Champagne, France. Passy, Paris, France. Kopenhagen, Denemarken. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Forest of Argonne, Grand-Est, France. Brest, Brittany, France. Bouville, Normandy, France. Provence, Frankreich. Valenciennes, Hauts-de-France, France.
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Aleppo, Syria. Auvergne, France. Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Skye, Highland, Scotland, UK. Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Londres, Angleterre, UK.
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Rusty Pelican. Valletta, Malta. Sankt Petersburg, Russisches Reich. Palmerston North, Manawatu, New Zealand. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Madeira, Portugal. Haiphong, Vietnam. North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Austrian Empire. Miraflores, Lima, Peru. Olsztyn, Warmian-Masurian, Poland. Milan, Lombardie, Italie. Stockbridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Wallington, Surrey, England, UK. Stressa, Paris, France. Hiroshima, Japan. Bazancourt, Grand-Est, France. Linz, Austria. Linz, Upper Austria, Austria. Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria. Indiana, USA. Louisiana Territory, USA. Londra, Inghilterra, Regno Unito. Delhi, India. Falkland Islands. Lausanne, Vaud, Zwitserland. Bruxelles, Belgio. Zwickau, Saxony, Germany. Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Bologna, Italy. Carpathian Mountains. Weimar, Thuringia, Germany. Mount Pleasant. Montevideo, Uruguay. Lotharingen, Frankrijk. Varennes-en-Argonne, Meuse, Lotharingen, Frankrijk.
Windermere, Cumbria, England, UK. Aqaba, Jordan. Barcelone, Catalogne, Espagne.