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State designates the government, the institutions of the government; it confounds with the notion of the administrated pays. Furthermore, M.

L'idée républicaine en France pendant la Restauration

Cresson affirmed that knowledge of history unearthed this love naturally. On the other hand, in certain speeches history became not only an affirmation of the nation but also of the region. Anne Marie Thiesse in her analysis of regionalism in France argues that in the national discourse France had two identities. When M. Discours, 2. One another important speech is that of M. Different from all other speeches, M. Lehuguer chose to concentrate on regional history and identity and to articulate the love of patrie through the local.

In this speech all the particularities of national history discussed above are repeated through the lens of the nation. Excursions, 5.

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It is possible to see cases in secondary education that promoted the petite patrie in the name of the grande patrie. To sum up, history — local and national - served to the great love of France. Lahuguer concluded: You will love your country as much as to the degree of your knowledge of its past, with its glories and sufferings; you will be dedicated to progress as much as to the degree in which you followed its long birth.

Scholars usually emphasize the way in which secondary education of the Third Republic confirmed class differences. In the second place, they refer to the fact that the pedagogical program was based on humanities and especially on knowledge of classics and the use of Latin as the main language. Excursions, Lang, , The common belief is that while history had a moral and civic function in primary education, its function in secondary education remained to be universal that adhered to the selfless principals of humanity and classics.

I agree that especially in terms of the public that these two institutions accommodated there was as strict segregation even though there might have been limited instances of social mobility. Therefore the difference in between the subjects taught became clear in the language of these speeches with heavy references to ancient Greece and Rome.

For instance, M. This passion was the love of France and this is a sort of love that can be found in ancient Greece. Firstly, history France was a source of emulation for the students; secondly, history of antiquity was a source of emulation for the history of France itself.

Cresson, Discours, 5. Cresson took those great Greek heroes as an example for himself and set to apply their method to France, the situation that they were currently in. Hence we see that history was a source of emulation in a complete sense as it provided an example not only to the audience but also to the writer of the speech. In a similar way, M. Thus, they used this form of distinction in their speeches. On the other hand, it seems that references of antiquity were used as a form of self-identification and prestige for the speakers themselves.

They put themselves in the shoes of their Greek counterparts and took over the burden of transmitting love of the country and civilization to their audience, an audience who was educated in classics. Nevertheless, even though the Greek references definitely demonstrated elitist tones, the message in these speeches did not differ completely from the functions attributed to primary education. More than adhering to universal, selfless principals the discourse of history also embodied the civic and moral function.

In this regard I would claim that when it came to the diffusion of national discourse, education did not have a strict double character. The elites needed the same sort of education as much as the popular classes.

On the other hand I would suggest that in the minds of the speakers their audience was very different than the popular classes. La Patrie et l'Etat, 1. Moreover, one can argue that the aim to provoke national sentiments for a public of primary education and secondary education differed as well.

Furthermore, Anne Marie Thiesse mentions that secondary school did not have a professional aim. It is true that as graduates of primary education they are not only to become good citizens. On the other hand they had the potential to become more: the future national elite.

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From this point view I argue that the speeches suggest that history had both a civic function and also a function that Escalle argues for. Since one cannot become a national political elite without being a good citizen but also without being equipped with tools of judgment and reason.

La Patrie et l'Etat, How much harder this responsibility becomes when one is invited to take up the perilous honor of the government! The knowledge of history assures that the students are the part of the nation. Now that they posses this knowledge they can become a good citizen, a servant of the state, and the architect of its future. Cresson states: You will follow France, my dear students, in this new road that was assigned to her by experience and you prepared by your concrete studies will become useful citizens, daring and disciplined soldier, all off you will have an important place among the artisans of her great future by having different titles.

It is as if the speakers wanted to link the destiny of their audience with the destiny of France. Cresson, Discours, Therefore, it is possible to indicate that these speeches firstly, affirmed the education that the students received by making sure that they heard the importance of the national history one last time.

Secondly, this historical discursive language made sure that the students also understood their future trajectories, now that they had the possibility to become a part of the political decision making process in forming even further French citizens. It invents a historiographical logic which helps it to appropriate the past: history of France is that of the nation, made by the kings, produced in and definitely republic in Moreover it is possible to argue that these speeches conveyed a republican history that was concerned with reinstituting the French identity in a certain way.

In this paper I did not engage with debates and struggles that were present in the nineteenth century historiography precisely because the sources that I took constituted a homogeneous group.

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However taking only four speeches cannot of course lead one to a complete conclusion on the arguments presented in this paper. Perhaps Lavisse is among the most studied and most citied nineteenth century historians on nation, history and education.


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The speeches studied in this paper are located in between the romanticism of Michelet and the positivism of Lavisse. In this regard they demonstrate a transitional period, a period where ideas about nation were in circulation and in progress. They also demonstrate that these ideas were in the minds of a group larger than the great names of nineteenth century historiography and politics. This group consisting of teachers and provincial deputies communicated these ideas with the students of the secondary education, the future elites of the Republic.

Even within the republican discourse the limited number of speeches analyzed here provided a glimpse to the different ways of formulating an idea. Chalons Sur Marne: Imprimerie T. Martin, Paul Lehuguer. Paris: Hachette, Amalvi, Christian. Essaies De Mythologie Nationale. Paris: Albin Michel, Carbonell, Charles-Olivier. Toulouse: Privat, Chaitin, Gilbert D. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, Chanet, Jean Francois.

Paris: Aubier, Citron, Suzanne. Paris: Ed. DiVanna, Isabel. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Pub. Gildea, Robert. Oxford: Clarendon Press, The past in French History. New Haven: Yale University Press, New York: P. Lang, Nora, Pierre. Paris : Gallimard, Ozouf, Jacques, and Mona Ozouf. For this investigation our first need is a working definition of the characteristics of the novel — a definition sufficiently narrow to exclude previous types of narrative and yet broad enough to apply to whatever is usually put in the novel category.

The novelists do not help us very much here. Watt, Rise of the Novel , , p. The preface to The Secret History of Queen Zarah began to attract research three decades later — as a piece of literary theory supposedly written by Mrs. Prefixed to a novel, it gave the reader a chance to apply the theory to the following novel.

The novel was, so the conclusion Lennard Davis drew in his book Factual Fictions in , at the beginning simply an unverified, popular and entertaining piece of news. It spread in ballads and with the early newspaper before it took the step into the modern book-length format at the beginning of the 18th century. The Secret History of Queen Zarah was, so it seemed, the ideal example to prove the argument: it played as a massive piece of Tory libel defaming the ruling gang of Whigs, their wives and their mistresses with newspaper history and it still left room for the journalist Daniel Defoe to perfect the genre a couple of years later.

The story Davis told, did, however, not withstand the facts: The early 18th century newspaper provided its audience with uncommented foreign politics, it was a highly complex European medium — in short: it did not contain the novel even if it was ready to relate a curious history every now and then. The Secret History of Queen Zarah was, so the common perception of those who dealt with it in , or , a story of political insinuations thinly disguised as fiction. Its readers hardly cared about the question whether it was romance or novel — it was neither. The preface to pt.

The text pretended to be fiction, yet this was the usual pretence under which authors and publishers could publish whatever they wanted, sure that those whom they attacked would neither acknowledge that the allegations applied to them, nor try to prove their innocence in a public debate. In order to be sold as fiction, the text had needed a preface on fictions, and the author had stolen it. John L. Sutton, Jr. In Jean Baptiste Morvan De Bellegarde had shown no scruples to turn these lines into a work of his own. The first English translations appeared in Done into English.

With a preface, by the translator London: Geo. The preface was valuable in both directions. A French translation of The Secret History of Queen Zarah was first published in , when the text suddenly offered the most important details: the intriguing story of the connections between Marlborough, the leading General of the allied forces in the War of the Spanish Succession, his wife Sarah Jennings, up to then confidante of Queen Anne, and the Whig ministry which was about to fall — events which led to the end of the war.

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The French editions sold better than the English original had done. The first copies still offered the original preface. The following editions dropped the pages which had offered after all nothing but a French text first translated into English and then translated back into French. German intellectuals read The Secret History of Queen Zarah in French editions, the market was not ripe for a German edition until — when the peace of Utrecht was soon to be signed. In his own preface the German editor made it clear that the original preface on the rise of the novel was nothing but a pretence behind which one bought a volume of political slander one could not publish otherwise.

Columns four and five give the translations back into French and out of the French into German.

It is useful to show all these versions on one page, as this allows discussions of the slight changes to be noted and of the European terminology which was available to cover the developments. The novel was, everyone knew, much older and not entirely European: Boccacio and Chaucer had placed short and realistic stories against the tradition of romances; the Arabs had done it, as one was to realise when the Stories of One Thousand and One Nights reached Europe in French novels swept the European market in the s.

The Dutch publishers did everything to satisfy the demand. German and French authors did not go that far, yet they developed their own vocabulary to stress the differences between the modes of writing. Arguments and discussions develop a formidable life of their own — they are attractive as long as they allow their participants to prove both knowledge and judgment; and they do not die of such trifles as a changing context. The argument ran through the versions of the text presented in the following before it finally attracted Ian Watt, Lennard Davis and Michael McKeon.

Contexts can change at times. Scarron London: S.