Morf is also the reverse reading of FORM. The actress Rene Russo plays the part of Rhodora Haze. The Rhodora is a common flowering shrub. The actress Toni Collette plays the part of Gretchen. The British actress Zawe Ashton plays the part of Josephina. The name of Josephina is the female variant of the Hebrew name, Joseph out of the book of Gen-Isis Genesis, who no doubt knew about the worship of the ancient Egyptian Goddess Isis. Ahathoor is otherwise known as Velvet Buzzsaw Belphegor. The actor Tom Sturridge plays the part of Jon Dondon.
The name Jon is an English name. Dondon or Dundon, is a Gaelic surname. The actress Natalia Dyer plays the part of Coco. The surname Diggs is derived from Old English words duk, dukke, Duck, doke, and dook, which all mean Duck. The actor Peter Gadiot plays the part of Ricky Blane. The actor Billy Magnussen plays the part of Bryson. Variant Bryce. Short: Bri. The name of Piers is the Medieval form of Peter. Morf indicates he can help Diggs with his Artistic career, or Diggs seduces Morf as a means to get into the elite Art club. Toni Collette, who plays the part of Gretchen, might have also been seduced by Diggs in his climb into the elite Art club.
Her fleshly manifestation had been conjured into being from out of an oil painting, which is her spirit repository. The painting had been created by the unknown Artist, who was pissed off with the elitism of the Art establishment. However, he had become afraid of what he had conjured into being, who set about leaving a will that his Art should be destroyed. He was then snuffed out by his Art Muse creation. The Velvet Buzzsaw painting mysteriously disappears… Diggs has it!? Actually, this summary of a wild guess is way off mark; it turns out that the spirit of the dead Artist is the one who is seeking revenge upon the Art establishment.
I missed a predictable scenario, which is common knowledge… most Artists only make any money out of their Art when they are dead and buried; while, the gallery owners rake in their cash. Click Here. The research team specifically wanted to see how radio waves with a proportional wavelength, or resonant length, to the pyramid would interact with the structure. The research team discovered that the Great Pyramid of Giza can channel electromagnetic energy within its internal chambers as well as below its base.
It was very interesting to apply the theoretical methods and approaches used in optics for investigation of light scattering by nanoparticles, to study the electromagnetic properties of the Great Pyramid—one of the most intriguing objects in history. The results, which were published in the Journal of Applied Physics, could enable scientists to create new nanoparticles, — particles between 1 and nanometers in size, which could be used, for example, to develop highly efficient solar cells or tiny sensors.
It could allow us to make new discoveries or get new information motivating new interests in the pyramids. The new information the physicists have discovered, may point at a possibility that the pyramid, which is concentrating certain frequencies of electromagnetic waves or radiation, might affect brain function. Clinically, TMS may be helpful in alleviating certain symptoms, including those of depression. However, the technique can be taken much further in order to induce lucid dreams, wherein dream characters can be summoned up out of the subconscious and consciously interacted with, like that of spirits being conjured out of a grimoire.
According to a study published online in Nature Neuroscience researchers have discovered when applying an electrical current to the brain, it can induce, lucid dreaming.
The spectral pyramid might be the ghostly influence of a physical pyramid the dreamer is sleeping within or next to. As for the scientific findings, they are the first to show that inducing brain waves of a specific frequency produces lucid dreaming. Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany. The researchers built on lab studies, which involved research volunteers in the REM rapid-eye movement stage of sleep. But they are almost unheard of during REM sleep. Voss and her Faustian colleagues, started to question, if Gamma Waves occur naturally during lucid dreaming, what would occur if they induced a current with the same frequency as Gamma Waves in dreaming brains?
When the researchers did so, by attaching electrodes upon the scalp, which is a technique called transcranial alternating current stimulation TACS , the 27 volunteers began to report that they became consciously aware within their dreams. The volunteers were also enabled to consciously control their dream scenarios. They also felt as if their dream self was that of a third party who they were merely observing, as if their conscious awareness was hovering around like a disembodied OOBE floating eye.
It is thereby distinctly possible that the concentration of certain frequencies of electromagnetic waves, which is being concentrated by the design of the Great Pyramid of Giza can affect brain function, and in turn inducing lucid dreams. Individuals who have experienced precognition or retrocognition tend to experience this phenomenon when attaining a lucid dream, which also includes the ability to remote-view far off locations. There will of course be those who consider these experiences to be crazy, who have never experienced a lucid dream, let alone remembering their dreams, which they commonly believe as being nothing more than a mental miasma, and of little interest.
Basically, other forms of intelligence. An analogy would be like that of programs genies being summoned up within a virtual reality being created by a quantum computer, which is making calculations upon a spin of an electron. The quantum computer is the brain, while the virtual reality is the dream, and your dreams are made up of electrons.
Imagine a multi-universe with a time-line for every possible future and present. When Kate, the daughter of an American professor, finds the bracelet, she and her friends are catapulted into the time-lines - into a time-line of sophisticated modern-day Raptor dinosaurs that regard humans as gourmet food. They also walk with modern pharaohs of Egypt. He has lost his bracelet to Asil, the daughter of a farmer who is a modern Raptor in his time-line.
Harrington, their Shoggoth a being who performs a task is actually a reporter with the prestigious Irish Times. The Jamaican aunt of Kate's friend Lana accidentally uses Obeah magic to make Harrington fall in love with her, and the children have to bring him across the time-lines to break the spell. He becomes the oracle in the "Chapel of the Hearing Ear" in the time-line of the modern pharaoh, the ruler of the Western world. The Egyptians think the Raptor Asil, in reality a teenager, is "Wepwawet, the jackal god of Abydos, lord of the Necroplis".
The Raptors want to use Conchobar's bracelet to transport the humans across from the Egyptian time-line to sell them in their Raptor time-line as gourmet food. They offer to make Conchobar the pharaoh if he will help them. Sometimes a book goes temporarily out of print - and sometimes no audio version has ever been recorded. Audible wants to give you the most complete selection we can and we'll keep adding series and filling in gaps as quickly as possible.
Holtorf, archaeologist, August They think this proves history was not as myth has shown it, but in fact it proves that all the myths were true. A myth, I was taught, was neither true nor false. I don't think you make anything much out of that which is false. Why bother? When you can do it with what's true? Because of this, it can be said that all historical accounts, whether Aztec, European, Chinese, or Fijian, are to some extent 'myths' see Sahlins Smith, historian, McGuire and P.
Rattansi, historians, Newton and the Pipes of Pan, Before the history of Greece began with the First Olympiad in B. Everything before that date was legendary and mythical. The age of Homer and Homer's heroes and their cities was also regarded as belonging to a kind of classical fairyland. If I am to discuss what is wrong, one of the first things that are wrong is this: the deep and silent modern assumption that past things have become impossible.
The things I believed most then, the things I believe most now, are the things called fairy tales. They seem to be the entirely reasonable things. They are not fantasies: compared with them other things that are fantastic. Fairyland is nothing but the sunny country of common sense.
And here was a sane man treating that fiction as a reality. Nietzsche, philosopher, The Will to Power, Note , Parker, archaeologist, The Archaeology of Rome, Max Muller, philologist, On the Philosophy of Mythology, Dupuis, polymath, It is the opinion of some eminent philologers of latter times, that there never was any such man as Orpheus, but only in Fairy-land; and that the whole history of Orpheus was nothing but a mere romantic allegory, utterly devoid of all truth and reality.
But there is nothing alleged for this opinion from antiquity Xeniades of Corinth, whom Democritus mentions, says that everything is false, and that every appearance and opinion lies, and that all that comes to be comes to be out of what is not Geomythology Ancient Cities Easton, D. Science In Amnesia "How much past knowledge has humanity forgotten? There are people who believe one thing. There are people who believe another. There are people who believe everything, and people who don't know what to believe.
It's quite a mess. Wiggin, author, "Nothing is certain and particularly in space flight is anything certain. Kraft Jr. As we get a better grasp on quantum theory, we think that it may be possible to make objects invisible. It may be possible to teleport them like you see on 'Star Trek. And you know, we don't like to face anything really to speak of. Of course, we all are sufficiently in denial that we convince ourselves that we're not in denial about anything.
Temple, author, November "The only new things are those which have been forgotten. Because if we don't know where we came from then we don't know who we are. You have to take a bold look at what is your environment and what is around you. Even the ugly things. Even the decadent things. We must take a position based upon the science and the data. Verschuur, astronomer, " Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics.
Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus.
Tyson, pugilist, May 1st He alone, it seems, had the foresight to realise that what Velikovsky was proposing was the biggest threat that the scientific establishment would ever have to face. His apocryphal statement that 'if Velikovsky is right then we are all crazy' was to say the least prophetic. For somebody, who allegedly, had not even read the book to have this insight into the paradigm shift that was being published adds stature to his ability.
Because he was quite right Clarke, author, History is littered with the discarded beliefs of yesteryear, and the present is populated by epistemic corrections. This realization leads us to the central problem of the history and philosophy of science: How are we to evaluate contemporary sciences's claims to truth given the perishability of past scientific knowledge?
If the truths of today are the falsehoods of tomorrow, what does this say about the nature of scientific truth? Most probably we are just at the beginning! Arp, astronomer, "The answers to all the scientific questions we could possibly ask are sitting right in front of our noses, yet we don't see them. So if they touch, they just touch at one tiny point. That's the maximum touching. I think in general they don't touch at all. They just sort of float around. Temple, author, The Sirius Mystery, Temple, author, The Sirius Mystery, "Not only did secular scientists rout the Christian fundamentalists, they placed themselves in the posture of knowing more, on the basis of their own very short-term investigations, than the collective remembrances of the rest of humankind.
During the process of blinking the plates, the night assistant discerned images never before seen. He marked their locations in ink and sought out Shapley for confirmation. If he was not mistaken, the plates contained Cepheid variables from beyond the Milky Way. Shapley, who was certain of himself, was having none of this. He launched into a shortened version of the same arguments he employed during the Great Debate, then calmly took out his handkerchief, turned the plates over, and wiped them clean Christianson, historian, Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae, "I am convinced by the evidence that we are a species with amnesia.
We have forgotten something of great importance from our own past. Scientists and philosophers alike have pondered this elusive question and put forth many explanations. But in truth, no one really knows. Kitchen, egyptologist, " I think it's fairly clear that all reality has to respect all other reality. If you come to inconsistencies, they have to be resolved Munger, philosopher, " Worlds In Collision was the one book which lay open on Einstein's desk at the time of his death.
There are places to go beyond belief. Those challenges are yours. In many fields, not the least of which is space, because there lies human destiny. Anything you can imagine, we already know how to do. Rich, aeronautical engineer, As a result of this questioning process, I was startled to realize how much of my 'knowledge' was indeed questionable.
I was even more startled to discover a few 'extraordinary hypotheses' to be undeniably true, even while almost every expert in those fields continued to deny that possibility. To take just a single example which can be verified with minimal effort: Fresh vitamin E applied directly to cuts and burns, even of great severity, relieves pain immediately and promotes healing without scar tissue at an accelerated rate. Although the healing action of vitamin E is apparently superior to any known drug, few physicians recommend it, or even know about this simple home remedy.
Van Flandern, astronomer, "We are drowning in print, and yet with a few rare and glorious exceptions nobody remembers anything. In my darker moments I wonder sometimes whether anybody reads anything. Schuyler, author, "Here it is: people have atrophy of the memory. Nobody remembers anything. Everyone tries to forget everything as quickly as possible. Textbooks on astronomy, however, were still preaching a universe void of any forces other than gravitation. Entire galaxies, it had already been observed were colliding with one another.
But mere planets, it was still being argued, could not so collide. Immanuel Velikovsky's Worlds In Collision has not only been one of them, in the end it totally changed my life. Science doesn't purvey absolute truth. It's disintegrated, dispersed. This is America. Nobody remembers anything past twenty years ago. Corrington and Joyce H. Corrington, authors, " Boorstin, historian, "Some people never remember anything further back than five or six years. Gordon, physician, et al. Before I talk, I should read a book. Millions of years are involved in this hypothetical view of history, and even though the historians cannot draw the curtain of recorded history back further than 6, years, they steadfastly stick to their theories, for their programmed minds simply will not accept any other explanation for man's technological and cultural development.
With ever-increasing frequency, new hypotheses are tested, current scientific theories modified, and new formulae constructed, but all with the aim of proving previously accepted theories If the person is outside the scientific community or at least outside of his specialty, he is an exoheretic. If a person is an endoheretic, he will be considered as eccentric and incompetent, whereas if the person is an exoheretic, he will be regarded as a crackpot, a charlatan, and a fraud.
Archaeologists all over the world have realized that much of prehistory, as written in the existing textbooks, is inadequate: some of it quite simply wrong. A few errors, of course, were to be expected, since the discovery of new material through archaeological excavation inevitably leads to new conclusions. But what has come as a considerable shock, a development hardly forseeable just a few years ago, is that prehistory as we have learnt it is based upon several assumptions which can no longer be accepted as valid.
Humankind is a victim of amnesia. And a victim of amnesia does not act responsibly, he acts irrationally. His technological progress outstrips his understanding of his milieu and of events in which his ancestors lived or succomed. He enters into conflicts for which there is no reason.
And in many of our actions, even as single individuals, we are sharing in that course of amnesia, of not wishing to know, of preferring to forget, of opposing to a book that said nothing more than what [was] said already and told so many times in thousands of ancient sources. The very violence and opposition to that revelation is rooted exactly in this desire not to know, and thus I feel my obligation in going to campuses, speaking to the young, to tell them, 'what you are taught is not complete.
Here, in this wholly mineral landscape lighted by stars like flares, even memory disappears; nothing is left but your own breathing and the sound of your heart beating. Clarke, author, "When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong.
Clarke, author, "The history of cosmic theories can be called, without exaggeration, a history of collective obsessions and controlled schizophrenias, and the manner in which some discoveries have been made resemble the conduct of a sleepwalker, rather than the performance of an electronic brain.
Don't know much biology. Don't know much about a science book. It is a book of immeasurable importance, and scientists should read it. Tolkien, english professor Oxford University , The Fellowship of the Ring, July 29th "Much that once was, is lost, for none now live who remember it. Salinger, author, "Although man knows that he has lived on this planet for millions of years, he finds a recorded history of only a few thousand years.
And even these few thousand years are not sufficiently well known. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any question, to doubt any assertion, to seek any evidence, to correct any errors. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, October Truman, politician, "The only thing new in the world is the history that you don't know. Truman, politician, "History is written by the victors. Kahn, soldier, November 21st " The rotting piles of a greater town could still be seen along the shores when the waters sank in a drought.
But men remembered little of all that, though some still sang old songs All those books that people became educated from twenty-five years ago, are wrong now, and those that are good now, will be wrong again twenty-five years from now. So if they are wrong then, they are also wrong now, and the one who is educated from the wrong books is not educated, he is misled. All books that are written are wrong, the one who is not educated cannot write a book and the one who is educated, is really not educated but he is misled and the one who is misled cannot write a book that is correct.
History, said Bacon, is the planks of a shipwreck; more of the past is lost than has been saved. We console ourselves with the thought that as the individual memory must forget the greater part of experience in order to be sane, so the race has preserved in its heritage only the most vivid and impressive -- or is it only the best-recorded? The better educated we are, the harder we believe in axioms.
I asked Einstein in Berlin once how he, a trained, drilled, teaching scientist of the worst sort, a mathematician, a physicist, astronomer, had been able to make discoveries. Garvey Jr. March, general, It is an act of faith to assert that our thoughts have any relation to reality at all. I know where flames the fixed star of certainty and success. I can guide you to the thrones of the Super-men. The men who really believe in themselves are all in lunatic asylums. Thus every man who utters a doubt defines a religion.
As he piles doctrine on doctrine and conclusion on conclusion in the formation of some tremendous scheme of philosophy and religion, he is, in the only legitimate sense of which the expression is capable, becoming more and more human. We could not understand, because we were too far and could not remember, because we were travelling in the night of the first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and no memories. Lodge, physicist, Pioneers of Science, "The past is of no importance.
For lectures and exercises are so disposed, that it does not easily occur to any one to think or meditate on anything out of the customary routine. And if one or two have perchance the boldness to exercise liberty of judgment, they must undertake the task by themselves, for they will gain no advantage from union with others.
And if they can endure this, still they will find their industry and liberality no slight impediment in reaching fortune. For the pursuits of men in places of this kind are confined to the writings of certain authors, as if they were prisons; and if any one dissents from them, he is straightaway seized upon as a turbulent man, and one desirous of innovations. Of their memorable achievements the oldest is the Trojan war. The world is a poor affair if it does not contain matter for investigation for the whole world in every age.
Nature does not reveal all her secrets at once. We imagine we are initiated in her mysteries. We are, as yet, but hanging around her outer courts. Seneca, philosopher statesman, 1st century " And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.
Krishna showed him all the worlds within his body For they that wrought in silver, and were so careful, and whose works are unsearchable, They are vanished and gone down to the grave, and others are come up in their steads. Young men have seen light, and dwelt upon the earth: but the way of knowledge have they not known, Nor understood the paths thereof, nor laid hold of it: their children were far off from that way. Prisca Sapientia: Science In Cryptomnesia " But he had simply rediscovered ancient knowledge that was lost. The 'discoveries' of Galileo illustrate this concept. Our research reveals a legacy closer to the ideas of the ancients.
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With that view, there's really nothing that we can learn in ancient history. Farrell, author, "Notably, [Anthony] Peratt focuses his attention on petroglyphs thought to be dated from 10, to 20, B. Farrell, author, "The ancients possessed a plasma cosmology and physics themselves, and from laboratory experiments, were well familiar with the patterns exhibited by [Anthony] Peratt's petroglyphs. Farrell, author, "If you look at practically any of the writings of ancient civilizations, the ancient Sanskrit writings of India are the ones I'm most familiar with, speak of spaceships, of weapons resembling our modern weapons, they had, apparently, the ability to look inside the human embryo and see what was going on, so, it appears, yes, ancient peoples did have quite a bit of knowledge that perhaps, some of it that we're rediscovering.
Cremo, author, August "There's a tradition of scholarship that was very popular in the Renaissance called the prisca sapientia , the primal wisdom. It claimed that there was a secret wisdom that was first trasmitted by an archetypal figure--say, for example, Moses--and then passed down through the line of successors, usually including Pythagoras, Plato, and so forth, and that this wisdom was really the ultimate tool for understanding the universe.
Newton clearly believed that. West, egyptologist, December " Temple, author, The Sirius Mystery, "There is nothing connected to the many supposed superstitious funerary rituals of Egypt that cannot also be interpreted as pertaining to space travel or some more advanced scientific accomplishment. Gould, Dinosaur in a Haystack, Late Birth of a Flat Earth, "Seneca who largely agreed with him [Democritus] thought him the most acute of the ancient philosophers, and it must have been the same reputation that made Pliny rely on him to such an extent.
French, historian, They climb the mountain to see the castle, and they wind up thinking that the past was better than what we have now. He was also convinced that atomic theory, heliocentricity and gravitation had been known there [See McGuire and Rattansi , p. Oderberg, writer, "We know very little, or rather we have known very little, of the technologies of early Africa because of this concentration on the primitive. That's why people that are young, if they're smart, try to profit from the experience of an older guy so they won't have to go through all the pain and suffering.
But a certain amount of pain and suffering is good because it makes a person think that they've learned. Gribbin, astrophysicist, The Death of the Sun, The library connects us with the insights and knowledge, painfully extracted from Nature, of the greatest minds that ever were, with the best teachers, drawn from the entire planet and from our history, to instruct us without tiring, and to inspire us to make our own contribution to the collective knowledge of the human species. Sagan, professor, "Democritus understood that the complex forms, changes, and motions of the material world all derived from the interaction of very simple moving parts.
He called these parts atoms. Sagan, cosmologist, "The mind of Democritus soared. He saw deep connections between the heaven and the earth. Man, he said, is a microcosm. A little cosmos. Sagan, cosmologist, The few surviving fragments of his scientific writings reveal a mind of the highest logical and intuitive powers. He believed that a large number of other worlds wander through space, that worlds are born and die, that some are rich in living creatures and others are dry and barren.
He was the first [Greek] to understand that the Milky Way is an aggregate of the light of innumerable feint stars. Sagan, cosmologist, "The scientific community starts its annals with Newton, paying some homage to Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, unaware that the great ones of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries searched through classical authors of antiquity for their great discoveries.
Did not Copernicus strike out the name of Aristarchus of Samos from the introduction to De Revolutionibus before he signed imprimatur on his work? Did not Tycho Brahe find the compromising theory of the Sun revolving around the Earth—but Mercury and Venus circling around the Sun—in Heracleides of Pontus, yet announce it as his own?
Philosophy and science -- which were not originally separate -- were therefore born together at the beginning of the sixth century. Newton asserts unequivocally that Pythagoras discovered by experiment an inverse-square relation in the vibrations of strings unison of two strings when tensions are reciprocally as the squares of the lengths ; that he extended such a relation to the weights and distances of the planets from the sun; and that this true knowledge, expressed esoterically, was lost through the misunderstanding of later generations.
This is an instance of a fully developed prisca sapientia Eventually it became like handing something into the police. In the preface to Plotinus commentaries, Ficino says that divine theology began simultaneously with Zoroaster among the Persians and with Mercurius among the Egyptians; then goes on to Orpheus, Aglaophemus, Pythagoras, and Plato If it's original, you will have to ram it down their throats.
Aiken, computer engineer, "Scientists generally have little historical sense, so that each single generation knows little of the struggles and inner difficulties of the former generation. Thus it happens that many ideas at different times are repeatedly conceived anew, without the initiator knowing that these subjects had been considered already before. He was a younger contemporary of Pythagoras; he discovered the main sensual nerves and followed their course to the brain, which he recognized as the central organ corresponding to the activity of the mind.
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Eliot, poet, "Everything of importance has been said before, by someone who did not discover it. Lewis, author, A man inherited a field in which was an accumulation of old stone, part of an older hall. Of the old stone some had already been used in building the house in which he actually lived, not far from the old house of his fathers. Of the rest he took some and built an old tower. But his friends coming perceived at once without troubling to climb the steps that these stones had formerly belonged to a more ancient building.
So they pushed the tower over, with no little labour, in order to look for hidden carvings and inscriptions, or to discover whence the man's distant forefathers had obtained their building material. Some suspecting a deposit of coal under the soil began to dig for it, and forgot even the stones. They all said: 'This tower is most interesting. Imagine using these old stones just to build a nonsensical tower! Why did he not restore the old house? He had no sense of proportion.
Tolkein, author, "Possibly every discovery is a rediscovery. Sorokin, sociologist, The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves. I need not mention the Renaissance, the very word proves my case. The originality of Michael Angelo and Shakespeare began with digging up old vases and manuscripts.
They look forward with enthusiasm, because they are afraid to look back. Chesterton, philosopher, What's Wrong With The World, Chapter IV: The Fear of the Past, "Can we not read into them some justification for the belief that some former forgotten race of men attained not only to the knowledge we have so recently won, but also to the power that is not yet ours?
Lodge, physicist, Pioneers of Science, Nietzsche, philosopher, Beyond Good and Evil, Maupertuis expresses this paradoxical doctrine so decidedly, and yet without the addition of proof, that it must be supposed that he also obtained it from somewhere else [Aristotle and Leibniz!
It is very desirable that the matter should be further investigated, and as this would demand tiresome and extensive researches, some German Academy might very well make the question the subject of a prize essay. But the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original is not good. Newton, who knew them practically by heart, had the greatest respect for them, and considered them to be men of genius and superior intelligence who had carried their discoveries in every field much further than we today suspect, judging from what remains of their writings.
More ancient writings have been lost than have been preserved, and perhaps our new discoveries are of less value than those that we have lost. Hence there is one ancient theology prisca theologia Only two escaped, Archippus and Lysis, according to the account of Neanthes. At last, however, they incurred envy, and a conspiracy was formed against them The Pythagoreans affirm that Plato, Aristotle, Speusippus, Aristoxenus and Xenocrates; appropriated the best of them, making but minor changes to distract attention from this their theft It is believed that this was the method employed by Pythagoras when on the same day he discoursed with his friends at Metapontum and Tauromenium.
After certain specified periods, the same events occur again; that nothing was entirely new, that all animated beings were kin, and should be considered as belonging to one great family. Pythagoras was the first to introduce these teachings to Greece. Pythagoras studied not only under Pherecydes and Hermodamas, but also under Anaximander. That stratagems were employed to destroy them Those who were called Cylonians continued to plot against the Pythagoreans All were burnt, except two, Achippus and Lysis, who ecaped through their bodily vigor. He successively associated with each of these philosophers in a manner such that they all loved him, admired his natural endowments, and admitted him to the best of their doctrines, Thales especially, on gladly admitting him to the intimacies of his confidence, admired the great difference between him and other young men, who were in every accomplishment surpassed by Pythagoras.
After increasing the reputation Pythagoras had already acquired, by communicating to him the utmost he was able to impart to him, Thales, laying stress on his advanced age and the infirmities of his body, advised him to go to Egypt, to get in touch with the priests of Memphis and Jupiter.
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Thales confessed that the instruction of these priests was the source of his own reputation for wisdom, while neither his own endowments nor achievements equaled those which were so evident in Pythagoras. Thales insisted that, in view of all this, if Pythagoras should study with those priests, he was certain of becoming the wisest and most divine of men. These are his [Democritus's] miscellaneous works. That the atoms were infinite both in magnitude and number, and were borne about through the universe in endless revolutions.
And that thus they produced all the combinations that exist; fire, water, air, and earth; for that all these things are only combinations of certain atoms And he says, that he composed the Little World seven hundred and thirty years after the capture of Troy. And it is plain that that was the case; for Plato, who mentions nearly all the ancient philosophers, nowhere speaks of Democritus; not even in those passages where he has occasion to contradict his theories, evidently, because he said that if he did, he would be showing his disagreement with the best of all philosophers And he appears to have derived all his doctrines from him to such a degree, that one would have thought that he had been his pupil, if the difference of time did not prevent it.
At all events, Glaucus of Rhegium, who was a contemporary of his, affirms that he was pupil of some of the Pythagorean school. And Apollodorus, of Cyzicus, says that he was intimate with Philolaus Some also say that he made acquaintance with the Gymnosophists [naked gurus] in India, and that he went to Aethiopia. Afterwards, his father entrusted him to Leucippus, and to Anaxagoras, as some authors assert, who was forty years older than he.
Eratosthenes says, as Favorinus quotes him, in the eighth book of his Universal History, that this philosopher, of whom we are speaking [Pythagoras], was the first [Greek] man who ever practised boxing in a scientific manner, in the forty-eighth Olympiad Euclid Proposition I], after Moeris had first found out the principles of the elements of that science, as Aristiclides tells us in the second book of his History of Alexander; and the part of the science to which Pythagoras applied himself above all others was arithmetic.
Accordingly, he went to Egypt, on which occasion Polycrates gave him a letter of introduction to Amasis; and he learnt the Egyptian language, as Antipho tells us, in his treatise on those men who have been conspicuous for virtue, and he associated with the Chaldeans and with the Magi. Sotion, in his Succession of the Philosophers, says, that he [Anaxagoras] was persecuted for impiety by Cleon because he said that the sun was a fiery ball of iron. And though Pericles, who had been his pupil, defended him, he was, nevertheless, fined five talents and banished And that the milky way was a reflection of the light of the sun when the stars did not appear.
The comets he considered to be a concourse of planets emitting rays: and the shooting stars he thought were sparks as it were leaping from the firmament. Hieronymus also says that he measured the Pyramids: watching their shadow, and calculating when they were of the same size as that was. In that among the Persians there existed the Magi, and among the Babylonians or Assyrians the Chaldaei, among the Indians the Gymnosophistae, and among the Celts and Gauls men who were called Druids and Semnothei, as Aristotle relates in his book on Magic, and Sotion in the twenty-third book of his Successions of Philosophers.
For the Egyptians say that Vulcan was the son of Nilus, and that he was the author of philosophy, in which those who were especially eminent were called his priests and prophets. From his age to that of Alexander, king of the Macedonians, were forty-eight thousand eight hundred and sixty-three years, and during this time there were three hundred and seventy-three eclipses of the sun, and eight hundred and thirty-two eclipses of the moon. They likewise say, that Hippocrates at his first meeting with Democritus thought him mad: But after they had conversed together, admired the man.
They say that Hippocrates, though he were Doric, yet for the sake of Democritus he composed his Writings in the Ionic Dialect. When the estate of his Father Damasippus was to be divided into three parts amongst the three Brothers, he took onely so much as might serve for his travel, and left the rest to his Brethren.
For this Theophrastus commends him, that by travelling he had gained better things than Menelaus and Ulysses. For I find that a great many things which have been conclusively demonstrated by the Ancients are unintelligible to the bulk of the Moderns owing to their ignorance -- nay, that, by reason of their laziness, they will not even make an attempt to comprehend them; and even if any of them have understood them, they have not given them impartial examination. The fact is that he whose purpose is to know anything better than the multitude do must far surpass all others both as regards his nature and his early training.
And when he reaches early adolescence he must become possessed with an ardent love for truth, like one inspired; neither day nor night may he cease to urge and strain himself in order to learn thoroughly all that has been said by the most illustrious of Ancients. And when he has learnt this, then for a prolonged period he must test and prove it, observing what part of it is in agreement, and what in disagreement with obvious fact; thus he will choose this and turn away from that. To such an one my hope has been that my treatise would prove of the very greatest assistance. Still, such people may be expected to be quite a few in number, while, as for the others, this book will be as superfluous to them as a tale told to an ass.
And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water. And he, gazing upon the heavens and saying that he was apprehending with care the things above, fell into a well; whereupon a certain maid by the name of Thratta [A Thracian woman] laughed at him and said: 'While intent on beholding things in heaven, he does not see what is at his feet.
Accordingly, during the first hundred and seventy years, though building temples, they made no cast or graven image. For Numa secretly showed them that the Best of Beings could not be apprehended except by the mind alone. Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to Greece. First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egyptians; and the Chaldeans among the Assyrians; and the Druids among the Gauls; and the Samaneans among the Bactrians; and the philosophers of the Celts; and the Magi of the Persians, who foretold the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judaea guided by a star.
The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of them called Sarmanae, and others Brahmins. Some say that Epicurus was a scholar of his. Democritus acknowledged but two, magnitude and figure. Epicurus added the third, to wit, gravity; for he pronounced that it is necessary that bodies receive their motion from that impression which springs from gravity, otherwise they could not be moved. For what, in fact, is there endowed with more marvellous properties than this? After them Hipparchus calculated the course of both these stars for the term of years, including the months, days, and hours, the situation of the different places and the aspects adapted to each of them; all this has been confirmed by experience, and could only be acquired by partaking, as it were, in the councils of nature.
These were indeed great men, superior to ordinary mortals, who having discovered the laws of these divine bodies, relieved the miserable mind of man from the fear which he had of eclipses, as foretelling some dreadful events or the destruction of the stars. For when it precedes the day and rises in the morning, it receives the name of Lucifer, as if it were another sun, hastening on the day. On the contrary, when it shines in the west, it is named Vesper, as prolonging the light, and performing the office of the moon.
Pythagoras the Samian, was the first who discovered its nature , about the 62nd olympiad, in the nd year of the City.