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Main article: Saint Valentine. Main article: Lupercalia. Valentines day. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article. Discuss March See also: The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl. Christianity portal Holidays portal. Valentine's Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals. The replacement of Lupercalia with Saint Valentine's celebration was suggested by researchers Kellog and Cox. Ansgar says "It is hardly credible, then, that Pope Gelasius could have introduced the feast of the Purification to counteract the Lupercalia, and in fact the historical records of his pontificate give no hint of such an action.

This feast is celebrated 40 days after the Nativity. In Jerusalem the Nativity was celebrated on January 6, and this feast in February But, in the West and even in Eastern places such as Antioch and Alexandria, Nativity was celebrated on December 25, and this Purification was not celebrated. When this feast was introduced to Rome, it was directly placed in February 2. Around that time, Jerusalem adopted the Nativity date of December 25 and moved the Purification to February 2.

October 23, Dictionary of Christianity.

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Valentine, St d. A priest of Rome who was imprisoned for succouring persecuted Christians. He is supposed to have restored the sight of the jailer's blind daughter. He was clubbed to death in His day is 14 February, as is that of St. Valentine, bishop of Terni, who was martyred a few years later in A Litany of Saints.

While in prison, he restored sight to the little blind daughter of his judge, Asterius, who thereupon was converted with all his family and suffered martyrdom with the saint. The Encyclopedia of Saints. Infobase Publishing. On the morning of his execution, he supposedly sent a farewell message to the jailer's daughter, signed "from your Valentine. Butler's Lives of the saints. Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Valentine's Day, —" Winterthur Portfolio Pitt Rivers Museum. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved June 20, While Saint Valentine's keys are traditionally gifted as a romantic symbol and an invitation to unlock the giver's heart, Saint Valentine is also a patron saint of epilepsy.

To this day, a special ceremony where children are given small golden keys to ward off epilepsy is held at the Oratorio di San Giorgio, a small chapel in Monselice, Padua, on 14 February each year. Church of England Anglican Communion. Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved October 27, February 14 Valentine, Martyr at Rome, c. August 1, Fortress Press. Archived from the original on January 1, February 14, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.

Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved February 12, Archived from the original on February 5, Sacred Travels. Adams Media.

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Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on January 16, Archived from the original on October 17, Cooper, Dictionary of Christianity , , Routledge. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February ", Speculum , 56 : — Oruch's survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance.

Valentine, laying his hand upon her eyes, said in prayer, "O Thou who art the true Light, give light to this Thy servant. Asterius and his wife, falling at the feet of Valentine, prayed that they might be admitted into the Christian fellowship; whereupon St.

Valentine commanded them to break their idols, to fast for three days, to forgive their enemies, and to be baptized.

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Asterius and his wife did all the saint told them to do, and Valentine baptized them and all their household, to the number of forty-six in all. Ansgar was unable to corroborate this. Valentine beheaded — Feb 14, ". Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved April 9, When Valentine's actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death.

Valentine was arrested and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to death with clubs and to have his head cut off. The sentence was carried out on February 14, on or about the year Legend also has it that while in jail, St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it "From Your Valentine.

Voices of the Martyrs.

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Bridge Logos Foundation. XL, No. Chapter "The First Valentine", p. Archived from the original on September 14, Hesse January 1, Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Valentine's Day Ideas

Archived from the original on September 15, It appears as the birthstone from February probably due to its association with Saint Valentine; therefore, amethyst has often been worn to attract love. Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved February 3, Gorenjski glas in Slovenian. Archived from the original on January 18, February 9, Masaryk University Press.

America's Favorite Holidays: Candid Histories. University of California Press. There is no indication in suppressing the Lupercalia, Gelasius put anything else in its place. Much later, in the s, a Cardinal Baronius speculated that Gelasius converted the Lupercalia into the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin or Candlemas , changing one purification ceremony into another, and many noted authors have repeated this claim. Recent scholarship has refuted Baronius's assertion The letter by Gelasius to Andromachus criticizing the Lupercalia contains no reference to Valentine, or Valentine's Day, or any replacement observance.

Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February" Speculum UCLA Spotlight. Archived from the original on April 3, Archived from the original on January 21, Chapter 6 The Genoese St.

1. Surround the Bed with Heart Balloons and Roses

Valentine, p. Independent Online. Retrieved February 14, Kelly gives the saint's day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard's engagement was announced on this day. Oxford University Press, Opie and P. Also version reprinted in Archived April 10, , at the Wayback Machine that uses more modern grammar like "should" instead of "shou'd". Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved August 6, Literacy and Popular Culture: England — Cambridge University Press.

Extraordinary origins of everyday things. Manchester Metropolitan University. Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 8, Archived from the original on January 3, Greeting Card Association. Retrieved February 16, Lightner Pub. Archived from the original on July 22, Wordsworth Editions, British Retail Consortium. Archived from the original on February 4, The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets.

Oxford University Press. Mast Media. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 17, Church of England.

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The Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on February 13, Philippine Daily Inquirer , February 14, Retrieved February 21, February 12, Archived from the original on February 15, El Universal. Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved: February 14, Skyhorse Publishing Inc. Retrieved February 13, February 10, Archived from the original on February 14, Archived from the original on May 10, Colombia Reports.

September 16, National Geographic. ABC News. The ancient Chinese. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.

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China Internet Information Center. Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on December 2, Have a glass of wine and some chocolates to nibble on by the side of the bathtub. Meanwhile, prepare the bedroom for a massage session. Line the bed with towels fresh out of the dryer so that they are warm. Get a basin full of warm water near the bed, several washcloths, and some great spa products. Start off with an exfoliating rub, then massage in a great body moisturizer. After all is said and done, you can enjoy takeout in bed or end your plans with a romantic movie.

Turn the lights out in most of the house, and replace the lights in the hallway or stairway leading to the bedroom with low wattage bulbs. If you cannot easily change them, use candles marking the route instead. Also, scatter rose petals like a trail of breadcrumbs leading from the front door to the bedroom.

Alfred Tennyson. If I had a flower for every time I thought of you I could walk through my garden forever. Charles M. All you need is love. But a little chocolate now and then doesn't hurt. Audrey Hepburn. Thomas Merton. Diana, Princess of Wales. Albert Einstein.

Blaise Pascal. Bil Keane. Judy Garland. Albert Camus. Thomas Hood. Friedrich Nietzsche. John Updike. Ann Landers. George Sand. Lao Tzu. Jane Austen. Jay Leno.