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The reduction of the PIE verb system with 3 moods, 3 tenses, and 3 voices to a system with 2 moods and 2 tenses caused the PIE particles, and later the verb prefixes, to gain importance. The predominant word order of Common Germanic was SOV, but the noun inflection still allowed much freedom. OV , as a remnant of the old word order. Inverse order.. Slavic: On their way from PIE the Slavic languages have been befallen by three vowel shifts and three consonant shifts, the more recent ones quite regular.

OCS nouns had a dual and the adjectives had a definite form in addition to their normal form. The paper uses lots of diacritics, both on vowels and on consonants, without defining them, apparently relying on an unspecified transcription. The verb has five classes, each subdivided into one to three subclasses, and is described in considerable detail. Baltic: Place names in Central Europe suggest that about BC the Balts as a people lived in an area roughly the size of the Black Sea around the position of present-day Moscow.

The author emphasizes the conservative IE character of the Baltic languages by frequent comparisons to Hittite etc. The time line of the developments of the Baltic languages can be determined by considering if Latin or German loans are involved. The many diacritics are not explained; the pitch accent is described, but too briefly. But morphology is covered amply, as expected. Wikipedia: the hooks under vowels used to indicate nasalization as in Polish , but today signal length, as does the macron; the long i is written y , to avoid an ugly hook under the i or a macron over it.

The hooks under the consonants or over the g indicate palatalization. The dot over the e turns it into a closed high e , as opposed to the normal e , which is open. The accents and tilde indicate pitch, but pitch is no longer an issue in urban Lithuania, and they are not normally written. The hacek over the sibilants has the standard meaning. Albanian: From the fact that writers used similar spelling conventions already in the first extant books in Albanian from around the end of the th century, the author concludes that writing tradition started much earlier.

The southern dialect, Tosk, differs from the northern in rhotacism of intervocalic n , which in the north causes nasalization of the preceding vowel. The author takes great pains to derive Albanian words from PIE, a sometimes difficult task, f. Similar effects are found in the verb, mainly based on ablaut.

Albanian still has three genders, but neuter differs from masc. So a two-gender description is quite possible. There is a rather unsuccessful attempt to explain the prefixed and postfixed article: the 'prefixed' article actually follows the noun it agrees with; and although there is an example 'the book of the pupil', there isn't 'a book of the pupil', 'the book of a pupil' or 'a book of a pupil', so the effects are difficult to observe.

Details of the verb system are described briefly in two pages. The system itself and the conjugations are not explained and are apparently assumed to be known, which makes this section less than useful. In summary an uneven book, as can be expected for 16 different authors; the sections on PIE and Latin stand out as superb, and the ones on Albanian and Tocharian are the least satisfactory, but even these are not disappointing.

In total a very worthwhile book. Concentrates on two dialects of Nivkh: Amur and East-Sakhalin. They differ about as much as Dutch and real Flemish. One problem with this book is that only occasionally does the author indicate from which dialect a given example is taken; this keeps the reader guessing and looking for clues doable. It turns out Nivkh is a language with simple and systematic morphology, somewhat like Turkish, hence the modest size of the book. Documenta Asiana , Vladimir E. Burrow, M. Emeneau, "A Dravidan Etymological Dictionary", pp. Covers 4 major lit. Laurie Bauer, Peter Trudgill Eds.

Covers the phonetics, the grammar of nouns, adjectives and verbs, the syntax and the numerals of the Yasin dialect of Burushaski, in an informal though detailed style. Possible parallels with the Yeniseian language Ket are pointed out. The Hunza dialect of the language is introduced in a short comparison. A small annotated bibliography concludes the booklet. Confusing account of a remarkable language, in spite of the author's efforts to make things clear. Understanding is not helped by the fact that words often are translated only the first time; this is especially a problem since Malagasy words change both at their fronts and at their ends, as in Welsh, so related forms are often hard to recognize, f.

Word order is VOS. There are three voices, active, passive and instrumental, which place in subject position the actor, the patient and the instrument, resp. Trask, "The History of Basque", Routledge, , pp. He is good at demonstrating the sheer incompetence of most of the attempts to demonstrate external relations of the language.

The possibility of remote relationships can't be ruled out of course, but none of the attempts has produced anything at all convincing. Of course, Trask is at the skeptical end of the scale. All the ins and outs of the French verb. All the ins and outs of French spelling. All the ins and outs of French grammar. Anatole V. Press, Oxford, , pp. The purpose of this book is to teach languages; some linguistics is taught in the process, but the emphasis is on languages. The main body of the book consists of six chapters, one for each continent Oceania is grouped with Australia , and one for pidgin languages.

The surrounding material consists of chapters on classification of languages and writing systems, and a set of language maps. Each chapter in the main body starts with a summary of the languages found in the region concerned, followed by "sketches" of two languages from the region; exercises introducing a few more languages and selected literature references conclude the chapter.

This approach gives quite a balanced view of the languages of the world. Each "sketch", which is actually a description of reasonable depth, covers the background, phonetics, morphology, and syntax of the language, in about twenty pages. This knowledge is then applied to analyse a small about fifteen sentences text; the analysis consists of a literal morpheme-by-morpheme translation, explanatory notes and a translation to normal English. These sketches are of high quality; seriously working your way through such a "sketch" gives one a good grasp of the language and may well allow one to decipher simple texts in it, using a dictionary.

The treatment of the languages in the exercises is of course much more restricted. The chapter in pidgins and creoles has this same structure, and Tok Pisin Talk Pidgin gets the same treatment as, for example, Finnish or Quechua. Having finished the book I came away with the intuitive impression that actually all languages are the same. For example, some languages have prepositions, some have postpositions, and others have case endings, and so on, but even these differences repeat themselves so often that they become next to meaningless.

Descriptive grammars,. A decipherment of the Phaistos Disk is offered as follows: 1. One glyph, PD 12, is given the semantic value "and" because it is used very often as a connective. Glyphs that resemble Linear B glyphs are given their Linear B values. Given 2, names of Mediterranean tribes are discerned in the text, yielding more glyph values.

A few more glyphs suggest the text is basically Greek. The pictures of still unknown glyphs were translated to Greek and then reduced to one syllable. Mapping rules from Greek to the syllabary were devised. Running these rules in reverse allows a text in an ancient form of Greek to be constructed. The resulting text is a call to arms for the impending invasion of the Carians.

The arguments are reasonably convincing, and the decipherment might be correct. There are three problems with it. The mapping is so loose that one suspects any kind of text could be retrofitted to the Disk, but that might be more difficult than it seems. The Minoans wrote Linear A, which certainly is not Greek, ancient or otherwise.

The author makes a feeble attempt to turn it into Greek anyway. There are five, very similar very short inscriptions in glyphs similar to those of the Phaistos Disk; they seem to translate into "belonging to Sara", where the author suggests that Sara is an old form of Hera, which it may be. The Rongorongo sticks are deciphered as follows. The last person to claim to be able to read Rongorongo, Daniel Ure Va'e Iko had recited from them, and much of his recitation has been taken down. This text was analysed, and contains mainly of "X and Y begot Z". Rongorongo consists of about 55 different glyphs, most of which also occur with a phallic extension.

This phallic extension is taken to be an end-of-line marker, or a representation of "begot". The Rongorongo sticks are memory devices for reciting the story of creation. The pictures mainly represent the objects they represent, or abstracta that sound similar in Old Rapanui. Sounds quite reasonable, and seems to explain all the known facts. George L. Excerpt from Campbell's Compendium of the World's Languages Igor M. Highly polemic discussion of the deplorable state of affairs in the research of Altaic, in which all opponents are eloquently and mercilessly put to the sword, in rolling paragraph after paragraph.

Very amusing, but in all this expert lambasting the matter at hand --the relationship between Altaic, Korean, and Japanese-- sometimes gets pushed into the background, or worse, delegated to a reference to one of the author's other works. Still, sifting the linguistics from the chaff, many interesting etymologies can be uncovered. The author shows that Proto-Altaic r2 tends to be represented by s or sh in peripheral languages, and elsewhere as l.

Among the chapters are "Japanese and Korean in Altaic", "Altaic in Japanese and Korean", and "Borrowings", which shows how knowledge about the cultures can help identify borrowings. The book has two excellent indexes, one general, and one with the words from the various languages, ordered by language. Note: The author explains the German umlaut as a form of vowel harmony: G. How is the e in -er different from the e in -es? Synchronically it isn't, but of course diachronically it once was, -iz vs.

So in a historical sense, the German umlaut could be considered a form of vowel harmony, although it would have to be regressive. Extremely hypothetical reconstruction of the Celtic language spoken in Devon around AD, based on the analysis of place names and developmental processes in Cornish and Breton.

Being a reconstruction it is more stylized than an actual language and as such it gives a good -but necessarily overly simple- impression of a Celtic language. Affiliation: Celtic. Status: hypothetical reconstruction. Location: Devon, about AD. Nouns: gender: masc. Adjectives: Verbs: often with infinite and auxiliary. Word order: VSO? Relative clauses: connected with a , or negatively with nak.

Impressive list of possible cognates, without sound correspondences. But maybe the only thing the list proves is that it is always possible to find a Sumerian-looking word of similar meaning in one or more of the hundreds of Austric languages the author even includes Japanese occasionally! Needs solid statstics, badly; or systematic sound correspondences. Skip the skull measurements. Trask, "Historical Linguistics", London, Arnold, , pp.

I can recommend Larry Trask's "Historical Linguistics", which also discusses "long range" matters such as Nostratic and Proto-World in the final chapter.

Clive Upton, J. Press, Amsterdam, , pp. Negerhollands, like Afrikaans, derives from the colonization by the Dutch, in this case of the island of St. Thomas in the Caribbean. The Dutch arrived around , imported slaves, but abandoned the island soon afterwards. The slave population continued to use Dutch, which now developed independently of Dutch. The language was thought to have died out in the s, but around a last speaker, Mrs. Alice Stevens, was found, and research was reopened. Remarkably, the handwriting specimens are easily readable.

The book features a historical introduction, some linguistic considerations, and all known texts with morphological and English translation; no grammar, no dictionary. And of course descriptions of dozens of foot trips and tons of advice. The Hebrew alphabet explained as a contorted Roman alphabet and vice versa. Two dominant features of the Kartvelian hypothesis.

As in Georgian and Svan, sa- , a- and la- are prefixes, which are followed by the stem; often this stem is again followed by some suffix, which leaves it in zero grade. As an example, the Etr. With a different suffix this yields sa-tr-ne , from which Lat. Saturnus is then derived, for which a Proto-Indo-European derivation seems to be lacking etymon Another example is the Etr. When a PTyrrh.

Example: Etr. The reconstructed meanings of the names are unverifiable; those of the nouns fit. All examples are from word formations; Etr. So Etruscan is structurally similar to Georgian in word formation only; no skreeves. Viacheslav A. Reconstruction of the phonological system and parts of the lexicon and morphology of Common West Caucasian, starting from reconstructions of Common Abkhaz, Common Circassian and Ubykh; since the latter had no direct relatives, external reconstruction of its predecessor is not possible.

The above reconstructions are also by the same author, and are based on detailed information about the present languages and dialects, including the Sadz dialect of Abkhaz, recently recovered in Turkey by the author. These reconstructions are also described in the thesis, all in great detail and with many all? In a final chapter the author argues that Hattic was a West-Caucasian language, supplies some etymologies with extensive comments and suggests some new interpretations, especially for some pronouns.

Tej K. Lots of explanation, and a slow introduction to Devanagari. Allan R. Aside from Pictish, which is treated very scantily, the primary dialects of the Old North were Old North Welsh, the precursor to present-day Welsh. This Old North Welsh is discussed using a poem by Taliesin. The Gaelic was often written in the Ogham alphabet, which is discussed, and Old North welsh and Gaelic are compared. It is written in runes, and discussed using the inscription on the Ruthwell Cross.

The next arrivals were the Vikings, who spoke Old Norse. It is compared to Anglo-Saxon, and the variety of runes in which it was written, including the twig runes, is discussed. Then came the Normans from Normandy, who spoke Norman French. That language penetrated to the North, witness many Scottish surnames. It is discussed using three stanzas from the Jeu d'Adam c.

The last change was effected not by migration but by diffusion, which brought Middle English. A section on the modern dialects of the North close the booklet. Treats the general structure, phonetics and details like nouns, adjectives, verbs, sentence particles and numerals in an informal fashion. Excerpt from Campbell's Compendium of the World's Languages , covering languages.

Entirely in Pinyin, with tones. The etymologies generally involve 3 to 4 members of the groups mentioned. The time depth of the Dene-Caucasian family is estimated at some years. A table of sounds correspondences is given. The literature references are ample, to say the least. Jacques B. Guy, "The incidence of chance resemblances on language comparison", Anthropos 90 , , pp. A program is presented that attempts to simulate the mass language comparison process as performed by Greenberg, Ruhlen et al.

The program includes the option to allow semantic shift inside a notion. Parameters of the program are: the number of languages compared, the size of the notion list called "word list" here , the probability of chance resemblance between two unrelated words, and the size of the semantic domain the number of subnotions allowed in a notion. Other parameter sets yield similar results. The author draws the conclusion that "strongly attested, yet spurious resemblances are certain to occur", and that "language comparison based on a small number of different possibles! Greenberg, Ruhlen, et.

Guy, "Merritt Ruhlen: On the Origin of Languages", book review, Anthropos: revue internationale d'ethnologie et de linguistique , 90 , , , pp. The author's main gripe is lack of explicit methodology. Very extensive dictionary, both ways. The author has clearly made a considerable effort to create a dictionary that can be used equally well by English and Italian users.

Some features are: extensive examples of word usage, stress indicated in all words; fully bilingual instructions; irregular English and Italian verb lists; full pronunciation of the English and indication of open and closed e and o in the Italian part. It seems to me that the English is predominantly British English. George Hewitt, "Georgian: a structural reference grammar", Amsterdam, Benjamins, ,. Alice C. Martin B. Atchison, "Dobuan Grammar", ed.

Remarkably detailed grammar 36 pages of Dobuan, followed by 14 pages of "How to Say it Dobuan". Dobuan is a Melanesian language spoken on the islands at the easter-most tip of Papua New Guinea. Its relatedness to Hawaiian can be recognized, but not easily; Dobuan seems more complicated. Adjectives: most derive from verbs; they follow the noun, except for the demonstratives. Word order: sentences tend to end in SV, but other parts of speech may surround them.

Dubois, H. Mitterand, A. Fourteen extensive lessons, each containing a dialog, grammatical explanations, vocabulary, reading and translation exercises and notes. With tables of conjugations which clearly show its relation to Hebrew and a page dictionary. Ho-Min Sohn, "Korean", Routledge, , pp. Encyclopedic work on the modern Korean language, couched in terms of the Lingua Questionnaire such descriptions are usually published in the Croom Helm Descriptive Grammars Series, but this book does not mention them.

Its main --but very serious-- drawback is the use of the Yale transcription in the total absence of Hangeul. See Sohn's book for my opinion of the Yale transcription. Much material for study, nothing in the way of analysis; lots and lots of references, though. Compact but comprehensive account of the Georgian grammar, with a very accessible treatment of the verb, in 24 pages, all in the Latin alphabet.

Next come 5 pages of sample text, in Georgian and in transcription, fully analysed. Material on Old Georgian and a bibliography conclude the book. Unsurprisingly, the print is very small. Broad and occasionally in-depth information about the Basque dialects, where Batua "official Basque" is treated as just another dialect. This approach allows some comparisons, but is more often confusing. Includes thoughts about the provenance of the Basques, and affiliation of the language tentatively Caucasian. Number: 2. Verbs: there are 6 tenses times 4 moods, for a total of 17 combinations.

Normally the verb is in an infinitive form, and the auxiliary "to have" or "to be" scoops up subject, indirect object, direct object, tense and mood, all in a single form. This is the basis of the saying "A Basque verb can have forms", but only the auxiliaries have full conjugations. Only 9 other verbs "to go", "to take", etc. The rest has 4 regular infinitives only. The conjugated verbs have different forms for masc. Using the auxiliary "to be" with a transitive verb constructs a passive form. Word order: strict, actor ergative - indirect object - direct object - infinitive - finite synthetic auxiliary; different, equally strict orders exist for negative sentences and questions.

A compilation of rules and tables from Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson book, summarizing the Gujarati grammar; rich in information. The language is similar to Latin or Russian in complexity. Adjectives: precede the noun, with which they agree in gender and number, but not in case. Verbs: many tenses, both indicative and subjunctive; tenses that use the past participle use the ergative construction, as in Hindi.

Note: Luo has a complicated phonetic structure and is written in an extended form of the Latin alphabet richly sprinkled with diacritics. The spelling used here is a coarse approximation and should be ignored. Affiliation: West-Nilotic; it is described as "lacking the exotic features of some of its relatives" Location: Near Lake Victoria.

Phonetics: Distinguished between dental d and t written dh and th and alveolar d and t. Has the usual 5 vowels, short and long, but in two "categories", open and closed raised. The the vowels in the root, which is usually CVCV, are of the same category, and prefixes and suffixes match them category harmony. Luo has 7 tones in long syllables and 8 in short ones, for a total of 9 tones. This gives combinations, all distinguished in the orthography by using diacritics over for tone , after for length , and under for quality the five vowel letters.

The tonal pattern of Luo is complicated by Downdrift, the gradual lowering of the pitch through a sentence; and Downstep, a syntactic device that for example marks the transition between subject and imperfect verb. Forms without the -n are used as prefixes for subjects and suffixes for objects and possessors. Nouns: have no gender or cases. Verbs can be modified with one of several suffixes to obtain a gamut of related meanings. With different tones they mean "I ran", etc. Word order: mainly SVO The book -- Meticulous description of the language, with variants and pronouncements on the certainty of some observations, in technical prose, for the specialist.

Part 2 contains a thorough analysis of the tones, a more formal grammar and a word list. Subject-oriented word lists. In defense of the broad classification of languages of Greenberg and Ruhlen, for the educated layman. Using tables of about 12 words in about 12 languages, the author guides the reader to classify first the families of the Indo-European phylum, then the languages of Asia including Yukagir as Uralic , Africa, the Americas.

Next the reader can identify the super-phyla Eurasian, Dene-Caucasian, Austronesian and Khoisan, the latter two as phylum-isolates. And finally a table Table 10 shows that all languages of the world are related. The resulting structure is supported by comparison with population DNA data. There is a polemic discussion of why these ideas have not been universally accepted.

The obvious reason, difference over acceptable methodology, is mentioned but not pinpointed precisely. What is lacking in this entire discussion is good statistics. Of course there are correlations, but are they significant? Georgij A. Humorous account of pitfalls of the Italian Language for the Dutch, including gestures.

Bomhard, John C. Trends in linguistics.

Analysis, Modelling and Technology

Corriejanne Timmers, "Timmers over taal", Auctor, Apeldoorn, , pp. A collection of fourteen papers of varying nature and polemic content: considerations about genetic classification in general, in which the enemy is not spared; specific etymology lists of the Khoisan, Yeniseian, Na-Dene and Amerind language families; a world-wide pronoun list and a list of 27 world-wide etymologies, some of which are very convincing; and several papers on Amerind, including some very specific etymologies.

All this amounts to large quantities of very interesting data, but it is up to the reader to judge their quality; but then, it always is. Zillions of literature references. Renton, J. Etienne Tiffou, et. This book also comes with two audio tapes. Lueke blueke aol.

Comes with two cassettes to accompany the pronunciation exercises in the book. I just recently got this and I'm really impressed with its thoroughness. Each of them interesting enough, but it took me some detective work to find all this out. For each aspect of our knowledge of Proto-Indo-European, historical backgrounds, present opinions and Lehmann's own opinion are given. His own main point is that Proto-Indo-European or even Pre-Indo-European was an active language distinguishing between active and stative verbs and nouns , and that properties of such languages shed valuable light on the Indo-European dialects.

Roderick Mackinnon, "Gaelic", Lincolnwood, Ill. Group, , pp. Short but very concentrated sketch of the grammar of Ibo. Tones are explained in the last few pages, but used sparingly elsewhere in the booklet. Adjectives: a few important ones precede the noun, most follow it. Verbs: The verb system is three-dimensional: it has tenses: indefinite, present, past, perfect, pluperfect and future; a continuous and non-continuous aspect; and positive or negative. This leads to 12 combinations, each expressed by suffixes to the verb.

In addition there is a subjunctive, an irrealis, and a positive and negative imperative. The verb form is not conjugated for subject, except in the first person singular! As it says in the title, fairly unsystematic notes on the subject languages. The hypothesis is that the Proto-Kartvelian prefix s1a- is represented by s- or l- in Burushaski as it is represented by sa- or la- in the Kartv.

On the basis of this, initial s- or l- is removed from Burushaski words or stems, and Proto-Kartv. This yields between 45 and 50 etyma. Actually English-Korean pg. Much more limited certainly in the Korean-English department than Minjung's Pocket dictionary. Its only advantage over Minjung is its somewhat larger and very clear Korean type font. No transcription; no explanations in English. David C.

Linguistics , 18 , 3, Sept. Contains character descriptions. The access system does not use radicals but is based on the general pattern of the character. An index using radicals is provided. Many other appendices and indices. Fewer characters than Nelson and far fewer compounds, but more information on the character itself. More a dictionary of characters than a dictionary of Japanese.

A useful addition to Nelson. Entirely in Irish; includes some Irish verb paradigms, for speakers of Irish. John J. Rather a vocabulary than a dictionary. No grammar. Fred C. Actually, an interpretation of existing Etruscan texts based on the hypothesis that it is almost Indo-European but more removed than Hittite. This yields reasonable translations which, however, deviate from the traditional ones.

Based on the Glengarry dialect. Contains 32 pages of phonetic introduction. For each word it gives the traditional spelling, the pronunciation in a special code explained in the 32 pages , and a translation. Niall O. Orrin W. Publications of the Henri Frankfort Foundation; vol. Does not make any effort to make the language any easier: 1.

Hardly explains the underlying structure, e. Does not show the paradigms in the text but has them collected in an appendix and talks about them without referring to them also shows other signs of gross editing. Not suitable for first contact. Wiggerman, "Aan de wieg van het schrift -- Mesopotamische spijkerschrifttabletten", Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, , pp. Hawkins, ed. Contents: On complex adaptive systems.

Brain and speech physiology in language evolution. Deacon Innateness and function in language universals. Barber and A. P Beekes, L. All authors of books on Etruscan have their own limits to the amount of guessing they are willing to do: Kruse is very conservative, giving very few translations; Facchetti is quite liberal, with many almost complete translations; the present authors strike a sober middle, with several translations with many dot-dot-dots in them.

Like Kruse this book covers the languages of ancient Italy, Etruscan, inscriptions, origins, and a short grammar. With minimal introduction, the author's technique of finding cognates between Basque and Kartvelian F. Example: Bu. The list ends with a few etyma between Burushaski and Etruscan, without Kartv. Attempt to shed light on two Etr. It is suggested the latter is related to a Kv. These meanings lead to a reasonable translation of a 4-line Etr.

La Phonetique by Malmberg Bertil

In a very terse appendix the author suggests Kv. Greville G. Publisher's blurp: Gender is a fascinating category, central and pervasive in some languages and totally absent in others. In this new, overall account of gender systems, over languages are discussed, from English and Russian to Archi and Chichewa. More detailed analysis of individual languages provides clear illustrations of specific types of systems. Gender distinction is often based on sex; sometimes this is only one criterion and the gender of nouns depends on other factors thus "house" is masculine in Russian, feminine in French and neuter in Tamil.

Geoffrey K. Pullum, "The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax, and other irreverent essays on the Non-committal inventory of the existing hypotheses. Name: Georgian Sakartveli. The -i form is usually formed by adding a stroke with closed circle to the bottom right. The -a form is usually formed by shortening the left side or lengthening the right side. The -e form is usually formed by adding an open circle to the bottom right. The form without following vowel is usually formed by modifying or nicking the left side in some way.

The language has long consonants; the difference cannot be expressed in the script. Adjectives: precede the noun. The next 18 pages of the book concern Amharic. For historic reasons the transliteration of Amharic uses Italian orthography; this is not followed here. Name: Amharic. Affiliation: South-Semitic. Location: Ethiopia. Adjectives: preceding the noun. Word order: SOV, strictly. The book closes with two chapters on the other languages of Ethiopia and the Ethiopian calendar.

Although Afrikaans has little morphology except for the plurals of nouns , it has lots of prepositions, connecting words, and sentence constructions. These are presented with examples of almost all of them. There are no longer sample texts, however. Giulio M. Books that promise to "unveil the riddle of the Etruscan language" should be approached with caution, especially when they are published by a firm which also publishes books like " Simple and Original Recipes for Cooking with Nutella" But unlike for example Mario Alinei's book, this book is main-stream, and safely based on Rix and Agostiniani.

The author is an expert on Roman and Etruscan law, and uses his knowledge of the first to interpret texts in Etruscan about the second, based in the idea that contracts in both languages often phrase similar things similarly. For example, the Latin words for the three possible obligations, facere, dare, praestare to do, to allow, to refrain from are found to correspond to Etr.

Some of the chapters are on general subjects, for example "Doni sacri e profani", others are concrete, for example "La 'tavola di Cortona'", but their internal structure is similar: the subject is explained using many short Etruscan texts with word-by-word translation. The translation of almost each word is motivated; in addition, longer texts are also summarized in a natural translation.

All this makes the text easily accessible. There are many detailed drawings of inscriptions and Etruscan objects. Russia, Krasnoyarsk province, Yenissey. Factual and fairly dry but not very systematic description of the mechanisms that cause correlations between genes, peoples, and languages, and of those that disturb those correlations. This book has a combined purpose: teaching about African languages and teaching linguistics using them. Of course "African languages" is not a linguistic notion, and that is both a weakness and a strength.

The weakness shows in generalizations like "The large majority of the African languages are tonal. The strength is that in teaching linguistic features, the authors can choose from hundreds of languages from four vastly different phyla. It is divided in three parts: I.

Linguistics chapter , Comparative linguistics, Language and history, and Language and society. Not surprisingly with so many authors 15 the style, terminology and quality is variable which only adds to the realism in linguistics. There is an excellent analysis section 6. The weakest point in African linguistics, the validity of the Nilo-Saharan phylum, is given extensive attention sections 3. In summary the book is a very good introduction to linguistics for people who have affinity with African languages, and very informative for anybody interested in both its subjects.

Its main drawback is its unevenness. Consists of very many relatively short entries. Made for Koreans: no explanations in English. English entries divided in syllables, with pronunciation and frequency indication; Korean entries with Hanja alternatives. Grammar", pp. The supporting material comes in two groups, phonetic reconstructions and common morphemes. Chapter 2 contains the phonetic reconstructions. Eurasian is reconstructed to have alternations between p and m, t and n, etc.

Also, vowel harmony is reconstructed for Eurasian, again supported by examples. Three more phonetic reconstructions are given. Chapter 3 presents 72 common morphemes. A 38 page appendix contains an analysis of Ainu vowel alternations, which seems somehow out of place. I suppose the author performed this study in the course of the preparation of this book, and it was this study that convinced him to group Ainu with Korean and Japanese, rather than with Austronesian Bengtson or Austroasiatic Vovin.

Norton, New York, , pp. Defends the premise that about AD not BC! The book lists those aspects of Zuni and Japanese culture and language in which the author sees enough correspondence. The linguistic part is unconvincing; if anything it more suggests a long-range relationship to Eurasian. I think a serious problem with Davis' thesis is that 14th century Japanese pilgrims would have known about writing, and it is hard to believe that they would have given it up. And even so, one would expect remnants of script to appear ornamentally.

As the author says in the last paragraph: "These finding may nor be conclusive, but together they are suggestive. Extensive description of all facets of the Korean language, including genetic affiliation, history, dialects, writing systems, pronunciation, syntax, grammar, and usage etiquette. Written for the interested and linguistically non-naive public, it keeps away from too much linguistic theory, as promised in the blurp.

It is not a book to learn Korean from, but then that is not its purpose.

Malmberg Bertil

Its main drawback is the use of the Yale romanization system apart from a romanization table there is no Hangeul in the entire book. The Yale romanization system is a disaster. Yale romanization is good only if you want to learn the language as a conceptual rather than a living entity. The spelling for which no standard exists has been chosen so as to look as much as possible like Dutch; this is an unusual choice. The language differs slightly from what I used to speak; for example, the text has "breeve" for "letters", where I say "breem'm" for "breev'n".

The authoritative definition of the Dutch vocabulary. The booklet starts with a litany on the myth that Japanese is a mysterious language in which things just happen in Zen fashion, without anybody doing them. Two main parts follow, both short pieces about various issues in Japanese.

There are many trunk-bearing and disappearing elephants in this book. This also shows that Sansom's remark about writing Japanese with a [Latin] alphabet is not entirely true: one needs the tone marks. And it seems to me that orenji itadakimasu ka page just means 'Do I humbly receive the honor of [getting you] an orange? The three named languages are actually almost a single language, and are treated as one in this booklet, called Mandingo. It is a West-African language of the Mande group, and with between 8 and 10 million speakers it is the second largest language in Africa, after Swahili.

Pages are concerned with the languages of the region in general; the rest concentrates on Mandingo. Adjectives: are verbs Verbs: root is only used as imperative; all other uses require the auxiliary verb 'to be', which is only marked for tense, mode, and negation. Sixteen chapters by different authors. IE Culture: points out that reliably reconstructing morphology and a lexicon is doable, but that reconstructing the accompanying semantics involves a lot of guess work. The components of the IE culture and ideology are identified as: the sacred, the military, and the economic, with many examples.

Remarkably the author refrains from reconstructing the personal pronouns. Is not adverse to the idea of Eurasian. Sanskrit: based on a PIE without laryngeals. No explanation of the origin of voiceless aspirates. Iranian: the data on the Iranian languages are muddled, which is reflected in the text. Tocharian: given the dearth of material on Tocharian, the text is very welcome, but it is disappointingly short, ending abruptly after 15 pages with an apology about 'A brief summary', whereas the other entries are 25 to 30 on the average.

The text is also confusing; the sentence on p. Summary: Almost all consonants exist in normal and palatalized form. The case endings are given in running prose only. It looks as if any resemblance to those of PIE is imaginary, except perhaps for the nom. The numerals are clearly IE, and so are the personal pronouns, more or less: sing.

One and a half page of existing verb forms are given, with minimal explanation. Of the 17 roots involved only one, Toch A. The verb endings, active and medio-passive, are recognizably IE, Toch. A more so than Toch. B: -m, -t, -s! The position of the more remotely related Lydian and Carian is less clear. Luwian preserves differences between the three PIE velars, but Hittite has only two, in such a way that it is difficult to reconstruct a Proto-Anatolian, suggesting that Hittite and Luwian already split in PIE times.

The paper features a number of useful tables in 6 or 7 Anatolian languages and sometimes Proto- Anatolian: the nominal endings, pronouns, and verb endings, active and medio-passive. Two pages on the position of the Anatolian within the IE languages, discussing several theories and opinions but not leading to firm conclusions, close the chapter.

Armenian: Although Armenians are known from texts from the sixth century BC, the language appears in writing only in the fifth century AD. The problem is that there are rules, but they are unreasonable, f. So often 'special development' has to be invoked. The PIE stops have changed considerably in Armenian, but not unrecognizably so.

The author claims the fit is better when we start from the glottalic version, but the difference is not impressive. Armenian prefixes and inserts vowel in several place to aid pronunciation, and the author shows a very clever scheme by Venneman, which explains precisely when and where such vowels appear, and also when metathesis a regional feature occurs. Several pages are spent on the intricate way Armenian words are derived from PIE. The pronouns are recognizably IE, but the exact etymology is often obscure.

The research on Armenian etymology is probably severely hindered by the lack of intermediate languages, as are often available for the other IE languages. There is no gender difference, not even in the pronouns. The aorist 3rd sing. In present--day Armenian, the apical and velar l -s form an opposition pair, and so do the tongue and throat r. Greek: The chapter is firmly based on PIE. A summary of what happened in the dialects follows, including some modern dialects.

Lack of examples and the use of highly technical terms make the text difficult to follows, though. The reader is assumed to know classical Greek well; words are hardly ever translated, and paradigms and endings are amply discussed but not shown; and the lack of examples requires one me to consult grammars and dictionaries. Sometimes the text is so abstract that the meaning is hard to discern, f. Latin: The longest chapter in the book, at 61 pages. The author notes that the apparent relationship between the Latin and Celtic languages does allow the reconstruction of a Proto-Latin-Celtic node: parts of Latin are related to parts of Celtic through rules not shared by other parts.

Such rules would both apply and not apply to Proto-Latin-Celtic. The chapter pays much attention to the Latin dialects, the languages in the country-side around Rome, where we still find such words as dingua , the original of lingua hence Eng. Also the Latin in this chapter is not always the Latin we have learned in school: antiquom , equos nom. This gives a nice wide view of the language. On the other hand, there are no laryngeals.

Unlike the chapter on Greek, this one abounds with examples, which is a good thing. Translations are given sparingly; readers are supposed to know their Latin.


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Paragraphs stretching over three pages complicate reading, and have induced me to insert additional paragraph breaks. Italic languages: The chapter starts with an unclear and somewhat emotional section on the relationship between the Italic languages and the "national dimension" of Ancient Italy. No translations are given, which may be acceptable for Greek or Latin, but which is absurd for languages like Umbrian or South Picene. Celtic Languages: Starts with a well readable and level-headed description of the history of the older languages, often pointing out that we don't know all the answers.

Appears to use the --sensible-- convention: Old X: we have names and text; Primitive X: we have names but no text; Proto-X: we have reconstruction only. But the notorious 'tau Gallicum' is not mentioned explicitly, and described as 'a new dental phoneme'. The primary mutation is lenition. It arose from the difference between single and double consonants: the double ones became single, with spirantization in some branches, and the single ones became lenited at the same time.

The morphology of the noun is described extensively, with many derivations from the PIE, through Common Celtic; this gives a reasonable explanation of the modern declinations with their lenitions and nasalisations. These derivations also show how far the modern languages have drifted away from their originals, f. Similar derivations are given for the Old-Irish verb endings. It was used wherever the adjective referred to something determined gute Sachen , die guten Sachen , and later made part of the syntax.

The reduction of the PIE verb system with 3 moods, 3 tenses, and 3 voices to a system with 2 moods and 2 tenses caused the PIE particles, and later the verb prefixes, to gain importance. The predominant word order of Common Germanic was SOV, but the noun inflection still allowed much freedom. OV , as a remnant of the old word order. Inverse order.. Slavic: On their way from PIE the Slavic languages have been befallen by three vowel shifts and three consonant shifts, the more recent ones quite regular. OCS nouns had a dual and the adjectives had a definite form in addition to their normal form.

The paper uses lots of diacritics, both on vowels and on consonants, without defining them, apparently relying on an unspecified transcription. The verb has five classes, each subdivided into one to three subclasses, and is described in considerable detail. Baltic: Place names in Central Europe suggest that about BC the Balts as a people lived in an area roughly the size of the Black Sea around the position of present-day Moscow.

The author emphasizes the conservative IE character of the Baltic languages by frequent comparisons to Hittite etc. The time line of the developments of the Baltic languages can be determined by considering if Latin or German loans are involved. The many diacritics are not explained; the pitch accent is described, but too briefly.

But morphology is covered amply, as expected. Wikipedia: the hooks under vowels used to indicate nasalization as in Polish , but today signal length, as does the macron; the long i is written y , to avoid an ugly hook under the i or a macron over it. The hooks under the consonants or over the g indicate palatalization.

The dot over the e turns it into a closed high e , as opposed to the normal e , which is open. The accents and tilde indicate pitch, but pitch is no longer an issue in urban Lithuania, and they are not normally written. The hacek over the sibilants has the standard meaning. Albanian: From the fact that writers used similar spelling conventions already in the first extant books in Albanian from around the end of the th century, the author concludes that writing tradition started much earlier. The southern dialect, Tosk, differs from the northern in rhotacism of intervocalic n , which in the north causes nasalization of the preceding vowel.

The author takes great pains to derive Albanian words from PIE, a sometimes difficult task, f. Similar effects are found in the verb, mainly based on ablaut. Albanian still has three genders, but neuter differs from masc. So a two-gender description is quite possible. There is a rather unsuccessful attempt to explain the prefixed and postfixed article: the 'prefixed' article actually follows the noun it agrees with; and although there is an example 'the book of the pupil', there isn't 'a book of the pupil', 'the book of a pupil' or 'a book of a pupil', so the effects are difficult to observe.

Details of the verb system are described briefly in two pages. The system itself and the conjugations are not explained and are apparently assumed to be known, which makes this section less than useful. In summary an uneven book, as can be expected for 16 different authors; the sections on PIE and Latin stand out as superb, and the ones on Albanian and Tocharian are the least satisfactory, but even these are not disappointing. In total a very worthwhile book. Concentrates on two dialects of Nivkh: Amur and East-Sakhalin. They differ about as much as Dutch and real Flemish.

One problem with this book is that only occasionally does the author indicate from which dialect a given example is taken; this keeps the reader guessing and looking for clues doable. It turns out Nivkh is a language with simple and systematic morphology, somewhat like Turkish, hence the modest size of the book. Documenta Asiana , Vladimir E. Burrow, M. Emeneau, "A Dravidan Etymological Dictionary", pp. Covers 4 major lit. Laurie Bauer, Peter Trudgill Eds. Covers the phonetics, the grammar of nouns, adjectives and verbs, the syntax and the numerals of the Yasin dialect of Burushaski, in an informal though detailed style.

Possible parallels with the Yeniseian language Ket are pointed out. The Hunza dialect of the language is introduced in a short comparison. A small annotated bibliography concludes the booklet. Confusing account of a remarkable language, in spite of the author's efforts to make things clear. Understanding is not helped by the fact that words often are translated only the first time; this is especially a problem since Malagasy words change both at their fronts and at their ends, as in Welsh, so related forms are often hard to recognize, f.

Word order is VOS. There are three voices, active, passive and instrumental, which place in subject position the actor, the patient and the instrument, resp. Trask, "The History of Basque", Routledge, , pp. He is good at demonstrating the sheer incompetence of most of the attempts to demonstrate external relations of the language. The possibility of remote relationships can't be ruled out of course, but none of the attempts has produced anything at all convincing.

Of course, Trask is at the skeptical end of the scale. All the ins and outs of the French verb. All the ins and outs of French spelling. All the ins and outs of French grammar. Anatole V. Press, Oxford, , pp. The purpose of this book is to teach languages; some linguistics is taught in the process, but the emphasis is on languages.

The main body of the book consists of six chapters, one for each continent Oceania is grouped with Australia , and one for pidgin languages. The surrounding material consists of chapters on classification of languages and writing systems, and a set of language maps. Each chapter in the main body starts with a summary of the languages found in the region concerned, followed by "sketches" of two languages from the region; exercises introducing a few more languages and selected literature references conclude the chapter.

This approach gives quite a balanced view of the languages of the world. Each "sketch", which is actually a description of reasonable depth, covers the background, phonetics, morphology, and syntax of the language, in about twenty pages. This knowledge is then applied to analyse a small about fifteen sentences text; the analysis consists of a literal morpheme-by-morpheme translation, explanatory notes and a translation to normal English.

These sketches are of high quality; seriously working your way through such a "sketch" gives one a good grasp of the language and may well allow one to decipher simple texts in it, using a dictionary. The treatment of the languages in the exercises is of course much more restricted. The chapter in pidgins and creoles has this same structure, and Tok Pisin Talk Pidgin gets the same treatment as, for example, Finnish or Quechua.

Having finished the book I came away with the intuitive impression that actually all languages are the same. For example, some languages have prepositions, some have postpositions, and others have case endings, and so on, but even these differences repeat themselves so often that they become next to meaningless.

Descriptive grammars,. A decipherment of the Phaistos Disk is offered as follows: 1. One glyph, PD 12, is given the semantic value "and" because it is used very often as a connective. Glyphs that resemble Linear B glyphs are given their Linear B values. Given 2, names of Mediterranean tribes are discerned in the text, yielding more glyph values.

A few more glyphs suggest the text is basically Greek. The pictures of still unknown glyphs were translated to Greek and then reduced to one syllable. Mapping rules from Greek to the syllabary were devised. Running these rules in reverse allows a text in an ancient form of Greek to be constructed. The resulting text is a call to arms for the impending invasion of the Carians. The arguments are reasonably convincing, and the decipherment might be correct.

There are three problems with it. The mapping is so loose that one suspects any kind of text could be retrofitted to the Disk, but that might be more difficult than it seems. The Minoans wrote Linear A, which certainly is not Greek, ancient or otherwise. The author makes a feeble attempt to turn it into Greek anyway. There are five, very similar very short inscriptions in glyphs similar to those of the Phaistos Disk; they seem to translate into "belonging to Sara", where the author suggests that Sara is an old form of Hera, which it may be.

The Rongorongo sticks are deciphered as follows. The last person to claim to be able to read Rongorongo, Daniel Ure Va'e Iko had recited from them, and much of his recitation has been taken down. This text was analysed, and contains mainly of "X and Y begot Z". Rongorongo consists of about 55 different glyphs, most of which also occur with a phallic extension. This phallic extension is taken to be an end-of-line marker, or a representation of "begot".

The Rongorongo sticks are memory devices for reciting the story of creation. The pictures mainly represent the objects they represent, or abstracta that sound similar in Old Rapanui. Sounds quite reasonable, and seems to explain all the known facts. George L. Excerpt from Campbell's Compendium of the World's Languages Igor M. Highly polemic discussion of the deplorable state of affairs in the research of Altaic, in which all opponents are eloquently and mercilessly put to the sword, in rolling paragraph after paragraph.

Very amusing, but in all this expert lambasting the matter at hand --the relationship between Altaic, Korean, and Japanese-- sometimes gets pushed into the background, or worse, delegated to a reference to one of the author's other works. Still, sifting the linguistics from the chaff, many interesting etymologies can be uncovered.

The author shows that Proto-Altaic r2 tends to be represented by s or sh in peripheral languages, and elsewhere as l. Among the chapters are "Japanese and Korean in Altaic", "Altaic in Japanese and Korean", and "Borrowings", which shows how knowledge about the cultures can help identify borrowings.

The book has two excellent indexes, one general, and one with the words from the various languages, ordered by language. Note: The author explains the German umlaut as a form of vowel harmony: G. How is the e in -er different from the e in -es? Synchronically it isn't, but of course diachronically it once was, -iz vs.

So in a historical sense, the German umlaut could be considered a form of vowel harmony, although it would have to be regressive. Extremely hypothetical reconstruction of the Celtic language spoken in Devon around AD, based on the analysis of place names and developmental processes in Cornish and Breton. Being a reconstruction it is more stylized than an actual language and as such it gives a good -but necessarily overly simple- impression of a Celtic language.

Affiliation: Celtic. Status: hypothetical reconstruction. Location: Devon, about AD. Nouns: gender: masc. Adjectives: Verbs: often with infinite and auxiliary. Word order: VSO? Relative clauses: connected with a , or negatively with nak. Impressive list of possible cognates, without sound correspondences.

Instituto Francés de América Latina (IFAL) catalog › Details for: La phonétique /

But maybe the only thing the list proves is that it is always possible to find a Sumerian-looking word of similar meaning in one or more of the hundreds of Austric languages the author even includes Japanese occasionally! Needs solid statstics, badly; or systematic sound correspondences. Skip the skull measurements. Trask, "Historical Linguistics", London, Arnold, , pp. I can recommend Larry Trask's "Historical Linguistics", which also discusses "long range" matters such as Nostratic and Proto-World in the final chapter.

Clive Upton, J. Press, Amsterdam, , pp. Negerhollands, like Afrikaans, derives from the colonization by the Dutch, in this case of the island of St. Thomas in the Caribbean. The Dutch arrived around , imported slaves, but abandoned the island soon afterwards. The slave population continued to use Dutch, which now developed independently of Dutch. The language was thought to have died out in the s, but around a last speaker, Mrs. Alice Stevens, was found, and research was reopened. Remarkably, the handwriting specimens are easily readable. The book features a historical introduction, some linguistic considerations, and all known texts with morphological and English translation; no grammar, no dictionary.

And of course descriptions of dozens of foot trips and tons of advice. The Hebrew alphabet explained as a contorted Roman alphabet and vice versa. Two dominant features of the Kartvelian hypothesis. As in Georgian and Svan, sa- , a- and la- are prefixes, which are followed by the stem; often this stem is again followed by some suffix, which leaves it in zero grade.

As an example, the Etr. With a different suffix this yields sa-tr-ne , from which Lat. Saturnus is then derived, for which a Proto-Indo-European derivation seems to be lacking etymon Another example is the Etr. When a PTyrrh. Example: Etr. The reconstructed meanings of the names are unverifiable; those of the nouns fit. All examples are from word formations; Etr. So Etruscan is structurally similar to Georgian in word formation only; no skreeves.

Viacheslav A. Reconstruction of the phonological system and parts of the lexicon and morphology of Common West Caucasian, starting from reconstructions of Common Abkhaz, Common Circassian and Ubykh; since the latter had no direct relatives, external reconstruction of its predecessor is not possible. The above reconstructions are also by the same author, and are based on detailed information about the present languages and dialects, including the Sadz dialect of Abkhaz, recently recovered in Turkey by the author.

These reconstructions are also described in the thesis, all in great detail and with many all? In a final chapter the author argues that Hattic was a West-Caucasian language, supplies some etymologies with extensive comments and suggests some new interpretations, especially for some pronouns. Tej K. Lots of explanation, and a slow introduction to Devanagari.

Allan R. Aside from Pictish, which is treated very scantily, the primary dialects of the Old North were Old North Welsh, the precursor to present-day Welsh. This Old North Welsh is discussed using a poem by Taliesin. The Gaelic was often written in the Ogham alphabet, which is discussed, and Old North welsh and Gaelic are compared. It is written in runes, and discussed using the inscription on the Ruthwell Cross.

The next arrivals were the Vikings, who spoke Old Norse. It is compared to Anglo-Saxon, and the variety of runes in which it was written, including the twig runes, is discussed. Then came the Normans from Normandy, who spoke Norman French. That language penetrated to the North, witness many Scottish surnames.

It is discussed using three stanzas from the Jeu d'Adam c. The last change was effected not by migration but by diffusion, which brought Middle English. A section on the modern dialects of the North close the booklet. Treats the general structure, phonetics and details like nouns, adjectives, verbs, sentence particles and numerals in an informal fashion.

Excerpt from Campbell's Compendium of the World's Languages , covering languages. Entirely in Pinyin, with tones. The etymologies generally involve 3 to 4 members of the groups mentioned. The time depth of the Dene-Caucasian family is estimated at some years. A table of sounds correspondences is given. The literature references are ample, to say the least. Jacques B. Guy, "The incidence of chance resemblances on language comparison", Anthropos 90 , , pp. A program is presented that attempts to simulate the mass language comparison process as performed by Greenberg, Ruhlen et al.

The program includes the option to allow semantic shift inside a notion. Parameters of the program are: the number of languages compared, the size of the notion list called "word list" here , the probability of chance resemblance between two unrelated words, and the size of the semantic domain the number of subnotions allowed in a notion. Other parameter sets yield similar results. The author draws the conclusion that "strongly attested, yet spurious resemblances are certain to occur", and that "language comparison based on a small number of different possibles!

Greenberg, Ruhlen, et. Guy, "Merritt Ruhlen: On the Origin of Languages", book review, Anthropos: revue internationale d'ethnologie et de linguistique , 90 , , , pp. The author's main gripe is lack of explicit methodology. Very extensive dictionary, both ways. The author has clearly made a considerable effort to create a dictionary that can be used equally well by English and Italian users.

Some features are: extensive examples of word usage, stress indicated in all words; fully bilingual instructions; irregular English and Italian verb lists; full pronunciation of the English and indication of open and closed e and o in the Italian part. It seems to me that the English is predominantly British English. George Hewitt, "Georgian: a structural reference grammar", Amsterdam, Benjamins, ,.

Alice C. Martin B. Atchison, "Dobuan Grammar", ed. Remarkably detailed grammar 36 pages of Dobuan, followed by 14 pages of "How to Say it Dobuan". Dobuan is a Melanesian language spoken on the islands at the easter-most tip of Papua New Guinea. Its relatedness to Hawaiian can be recognized, but not easily; Dobuan seems more complicated.

Adjectives: most derive from verbs; they follow the noun, except for the demonstratives. Word order: sentences tend to end in SV, but other parts of speech may surround them. Dubois, H. Mitterand, A. Fourteen extensive lessons, each containing a dialog, grammatical explanations, vocabulary, reading and translation exercises and notes.

With tables of conjugations which clearly show its relation to Hebrew and a page dictionary. In Proceedings from the 13th annual meeting of the Berkeley linguistics society. General session and parasession on grammar and cognition. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Goldsmith Ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Alvord, S. LARP 5. Selected proceedings of the 5th conference on Laboratory Approaches to Romance Phonology. Broe, M. Acquisition and the lexicon. Papers in Laboratory Phonology V. The Oxford handbook of laboratory phonology. Colantoni, L. LASP 3. Selected proceedings from the 3rd conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology.

Cornell, B. Phonology and phonetic evidence. Papers in Laboratory Phonology IV. LASP 2. Selected proceedings of the 2nd conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. Docherty, G. Gesture, segments, prosody. Papers in Laboratory Phonology II. Phonological structure and phonetic form. Between the grammar and physics of speech. Papers in Laboratory Phonology I. Local, J. Phonetic interpretation. Papers in Laboratory Phonology VI. Ortega-Llebaria, M. LASP 4. Selected proceedings of the 4th conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology.

Pierrehumbert, J. Conceptual foundations of phonology as a laboratory science. Burton-Roberts, P. Docherty Eds. Browman, C. Dynamic modelling of phonetic structure. Essays in honor of Peter Ladefoged. Orlando: Academic Press. Towards an articulatory phonology. Phonology Yearbook, 3 , Articulatory gestures ad phonological units. Phonology, 6 2 , — Representation and reality: Physical systems and phonological structure. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica, 49 3—4 , — Goldstein, L.

Articulatory phonology: A phonology for public language use. Schiller Eds. New York: Mouton. Haskins Laboratories. Gestural model. Introduction to articulatory phonology and the gestural computational model. Blevins, J. Evolutionary phonology: The emergence of sound patterns.

A theoretical synopsis of evolutionary phonology. Theoretical Linguistics, 32 , Studies in Sound Symbolism. Doctoral Dissertation. Experiments in investigating sound symbolism and onomatopoeia. Athens, Greece, August , Bergen, B. The psychological reality of phonaesthemes. Language, 80 2 , On the universal character of phonetic symbolism with special reference to vowels. Studia Linguistica, 32 , Hinton, L. Sound Symbolism. T he Sound Shape of Language.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Kihm, Trad. Mansour, Trad. Kawahara, S. A positional effect in sound symbolism: An experi- mental study. Klink, R. Creating brand names with meaning: The use of sound symbolism. Marketing Letters, 11 1 , Lowrey, T. Phonetic symbolism and brand name preference. Journal of Consumer Research, 34 , Randa, 52 , Mela-Athanasopoulou, E. Close, M. Couvalis Eds. Flinders University, June Nuckolls, J. The case for sound symbolism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28 1 , Sound symbolism.

Seoul, Korea, August , Peterfalvi, J. Paris: CNRS. Reay, I. Shrum, L. Sounds convery meaning: The implications of phonetic symbolism for brand name construction. Lowrey Ed. Oxford - New York: Routledge. Simner, J. Non-Random associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and normal populations. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22 8 , Yorkston, E.

A sound idea: Phonetic effects of brand names on consumer judgments. Jorunal of Consumer Research, 31 , The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 2 , 71— Bonet, E. Venezia: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. Correa, J. Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Esling, J. Phonetic notation. Face, T. Guide to the phonetic symbols of Spanish.

Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Heselwood, B. Phonetic transcription in theory and practice. Howard, S. Instrumental and perceptual phonetic analyses: the case for two-tier transcriptions. Rafel, Ed. International Phonetic Association. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Full IPA chart. Kemp, J. Phonetic transcription: history.

Khattab, G. IPA online. Online resources for practical phonetics. Lawson, E. Seeing speech: An articulatory web resource for the study of phonetics. Lloret, M. Pradilla Ed. Nagy, N. Sharma Eds. Anuario de Letras, 6 , 5— Oller, D. Phonetic expectation and transcription validity. Phonetica, 31 , — Pullum, G. Phonetic symbol guide 2nd updated ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Rahilly, J. Transcribing speech: Practicalities, philosophies and prophesies. Transcription of prosodic and paralinguistic features of emotional speech. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 1 , 83— Wells, J.

Phonetic transcription and analysis. Phonetic transcription of disordered speech. Beck, J. Organic variation of the vocal apparatus. The articulatory possibilities of man. Malmberg Ed. Fundamental problems in phonetics 2nd ed. Gick, B. Articulatory phonetics. Redford, M. The handbook of speech production. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell. Dickson, D. Human vocal anatomy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Anatomical and physiological bases of speech. Boston: Little Brown. Dissection of the speech production mechanism. Physiology of speech production. An introduction for speech scientists.

Harris, K. Physiological aspects of articulatory behavior. The Haguen: Mouton. Physiological aspects of speech production. Strange Eds. Le Huche, F. La voz. Barcelona: Masson. Netsell, R. Speech physiology. Minifie, T. Williams Eds. Schneiderman, C. Basic anatomy and physiology in speech and hearing. Seikel, J. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar. Straka, G. Zemlin, W. Speech and hearing science.

Anatomy and physiology. Gracco, V. Sensorimotor and motorsensory interactions in speech. In ISSP Eight international seminar on speech production. Strasbourg, France. Guenther, F. A neural model of speech production and supporting experiments. A neural model of speech production.

Sixth international seminar on speech production. Sydney, Australia. December , Kent, R. Brain functions underlying speech. Towards a neurocomputational model of speech production and perception. Speech Communication, 51 9 , — Neurolinguistic aspects of speech production. Gutknecht Ed. Hamburg: Hofmann und Campe. Neurolinguistics aspects of speech production.

In The gift of speech. Papers in the analysis of speech and voice. Smith, A. Development of neural control of orofacial movements for speech. Sussman, H. What the tongue tells the brain. Psychological Bulletin, 77 4 , — Shadle, Ch. Shadle, C. The aerodynamics of speech. Warren, D. Contemporary Issues in Experimental Phonetics. Principles of Experimental Phonetics. St Louis: Mosby. Draper, M. Hixon, T. Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing and Language. Ventilatory and Phonatory Control Systems. An International Symposium.

London: Oxford University Press. Dordecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. Weismer, G. Speech Science. Recent Advances. San Diego : College Hill Press. Broad, D. Vocal physiology: Voice production, mechanisms and funcions. New York: Raven Press. Gobl, C. Voice source variation and its communicative functions. Hirano, M. Cover-body theory of vocal fold vibration. Daniloff Ed. Recent advances pp. Hirose, H. Investigating the physiology of laryngeal structures. The activity of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles in voicing control: An electromyographic study. Phonetica, 25 3 , Kent, B. Miller Eds.

Kreiman, J. Foundations of voice studies: An interdisciplinary approach to voice production and perception. Respiration, laryngeal activity and linguistics. Wyke Ed. An international symposium pp. Orlikoff, R. Structure and function of the larynx. Lass Ed. Sataloff, R. The human voice. Scientific American, 6 , Sawashima, M. Laryngeal research in experimental phonetics. Vol Linguistics and Adjacent Arts and Sciences. Part 4. Laryngeal gestures in speech production. MacNeilage Ed. New York: Springer.

Myoelastic-Aerodynamic theory of voice production. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1 3 , — Mechanisms of the larynx and the laryngeal vibration. Beber, B. The voice in transsexuals. Carbonell, J. Cerceau, J. Dehqan, A. The effects of aging on acoustic parameters of voice. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 64 6 , — Voz del anciano. Revista de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra, 50 3 , Naya, M.

Gilbert, H. The effects of smoking on the speaking fundamental frequency of adult women. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 3 3 , — Gorham-Rowan, M. Acoustic-perceptual correlates of voice quality in elderly men and women.

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Journal of Communication Disorders, 39 3 , — Hanson, H. Glottal characteristics of male speakers: acoustic correlates and comparison with female data. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2 , — On pubescent voice change in males. Journal of Voice, 26 2 , e29—e A second evaluation of the speaking fundamental frequency characteristics of post-adolescent girls. Language and Speech, 12 2 , Linville, S. Acoustic characteristics of perceived versus actual vocal age in controlled phonation by adult females. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78 1 , 40— Mendoza, E.

Journal of Voice, 10 1 , 59— Mifune, E. Monsen, R. Study of variations in the male and female glottal wave. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62 4 , — Rocha de Souza, L. Sader, R. Saxman, J. Speaking fundamental frequency characteristics of middle-aged females. Folia Phoniatrica, 19 3 , — Soyama, C. Stoicheff, M. Speaking fundamental frequency characteristics of nonsmoking female adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 24 3 , — Trittin, P. Voice quality analysis of male and female Spanish speakers.

Speech Communication, 16 4 , — Watts, C. Whiteside, S. The development of fundamental frequency in 6- to year old children: A brief study. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 1—2 , 55— Phonation types: the classification of some laryngeal components of speech production. Fry, P. MacCarthy, N.

Trim Eds. London: Longmans, Green. Laryngographic study of phonation type and laryngeal configuration. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 14 2 , 56— States of the glottis. Gerratt, B. Toward a taxonomy of nonmodal phonation. Journal of Phonetics, 29 4 , — Gordon, M. Phonation types: a cross-linguistic overview. Phonation contrasts across languages. Kirk, P. Using a spectrograph for measures of phonation types in natural language. The linguistic use of different phonation types.

Barrichelo, V.